The CASA/IPTN CN-235 is a medium-range twin-engined transport aircraft that was jointly developed by Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain and Indonesian manufacturer IPTN, as a regional airliner and military transport. Its primary military roles include maritime patrol, surveillance, and air transport. Its largest user is Turkey, which has 59 aircraft.
|A CASA CN-235 of the Maritime Safety and Rescue Society|
|Role||Transport aircraft/maritime patrol aircraft|
|National origin||Spain and Indonesia|
|Manufacturer||Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA|
|First flight||11 November 1983|
|Introduction||1 March 1988|
|Primary users||Turkish Air Force|
French Air Force
Irish Air Corps
Royal Malaysian Air Force
|Number built||284 (+ > 57 IPTN)|
|Variants||EADS CASA HC-144 Ocean Sentry|
|Developed into||Airbus C-295 |
Indonesian Aerospace N-245
Design and development
The project was a joint venture between Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) and Indonesian Aerospace (PT. Dirgantara Indonesia), formerly known as IPTN, which formed Airtech International to manage the programme. The partnership applied only to the Series 10 and Series 100/110, with later versions being developed independently. Over 230 of all versions of CN-235 are in service and have accumulated more than 500,000 flight hours.
Design began in January 1980 with the first flight on 11 November 1983. Spanish and Indonesian certification was on 20 June 1986; the first flight of the production aircraft was on 19 August 1986 and CASA's FAA type approval was granted on 3 December 1986. The aircraft entered service on 1 March 1988
In 1994 the Irish Air Corps took delivery of two CN-235 maritime surveillance aircraft having used one on loan from CASA from 1992 while their own aircraft were being built.
In 1995, CASA launched development of a stretched CN-235 as the C-295. In December 2002, the Colombian Navy ordered two CN-235 for patrol and anti-drug trafficking missions.
In April 2005, Venezuela ordered two CN-235 maritime surveillance aircraft plus 10 transport planes but the operation was halted because the United States government refused to allow the transfer of what they deemed to be US technology in the avionics.
In January 2006, Thailand placed an order with Indonesian Aerospace for ten aircraft, six for the Ministry of Defence and four for the Ministry of Agriculture.
In December 2007, Spain ordered two CN-235 maritime patrol aircraft for the Guardia Civil, for delivery 2008–2009.
One CN-235 MPA aircraft was delivered by Indonesian Aerospace to the Indonesian defence ministry in June 2008.
In August 2006, three CASA CN-235-10 aircraft remained in airline service, in Africa, with Safair (two) and Tiko Air (one). Asian Spirit operated a lone CN-235-220 in the Philippines, correct as of June/July 2007.
In early July 2008, the Mexican Navy announced that it would purchase six CASA CN-235s from Spain. In April 2010, Hervé Morin, French Minister of Defence, announced the order of eight CN-235-300s from Spain.
The Senegalese Air Force acquired two CN-235s in 2010 and August 2012 under a $13 million contract. They plan to buy two more aircraft for VIP and cargo duties. The Air Force is also interested in the maritime patrol version of the aircraft.
Although the CN-235 was designed for military purposes in the 1980s, it began to be used as a commercial plane, although it wasn't a very big success for airlines. Possibly its lack of success was due to its 50-passenger capacity and short range coupled with high fuel usage. Iberia LAE, Spain's flag carrier, bought four CN-235s from CASA aircraft for regional routes but in 1992 Aerolíneas Argentinas (then also a subsidiary of Iberia) ordered two of these aircraft for regional routes – to be operated by its subsidiary, Austral.
In 2015, Indonesian Aerospace announced that they are currently planning a new variant of CN-235 called N-245 that will be designed specially for civil operation and able to carry up to 60 passengers. Previously also known as CN-235NG, this variant planned to be fully launched after Indonesian Aerospace N-219 project is done and expected to be fully certified in 2019. Further planned development is N-270, a stretched version of N-245 that able to carry up to 70–90 passengers and planned to be developed in 2019–2024.
- Initial production version (15 built by each company), with GE CT7-7A engines.
- Generally as series 10, but with GE CT7-9C engines in new composites nacelles; replaced Series 10 in 1988 from 31st production aircraft. Series 100 is Spanish-built, series 110 Indonesian-built, with improved electrical, warning and environmental systems.
- Improved version. Structural reinforcements to cater for higher operating weights, aerodynamic improvements to wing leading-edges and rudder, reduced field length requirements and much-increased range with maximum payload. Series 200 is Spanish-built, Series 220 Indonesian-built. Series 220 still in production.
- CASA Modification of 200/220 series, with the Honeywell International Corp. avionics suite. Other features include improved pressurization and provision for optional twin-nosewheel installation.
- CN-235-330 Phoenix
- Modification of Series 200/220, offered by IPTN with new Honeywell avionics, ARL-2002 EW system and 16.800 kg/37.037 lb MTOW, to Royal Australian Air Force to meet Project Air 5190 tactical airlift requirement, but was forced by financial constraints to withdraw in 1998.
- CN-235 MPA
- HC-144 Ocean Sentry
- United States Coast Guard designation for a planned twenty-two aircraft fleet bought to replace the small HU-25 Guardian business-style jets. As of 2019, eighteen had been delivered.
- A light gunship modified with integrated weapons pylons to carry AGM-114 Hellfire missiles and 70MM rockets, has a side-mounted 30mm cannon, and a Synthetic aperture radar. The collaborative effort was made by King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau of Jordan, and the U.S. Defense company Orbital ATK
- The Botswana Defence Force Air Wing operates two CN-235 aircraft.
- The Royal Brunei Air Force operates one CN-235.
- The Military of Burkina Faso operates one CN-235.
- Cameroon Air Force ordered one CN-235 in June 2012. Delivery took place in July 2013.
- The Chilean Army operates three CN-235.
- The French Air Force operates 27 aircraft.
- The Gabonese Air Force operates one CN-235.
- The Indonesian Air Force operates the CN-235 and Indonesian Navy operates the CN235MPA. As 2018 eight CN-235 in service with the airforce and five CN-235 in service with the navy.
- The Irish Air Corps operates 2 CN235-100 employed as maritime patrol aircraft. Delivery took place in 1994
- The Royal Jordanian Air Force operates two AC-235 gunships, as of December 2018 they are both up for sale.
- The Madagascar People’s Armed Forces received a single CN-235 (formerly operated by the Botswana Defence Force) in June 2019.
- The Royal Malaysian Air Force operates CN-235.From the total of eight aircraft seven remained in service as 2018 due to one aircraft crashed in 2016.
- The Mexican Navy operates eight CN235-300MPA. The first two were delivered in September 2010.
- One CN-235 delivered from the United Arab Emirates in May 2019.
- The Moroccan Air Force operates five aircraft.
- The Nepalese Army's Aviation Brigade signed a deal on 16 June 2017 to purchase its very first CN235-220, and began negotiations in February 2018 to purchase a second from Indonesian Aerospace.
- The Pakistan Air Force operates four CN235-220 aircraft.
- The Papua New Guinea Defence Force operate one aircraft.
- The Republic of Korea Air Force operates 20 airframes; 12 built by CASA in Spain, 8 by IPTN in Indonesia
- The Korean Coast Guard operates four aircraft.
- The Senegalese Air Force operates two aircraft.
- The Spanish Air Force operates eighteen aircraft.
- The Spanish Civil Guard operates 5 aircraft for surveillance duties.
- The Royal Thai Air Force operates three aircraft.
- The Military of the United Arab Emirates operates six aircraft.
Former Military operators
- Bophuthatswana Air Force (1, incorporated into South African Air Force)
- Panamanian Air Force/National Air Service (Until 1995)
- South African Air Force (From Bophuthatswana Air Force – retired July 2012)
- Yemen Air Force (1x CN-235-300) The only aircraft of the type, registration number 2211, factory number 168988, serial number 188, was destroyed in a Saudi airstrike on March 25, 2015.
Government and paramilitary operators
- Royal Oman Police (2 x CN-235-M100)
- Sociedad de Salvamento y Seguridad Marítima (Spanish Maritime Safety Agency) (3 X CN-235 MPA)
- Mexican Federal Police (2x CN235)
- Royal Thai Police (2 x CN235-200,220)
- Inter Austral airlines, a subsidiary of Austral Líneas Aéreas, was later integrated into Aerolíneas Argentinas, one ex-Binter.
- Merpati Nusantara Airlines once operated 15
- Tiko Air had one (C012)
- Air Namibia operated one from 2001–2006
- Binter Canarias and Binter Mediterraneo, both then subsidiaries of Iberia, operated four and five respectively from 1989 to 1997
- Safair has two CN-235s
- Prescott Support Company Inc, operating two CASA CN-235
- Flight International and Flight Turbo AC with one each
- L-3 Communication Systems acquired two aircraft.
- Presidential Airways, Operates one former Binter Canarias.
- Air Venezuela had 2 (1999–2001)
On 16 May 2001, a Turkish Air Force CN-235 crashed after the pilot lost control, killing all 34 people on board.
On 18 May 2001, a Turkish Navy CN-235 crashed after the pilot lost control after reaching an altitude of just 100 feet, killing all 4 people on board.
On 26 February 2016, a CN-235 operated by the Royal Malaysian Air Force crashed in a swamp in Kuala Selangor with no casualties. However, a local fisherman drowned during the rescue.
Aircraft on display
- Crew: two, pilot and co-pilot
- Capacity: 51 passengers, 35 paratroops, 18 stretchers or four HCU-6/E pallets including one on the ramp
- Payload: 6,000 kg (13,100 lb)
- Length: 21.40 m (70 ft 21⁄2 in)
- Wingspan: 25.81 m (84 ft 8 in)
- Height: 8.18 m (26 ft 10 in)
- Wing area: 59.10 m2 (636.1 sq ft)
- Airfoil: NACA 653-218
- Aspect ratio: 11.27:1
- Empty weight: 9,800 kg (21,605 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 16,100 kg (35,420 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × General Electric CT7-9C3 turboprops, 1,305 kW (1,750 hp) (take-off) each
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