Bromocriptine (originally marketed as Parlodel, subsequently under many names) is an ergoline derivative and dopamine agonist that is used in the treatment of pituitary tumors, Parkinson's disease (PD), hyperprolactinaemia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.
|Trade names||Originally Parlodel, subsequently many|
|AHFS/Drugs.com||Monograph,International Drug Names|
|oral, vaginal, intravenous|
|Bioavailability||28% of oral dose absorbed|
|Elimination half-life||12-14 hours|
|Excretion||85% bile (faeces), 2.5-5.5% urine|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|ECHA InfoCard||100.042.829 |
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||654.595 g/mol g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Bromocriptine is used to treat acromegaly and conditions associated with hyperprolactinemia like amenorrhea, infertility, and hypogonadism, prolactin-secreting adenomas; it is also used to prevent ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
It is also used to treat Parkinson's disease.
A quick-release formulation of bromocriptine is also used to treat type 2 diabetes.
Most frequent side effects are nausea, orthostatic hypotension, headaches, and vomiting through stimulation of the brainstem vomiting centre. Vasospasms with serious consequences such as myocardial infarction and stroke that have been reported in connection with the puerperium, appear to be extremely rare events. Peripheral vasospasm (of the fingers or toes) can cause Raynaud's Phenomenon. Bromocriptine use has been anecdotally associated with causing or worsening psychotic symptoms (its mechanism is in opposition of most antipsychotics, whose mechanisms generally block dopamine receptors). Pulmonary fibrosis has been reported when bromocriptine was used in high doses for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Use to suppress milk production after childbirth was reviewed in 2014 and it was concluded that in this context a causal association with serious cardiovascular, neurological or psychiatric events could not be excluded with an overall incidence rate estimated to range between 0.005% and 0.04%. Additional safety precautions and stricter prescribing rules were suggested based on the data. It is a bile salt export pump inhibitor.
After long-term use of dopamine agonists, a withdrawal syndrome may occur during dose reduction or discontinuation with the following possible side effects: anxiety, panic attacks, dysphoria, depression, agitation, irritability, suicidal ideation, fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, generalized pain, and drug cravings. For some individuals, these withdrawal symptoms are short-lived and they make a full recovery, for others a protracted withdrawal syndrome may occur with withdrawal symptoms persisting for months or years.
- Dopamine D1 family
- Dopamine D2 family
- Serotonin 5-HT
- Adrenergic α family
- Adrenergic β family
Bromocriptine was discovered by scientists at Sandoz in 1965 and was first published in 1968; it was first marketed under the brand name Parlodel.
Society and culture
As of July 2017, bromocriptine was marketed under many brand names worldwide, including Abergin, Barlolin, Brameston, Brocriptin, Brom, Broma-Del, Bromergocryptine, Bromergon, Bromicon, Bromocorn, Bromocriptin, Bromocriptina, Bromocriptine, Bromocriptine mesilate, Bromocriptine mesylate, Bromocriptine methanesulfonate, Bromocriptini mesilas, Bromocriptinmesilat, Bromodel, Bromokriptin, Bromolac, Bromotine, Bromtine, Brotin, Butin, Corpadel, Cripsa, Criptine, Criten, Cycloset, Degala, Demil, Deparo, Deprolac, Diacriptin, Dopagon, Erenant, Grifocriptina, Gynodel, kirim, Kriptonal, Lactodel, Medocriptine, Melen, Padoparine, Palolactin, Parlodel, Pravidel, Proctinal, Ronalin, Semi-Brom, Serocriptin, Serocryptin, Suplac, Syntocriptine, Umprel, Unew, Updopa, Upnol B, and Volbro.
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