Butyraldehyde, also known as butanal, is an organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)2CHO. This compound is the aldehyde derivative of butane. It is a colourless flammable liquid with an unpleasant smell. It is miscible with most organic solvents.
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||72.11 g/mol|
|Odor||pungent, aldehyde odor|
|Melting point||−96.86 °C (−142.35 °F; 176.29 K)|
|Boiling point||74.8 °C (166.6 °F; 347.9 K)|
|7.6 g/100 mL (20 °C)|
|Solubility||miscible with organic solvents|
Refractive index (nD)
|Viscosity||0.45 cP (20 °C)|
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||Sigma-Aldrich|
|S-phrases (outdated)||(S2), S9, S29, S33|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Flash point||−7 °C (19 °F; 266 K)|
|230 °C (446 °F; 503 K)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|2490 mg/kg (rat, oral)|
Butyric acid, isobutyraldehyde
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
- CH3CH=CH2 + H2 + CO → CH3CH2CH2CHO
Traditionally, hydroformylation was catalyzed by cobalt carbonyl and later rhodium complexes of triphenylphosphine. The dominant technology involves the use of rhodium catalysts derived from the water-soluble ligand Tppts. An aqueous solution of the rhodium catalyst converts the propylene to the aldehyde, which forms a lighter immiscible phase. About 6 billion kilograms are produced annually by hydroformylation. A significant application is its conversion to 2-ethylhexanol for production of plasticizers.
Butyraldehyde can be produced by the catalytic dehydrogenation of n-butanol. At one time, it was produced industrially by the catalytic hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde, which is derived from acetaldehyde.