Brodmann area 9

Brodmann area 9, or BA9, is part of the frontal cortex in the brain of humans and other primates. It contributes to the dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortex.

Brodmann area 9
LatinArea frontalis granularis
NeuroLex IDbirnlex_1740
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy


The term Brodmann area 9 refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the frontal lobe of the guenon. Brodmann-1909 regarded it on the whole as topographically and cytoarchitecturally homologous to the granular frontal area 9 and frontopolar area 10 in the human. Distinctive features (Brodmann-1905): Unlike Brodmann area 6(Brodmann-1909), area 9 has a distinct internal granular layer (IV); unlike Brodmann area 6 or Brodmann area 8(Brodmann-1909), its internal pyramidal layer (V) is divisible into two sublayers, an outer layer 5a of densely distributed medium-size ganglion cells that partially merges with layer IV, and an inner, clearer, cell-poor layer 5b; the pyramidal cells of sublayer 3b of the external pyramidal layer (III) are smaller and sparser in distribution; the external granular layer (II) is narrow, with small numbers of sparsely distributed granule cells.[1]


The area is involved in short term memory,[2] evaluating recency,[3] overriding automatic responses,[4] verbal fluency,[5] error detection,[6] auditory verbal attention,[7] inferring the intention of others,[8] inferring deduction from spatial imagery,[9] inductive reasoning,[10] attributing intention,[11] sustained attention involved in counting a series of auditory stimuli,[12] and displays lower levels of energy consumption in individuals suffering from bipolar disorder.[13]

The area found on the left hemisphere is at least partially responsible for empathy,[14] idioms,[15][16] processing pleasant and unpleasant emotional scenes,[17] self criticisms[18] and attention to negative emotions.[19]

On the right hemisphere the region is involved in attributing intention,[20] theory of mind,[21] suppressing sadness,[22] working memory,[23][24][25] spatial memory,[26][27] recognition,[28][29][30] recall,[29][31][32] recognizing the emotions of others,[33] planning,[34] calculation,[35][36] semantic and perceptual processing of odors,[37] religiosity,[38] and attention to positive emotions.[19]


See also


  1.  This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 3.0 license. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 7, 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
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  6. Chevrier AD, Noseworthy MD, Schachar R (December 2007). "Dissociation of response inhibition and performance monitoring in the stop signal task using event-related fMRI". Human Brain Mapping. 28 (12): 1347–58. doi:10.1002/hbm.20355. PMID 17274022.
  7. Nakai T, Kato C, Matsuo K (2005). "An FMRI study to investigate auditory attention: a model of the cocktail party phenomenon". Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences. 4 (2): 75–82. doi:10.2463/mrms.4.75. PMID 16340161.
  8. Goel V, Grafman J, Sadato N, Hallett M (September 1995). "Modeling other minds". NeuroReport. 6 (13): 1741–6. doi:10.1097/00001756-199509000-00009. PMID 8541472.
  9. Knauff M, Mulack T, Kassubek J, Salih HR, Greenlee MW (April 2002). "Spatial imagery in deductive reasoning: a functional MRI study". Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research. 13 (2): 203–12. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/S0926-6410(01)00116-1. PMID 11958963.
  10. Goel V, Gold B, Kapur S, Houle S (March 1997). "The seats of reason? An imaging study of deductive and inductive reasoning". NeuroReport. 8 (5): 1305–10. doi:10.1097/00001756-199703240-00049. PMID 9175134.
  11. Fink GR, Marshall JC, Halligan PW, et al. (March 1999). "The neural consequences of conflict between intention and the senses". Brain. 122 (3): 497–512. doi:10.1093/brain/122.3.497. PMID 10094258.
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  13. Brooks JO, Bearden CE, Hoblyn JC, Woodard SA, Ketter TA (December 2010). "Prefrontal and paralimbic metabolic dysregulation related to sustained attention in euthymic older adults with bipolar disorder". Bipolar Disorders. 12 (8): 866–74. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2010.00881.x. PMID 21176034.
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  15. Maddock RJ, Buonocore MH (August 1997). "Activation of left posterior cingulate gyrus by the auditory presentation of threat-related words: an fMRI study". Psychiatry Research. 75 (1): 1–14. doi:10.1016/s0925-4927(97)00018-8. PMID 9287369.
  16. Lauro LJ, Tettamanti M, Cappa SF, Papagno C (January 2008). "Idiom comprehension: a prefrontal task?". Cerebral Cortex. 18 (1): 162–70. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhm042. PMID 17490991.
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  18. Longe O, Maratos FA, Gilbert P, et al. (January 2010). "Having a word with yourself: neural correlates of self-criticism and self-reassurance" (PDF). NeuroImage. 49 (2): 1849–56. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.09.019. PMID 19770047.
  19. Kerestes R, Ladouceur CD, Meda S, et al. (January 2012). "Abnormal prefrontal activity subserving attentional control of emotion in remitted depressed patients during a working memory task with emotional distracters". Psychological Medicine. 42 (1): 29–40. doi:10.1017/S0033291711001097. PMID 21733287.
  20. Brunet E, Sarfati Y, Hardy-Baylé MC, Decety J (February 2000). "A PET investigation of the attribution of intentions with a nonverbal task". NeuroImage. 11 (2): 157–66. doi:10.1006/nimg.1999.0525. PMID 10679187.
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  22. Kaur S, Sassi RB, Axelson D, et al. (September 2005). "Cingulate cortex anatomical abnormalities in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 162 (9): 1637–43. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.9.1637. PMID 16135622.
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