Bushmaster Protected Mobility Vehicle
The Bushmaster Protected Mobility Vehicle or Infantry Mobility Vehicle is an Australian-built four-wheel drive armoured vehicle. The Bushmaster was primarily designed by the then government-owned Australian Defence Industries (ADI), and is currently produced by Thales Australia with a support contract provided by Oshkosh Truck following the acquisition of ADI. The Bushmaster is currently in service with the Australian Army, Royal Australian Air Force, Royal Netherlands Army, British Army, Japan Ground Self Defense Force, Fiji Infantry Regiment, Jamaica Defence Force and the New Zealand Army.
A Dutch Army Bushmaster fitted with a remote turret
|Type||Infantry mobility vehicle|
|Place of origin||Australia|
War in Afghanistan
Northern Mali conflict
Iraqi Civil War
Syrian Civil War
|Designer||Thales Australia (formerly ADI)|
|Manufacturer||Thales Australia (formerly ADI)|
|Variants||Troop, Command, Ambulance, IED, Utility|
|Mass||11,400 kg (25,133 lb) (kerb) |
15,400 kg (33,951 lb) (GVM)
|Crew||1 (driver), |
|Armor||ballistic exceeds STANAG 4569 level 1 – standard |
ballistic up to STANAG 4569 level 3 – option
FSP up to STANAG 4569 level 5 – option
IED high level of protection from monocoque hull – standard
mine exceeds STANAG 4569 level 3 – standard
|Remote weapon station up to 12.7mm HMG or 40mm AGM launcher, or |
manned open turret up to 12.7mm HMG or 40mm AGM launcher
|Manned swing mounts up to 7.62mm (one front and two rear)|
|Engine||Caterpillar 3126E 7.2L six-cylinder diesel, turbocharged|
224 kW (300 hp) @ 2,200rpm
1,166 N⋅m (860 lb⋅ft) @ 1,440rpm
|Transmission||ZF 6HP502 ECOMAT G2 (six forward speeds, one reverse)|
|Suspension||Arvin Meritor 4000 series fully independent, progressive coil spring with upper control arm and lower wishbone|
|Ground clearance||1,340 mm (front overhang) |
1,950 mm (rear overhang)
40° (approach angle)
38° (departure angle)
108° (ramp over angle)
36° (side slope)
460 mm (vertical obstacle)
1,200 mm (fording, unprepared)
|Fuel capacity||319 L (84 U.S. gal)|
|800 km (497 mi)|
The role of the Bushmaster is to provide protected mobility transport (or protected troop lift capability), with infantry dismounting from the vehicle before going into action. As the Bushmaster is only lightly armoured, the term Infantry Mobility Vehicle (IMV) was initially adopted to distinguish it from a heavier wheeled or tracked armoured personnel carrier, such as the ASLAV and M113 also in Australian service. Later the Bushmaster's designation was changed to Protected Mobility Vehicle (PMV).
The 1991 Defence Force Structure Review identified the Australian Army need for an Infantry Mobility Vehicle (IMV). The 1994 White Paper stated that new land force vehicles would be acquired. Project Bushranger (Land 116) was created to procure both protected and unprotected vehicles. The Infantry Improvised Mobility Vehicle (IIMV), a fleet of unarmoured Land Rover Perentie vehicles, were purchased from November 1993 to fill the IMV role until it entered service. In February 1994, the draft specification for the IMV was released, followed in July by the invitation to register interest with 17 proposals received including by Australian company Perry Engineering with the Bushmaster and by Australian Specialised Vehicle System with the Taipan derived from the South African Mamba. In September 1995, the request for tender was issued to 5 shortlisted proposals and in January 1997 due to withdrawals the Bushmaster and Taipan remained the only bidders.
In early 1996, Perry Engineering produced a prototype Bushmaster based on an Irish designed Timoney Technologies MP44, including the Rockwell/Timoney independent suspension, and with U.S. company Stewart & Stevenson components from the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV). Over 65% of the components by Stewart & Stevenson were from the FMTV including engine, transmission, steering, instrumentation, electrical and pneumatic systems. The prototype was built in less than seven months.
In September 1996, the Australian government-owned company Australian Defence Industries (ADI) purchased the intellectual property rights from Boral's Perry Engineering with agreement from Timoney Technologies and Stewart & Stevenson.
In November 1997, ADI launched its re-engineered Bushmaster proposal changing the design and shape of the hull to withstand a greater force and associated internal and external features. In March 1998, three Bushmaster IMVs and three Taipan IMVs built in South Africa started a 44-week competitive evaluation trial. Neither vehicle fully met all of the requirements of the specification, and performed with varying success over the course of the trials.
On 10 March 1999, ADI was awarded the Bushranger contract to produce the Bushmaster to be manufactured at their Bendigo facility. In November 1999, ADI was privatised becoming 50% owned by French company Thales and 50% owned by Australian company Transfield. In 2006, ADI was renamed to Thales Australia following Thales buying out Transfield.
In October 2016 it was announced that Australia and Indonesia would jointly develop a vehicle based on the Bushmaster for use by the Indonesian military. The vehicle, known as the Sanca, is manufactured by PT Pindad in collaboration with Thales.
The Bushmaster is optimised for operations in northern Australia, and is capable of carrying up to 9 soldiers and their equipment, fuel and supplies for 3 days, depending on the type of variant. The vehicle is fitted with air conditioning and was once planned to have a cool water drinking system, but was omitted upon production due to cost constraints. After operational complaints the drinking water cooling system is being reconsidered for installation. It has a road cruise speed of 100 km/h and an operational range of 800 km.
The Bushmaster is a mine protected vehicle and provides a high degree of protection against land mines, using its v-hull monocoque to deflect the blast away from the vehicle and its occupants. The vehicle's armour provides protection against small arms of up to 7.62 mm ball ammunition, 81mm mortar fragments, Claymore mines, and with additional applique armour, protection for armour-piercing ammunition of up to 7.62mm. The fuel and hydraulic tanks of the vehicle are located outside the crew compartment, while it also has an automatic fire suppression system. The troop carrier variant of the Bushmaster is fitted with one gun ring. The forward gun ring can be fitted with a 5.56 mm or 7.62 mm machine gun. The two rear hatches each have a mounting boss to allow the attachment of a swing mount capable of holding a 7.62 mm machine gun.
The Bushmaster is air transportable by C-130 Hercules, C-17 Globemaster III and Mil Mi-26 aircraft. It is the first armoured vehicle to be designed and completely manufactured in Australia since the Sentinel tank during World War II.
In keeping with the vehicle's role and capabilities, the Australian Army designates Bushmaster-equipped infantry units as being motorised, and not mechanised. Following the vehicle's troubled development, a total of 299 Bushmasters were ordered by the Wheeled Manoeuvre Systems Program Office of the Defence Materiel Organisation for the Australian Defence Force (reduced from the 370 which were originally ordered). Bushmaster deliveries began in 2005 (three years later than was originally scheduled) and were scheduled to be completed in July 2007. Deliveries of the troop-carrier variant (152 vehicles) were completed on 7 June 2006. Deliveries of the command variant were completed by mid-2006 followed by the delivery of the other variants.
In December 2006 the Australian Minister for Defence announced that the Australian Bushmaster order has been increased and over 400 vehicles will be delivered. This figure was confirmed as 443 vehicles in a subsequent press release. In August 2007 an additional 250 were ordered for a total ADF delivery of 696 vehicles of all configurations. This was further increased in October 2008 to 737 vehicles for the Australian Defence Force. On 12 May 2011 the Australian government announced the purchase of an additional 101 Bushmasters, in order to replace vehicles damaged on operations and to provide additional vehicles for training and operational use. A further order for 214 vehicles was announced in July 2012. This makes the total number of Bushmasters in service with the Australian military 1052.
The Motorised Combat Wing of the Army's Combat Arms Training Centre provides initial training to Army and Air Force Bushmaster drivers. Maintenance training is provided by the Army Logistic Training Centre.
- Assault Pioneer
- Air Defence
- Mortar variant
- Direct Fire Weapons
- General Maintenance Variant (reworked Pioneer)
The Troop variant being used by the Royal Australian Air Force originally differed from the Army variant in that it was fitted with 10 seats for infantry and a third weapon mount. However, all Troop variants are now fitted with 10 seats.
A fire fighting variant named the "FireKing" is operated by the South Australian Forestry Corporation (ForestySA) with 15 in service.
A Bushmaster was used in a Victoria Police operation in 2014 painted grey with police decals.
An Indonesian variant made by Pindad known as Sanca based on the Bushmaster but created to meet Indonesian requirements, was revealed on 3 November 2016 after it was announced on 28 October 2016 that Thales will work with Pindad. 50 Sancas are scheduled for delivery with 30 going to Indonesian forces stationed overseas on peacekeeping ops and 20 for Kopassus forces. Sanca means Snake in the Indonesian language.
The Sanca is made in collaboration with PT Len, meant to demonstrate the C5i concept (Combat Information) aside from the traditional C4 concept.
In September 2007, the Army reported that the fleet would be upgraded with a protected weapon system (PWS) that is stabilised with thermal imaging, camera and laser range finder. Other upgrades include spall curtains, fire suppression system, cool water drinking system and an additional seat following criticisms from Australian soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan including that the gunner is exposed to enemy fire.
Between 2009 and 2012, the Protected Mobility, Troop, Command and Mortar variants in use in Afghanistan were upgraded. The upgrade included the addition of the protected remotely controlled weapons station, automated fire suppression system and ECM systems. The Special Operations Task Group vehicles were fitted with a weapon ring to mount a 12.7mm heavy machine gun. There was also a survivability enhancement to the lower hull, floor, seat mounts and axle caps. Two adaptive roller kits were provided able to be mounted to the front of the vehicle for protection against mines or IEDs. In late 2012, the entire fleet was rotated, with new upgraded vehicles provided with increased blast protection and the option of adding extra external composited armour.
To date, Australia's Bushmasters have been deployed on five operations:
- Two prototypes were deployed to East Timor in 1999 for trials, VIP protection and media escort duties.
- Ten Bushmasters were deployed to Iraq with the Al Muthanna Task Group in May 2005. This force was later redesignated Overwatch Battle Group (West) and operated 19 Bushmasters from September 2006.
- A small number of Bushmasters were operated by Special Operations Command soldiers part of the Special Operations Task Group in Afghanistan from September 2005 after its re-deployment until late 2013.
- A Company, 6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment was equipped with Bushmasters during its role as the security response force for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.
- The Reconstruction Task Force, later redesignated the Mentoring Task Force, which was deployed in Afghanistan from August 2006 to late 2013 was also equipped with a large number of Bushmasters.
On 17 March 2010, all five Australian soldiers from the 1st Mentoring Task Force who were occupying a Bushmaster were wounded, three of them seriously, when it was hit by a roadside bomb in the Chora Valley north of the main Australian base near Tarin Kowt in Oruzgan Province during a routine vehicle patrol. As of May 2011, 31 Bushmasters have been damaged beyond repair while serving with the Australian Army. The largest number operating in Afghanistan at one time was 104.
In July 2006 the Dutch Government announced an urgent purchase of 25 Bushmasters to equip Royal Netherlands Army units operating in Afghanistan. Due to the urgency of this purchase these vehicles were taken from Australian Army stocks. Additional Bushmasters will be built to replenish the Australian inventory. 23 Bushmasters were directly delivered to Dutch Army units in Afghanistan starting from 28 August. The remaining two vehicles were transported to the Netherlands to be used for training purposes. Twelve of the Bushmasters were fitted with a Thales SWARM remote weapon station before delivery.
9 July 2007, Electro Optic Systems Holdings Limited was awarded a contract of A$5.8 million for the supply of remote weapon systems for use by the Netherlands army. The contract was awarded to EOS by Thales Australia for fitting to the Bushmaster Infantry Mobility Vehicles manufactured by Thales for the Netherlands army. The order entailed 17 CROWS Remote Weapon Stations. It was expected that the first of these systems would be operational in theatre by August 2007.
On 20 September 2007, during an engagement with the Taliban a 20-year-old Dutch soldier was killed in action. His body was evacuated in a Bushmaster which was subsequently attacked with small arms, mortars and RPGs. The vehicle was struck several times but all soldiers in the Bushmaster survived and were unhurt. Since the vehicle was immobilized and still under attack, they were forced to abandon it. Since salvage was not possible the Bushmaster was later destroyed by a Dutch Apache helicopter. The troops were transported out of danger by a second Bushmaster IMV.
On 19 October 2007 during a fire-fight between a Dutch patrol and Taliban insurgents, a Bushmaster was hit by an improvised bomb. Although none of the passengers were hurt, the bomb damaged the front of the Bushmaster. The Bushmaster was sent to Kamp Holland (the Dutch base) for repairs.
The Netherlands ordered additional Bushmasters on several occasions in 2007 and 2008. On 20 November 2007 the Dutch Defence Ministry announced that it would acquire an additional 10 vehicles to replace the two damaged and two destroyed vehicles and a Patria armoured vehicle which was also destroyed in Uruzgan. One vehicle would be sent to the Netherlands for training purposes, and the rest go directly to Afghanistan. The Dutch ordered a further 13 Bushmasters in June 2008, taking their total order to 49 vehicles. At this time six Dutch Bushmasters had been destroyed in Afghanistan.
In January 2009, another batch of nine vehicles was ordered, these vehicles to be fitted with cameras, sensors and a grappler to find and destroy Improvised explosive devices (IEDs). A further 14 Bushmasters were ordered in June 2009. In August 2009, another 14 vehicles were ordered, bringing the total Dutch order to 86. Dutch special forces deployed as part of the Northern Mali conflict from April 2014 were equipped with a number of Bushmasters. May 2015 a Dutch Bushmaster was struck by an IED near Kidal. No one was hurt by this incident and the Bushmaster was returned to the Dutch camp at Gao. In June 2015, a further 12 were ordered.
The British Army acquired 24 Bushmasters in April 2008 specifically for use in Iraq to support Task Force Black and United Kingdom Special Forces (UKSF) operations around Basra. The heavily modified vehicles, known as the Escapade, were used to provide armoured transport for strike teams.
Features included an increased armour package, bull-bar, ECM and anti-IED suites, and a CROWS RWS fitted with an M2 .50 calibre machine gun. The UKSF had been using an armoured hull protected vehicle in Afghanistan the Supacat HMT 400 since 2003. The Bushmaster provided all-round protection, compared to the HMT 400 with an exposed crew, that was required in built-up urban areas in Iraq. UKSF left Iraq in May 2009.
Australia: a total of 1,052 Bushmasters have been ordered by the Australian Defence Force. Fiji: Fiji purchased ten refurbished Bushmasters in 2017 from Australian Defence Force stock, seven for use in peacekeeping as part of the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) in the Golan Heights and three for training purposes in Fiji. On 27 March 2017, the seven Republic of Fiji Military Forces Bushmasters arrived in the Golan Heights. Indonesia: 4 vehicles operated by Indonesia. In 2014, 3 vehicles were delivered to the Indonesian Army Special Forces Command Kopassus. Jamaica: 12 ordered in December 2013 to replace the Jamaican Defence Force's fourteen Cadillac Gage V150s. Deliveries began in mid-2015, and were completed in early 2016. Japan: 8 vehicles operated by the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force. An initial order of 4 was placed in 2014 for the Central Readiness Regiment (CRR) to enable the CRR to evacuate Japanese citizens in the event of an overseas emergency. In 2018, a second order was received of 4 more vehicles for the CRR. Netherlands: 98 Bushmasters ordered; the Netherlands is the second largest operator of the Bushmaster. In operational use by the Dutch Army and Royal Dutch Marines. New Zealand: 5 Bushmasters operated by the New Zealand Special Air Service (NZSAS) designated as the Special Operations Vehicle – Protected Heavy (SOV-PH). A memorandum of sale had been under negotiation with the Australian Defence Force for the transfer of the Bushmasters in 2017. In 2018, the NZ Ministry of Defence reported it had been signed. United Kingdom: 24 Bushmasters purchased in April 2008. British vehicles are fitted with additional armour, electronics to counter IEDs and a .50 calibre machine gun mounted in a RWS.
United States: Thales has teamed with US truck manufacturer Oshkosh to market the Bushmaster in the United States. In late June 2007, it was prematurely reported that the United States Department of Defense was close to placing an order for 1,500 vehicles as part of its MRAP (armoured vehicle) program. This sale did not go ahead. The Bushmaster was officially removed from the MRAP contest on 7 August 2007. Canada: A bid was submitted with Thales Canada and DEW Engineering for the Tactical Armored Vehicle Program, but later withdrawn when the Canadian government decided it wanted a smaller vehicle; the competition was ultimately won by Textron with a modified M1117, tailored to Canadian requirements. France: The Bushmaster, under the name of Broussard (Bushmaster in French), is competing against a lightened version of Nexter's VBCI and the Renault AMC for a 2,300 vehicle contract to replace the French Army's VABs. France finally selected the Nexter VBMR Griffon.
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