Bundesgrenzschutz (BGS; English: Federal Border Guard) was the first federal police organization in West Germany after World War II. Established on 16 March 1951 as a subordinate agency of the Federal Ministry of the Interior, the BGS was renamed the Bundespolizei (Federal Police) on 1 July 2005 to reflect its transition to a multi-faceted police agency with control over border, railway and air security. This was controversial due to the German constitution expressly granting law enforcement power to the states. The fact that the border guard function was so limited allowed its formation notwithstanding this restriction, however in the modern day it has become a full-fledged police force.
BGS Federal Eagle (Bundesadler) worn from 1976 until 2001
|Formed||16 March 1951|
|Dissolved||1 July 2005|
|Jurisdiction||Government of Germany|
|Annual budget||DM 376 million (1970)|
€ 1.942 billion (2004)
|Parent agency||Federal Ministry of the Interior|
The newly-established Federal Republic of Germany wanted to set up its own federal border guard and police. Chancellor Konrad Adenauer first broached the topic with the Allies in April 1950, advocating a force of 25,000 men. The US Joint Chiefs of Staff recommended the formation of a 5,000-strong German "Republican Guard" in May 1950 as a first step to later German re-militarization. By the summer of 1950, Adenauer's government planned to form either a federal border guard or a federal riot police force of first 30,000 and then 60,000 men. In August 1950, after the outbreak of the Korean War, Adenauer raised his demand to 150,000 federal policemen. Riot police units were formed at the state level on 27 October 1950. The plans for a federal riot police force were abandoned as unconstitutional in 1951. The founding act of the Federal Border Guard (Bundesgrenzschutz, BGS) was adopted on 14 November 1950 by the federal cabinet and on 15 February 1951 by the Bundestag. The BGS was established on 16 March 1951.
The Cold War had begun but travel between East and West Germany was not yet restricted by the Berlin Wall (1961). When German nationals could move freely from the DDR to the BRD in Berlin, people attempting to cross illegally elsewhere were likely to be either commercial smugglers or espionage agents carrying contraband (e.g., radio transmitters.). Occupation authorities judged this could be better policed by a permanent force of Germans who knew the border woods and mountains intimately (rather than British or US troops who rotated out of Germany after a year or two) and at German rather than Allied expense. The BGS was organized along paramilitary lines in battalions, companies, and platoons, and was armed as light infantry. It remained a police force controlled by the Ministry of Interior rather than by the Ministry of Defense.
A maritime border guard unit (Seegrenzschutz) was formed as part of the BGS on 1 July 1951. It consisted of approximately 550 members and was equipped with fourteen large patrol craft and several helicopters.
On 3 October 1953 the Bundespasskontrolldienst (passport control service), which had been established on 19 September 1951, was transferred to the BGS and was now deployed on the entire German border.
The BGS was initially a paramilitary force of 10,000 which was responsible for policing a zone 30 kilometres (19 mi) deep along the border. It eventually became the basis for the present national semi-militarised police force. On 19 June 1953, its authorized strength was expanded to 20,000 men, a mixture of conscripts and volunteers equipped with armoured cars, anti-tank guns, helicopters, trucks and jeeps. By 1956, it had a strength of 16,414 men. Upon the formation of the Bundeswehr in 1955, over 10,000 members of the BGS voluntarily joined the new German military in 1956. The Seegrenzschutz was completely absorbed into the German Navy that year. A new maritime border guard was set up in the fall of 1964 as the Bundesgrenzschutz See (BGS See).
Although it was not intended to be able to repel a full-scale invasion, the BGS was tasked with dealing with small-scale threats to the security of West Germany's borders, including the international borders as well as the inner German border. It had limited police powers within its zone of operations to enable it to deal with threats to the peace of the border. The BGS had a reputation for assertiveness which made it especially unpopular with the East Germans, who routinely criticised it as a reincarnation of Hitler's SS. It also sustained a long-running feud with the Bundeszollverwaltung over which agency should have the lead responsibility for the inner German border.
The passing of the German Emergency Acts on 30 May 1968 relieved the BGS of its quasi-military tasks as the Bundeswehr could now operate inside the Federal Republic in the case of an emergency. A military rank structure similar to that of the Bundeswehr was replaced in the mid-1970s by civil service-type personnel grades. The service uniform was green, but field units did wear camouflage fatigues and, at times, steel helmets and military training was still carried out.
In 1972 the BGS became responsible for the security of the Federal Constitutional Court, the Bundespräsident (Federal President), the Bundeskanzler (Federal Chancellor), the Foreign Office and the Federal Ministry of the Interior. Although the Compulsory Border Guard Service law is still in force, in 1974 the BGS became an all volunteer force and in 1987 started recruiting women.
Among other things, it was equipped with armored cars, machine guns, automatic rifles, tear gas, hand grenades, rifle grenades, and antitank weapons. All personnel on border and security duty wore sidearms. Five units had light aircraft and helicopters to facilitate rapid access to remote border areas and for patrol and rescue missions. Some units because of specialised training and equipment, as well as operational area (e.g., Bavarian Alps) were in effect Mountain Troops.
In addition to controlling Germany's border, the BGS Alert police served as a federal reserve force to deal with major disturbances and other emergencies beyond the scope of Land police. The BGS guarded airports and foreign embassies, and several highly trained detachments are available for special crisis situations requiring demolition equipment, helicopters, or combat vehicles.
Up to 1972 the BGS was organized in eight units known as Grenzschutzgruppen (Border Guard Units) GSG-1 to GSG-8.
After shortcomings in police procedures and training were revealed by the terrorist attack on Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics, a BGS task force known as Grenzschutzgruppe 9 (GSG-9) was formed to deal with terrorist incidents, especially hostage situations. The GSG-9 won world attention when it rescued eighty-six passengers on a Lufthansa Flight 181 airliner which was hijacked to Mogadishu, Somalia, in 1977.
June 1990 saw the elimination of border patrols and control of persons at the Inner-German border. Upon German reunification on 3 October 1990, the East German Transportpolizei duties and responsibility for air security in the new states were taken over by the BGS. The German Railway Police (Bahnpolizei), formerly an independent force, was restructured under the BGS on 1 April 1992 when the railway was on the way to privatization. The reason that the Länder police forces are not competent for the railway is that the (formerly federally run) railway remains a federal competency. The strength of the BGS was 24,000 in early 1995.
- Allied-occupied Germany
- Bavarian Border Police
- Border guards of the inner German border
- British Frontier Service
- Bundeszollverwaltung (Federal Customs Service)
- Crossing the inner German border
- Development of the inner German border
- Escape attempts and victims of the inner German border
- Fall of the inner German border
- Fortifications of the inner German border
- Helmstedt–Marienborn border crossing (Checkpoint Alpha)
- Light infantry
- United States Zone Constabulary
- Volkspolizei-Bereitschaft (East German Riot Police)
- Bundespolizei (2011). "Historie der Bundespolizei". Archived from the original on 8 February 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
- Moncourt, André; Smith, J. (2009). The Red Army Faction, a Documentary History: Volume 1: Projectiles for the People. Oakland, CA: PM Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-60486-029-0.
- Shears, David (1970). The Ugly Frontier. London: Chatto & Windus. OCLC 94402., pp. 96–97
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bundesgrenzschutz.|
- BPOL History site
- Bundespolizei home page (in German)
- Information brochure about the Bundespolizei (in German and English) last updated August 2005
- German language pages on the BGS