Broadcasting House

Broadcasting House is the headquarters of the BBC, in Portland Place and Langham Place, London. The first radio broadcast from the building was made on 15 March 1932, and the building was officially opened two months later, on 15 May. The main building is in Art Deco style, with a facing of Portland stone over a steel frame. It is a Grade II* listed building and includes the BBC Radio Theatre, where music and speech programmes are recorded in front of a studio audience.

BBC Broadcasting House
New Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House and the new eastern extension
Location within Central London
Alternative namesBH, BBC Broadcasting House
General information
Architectural styleArt Deco
LocationLondon
AddressPortland Place
London
W1A 1AA[1]
CountryUnited Kingdom
Coordinates51.518409°N 0.143691°W / 51.518409; -0.143691
Current tenantsBBC Monitoring
BBC News
BBC Radio 1
BBC Radio 1Xtra
BBC Radio 3
BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4 Extra
BBC Radio 5 Live
BBC World Service
BBC World News
BBC Vision
Construction started21 November 1928
Inaugurated15 March 1932
OwnerBBC
Height34 m (112 ft)
Technical details
Floor count9 above ground, 3 below ground
Design and construction
ArchitectGeorge Val Myer, Raymond McGrath
Civil engineerMarmaduke T Tudsbery
Website
Broadcasting House

As part of a major consolidation of the BBC's property portfolio in London, Broadcasting House has been extensively renovated and extended. This involved the demolition of post-war extensions on the eastern side of the building, replaced by a new wing completed in 2005. The wing was named the "John Peel Wing" in 2012, after the disc jockey. BBC London, BBC Arabic Television and BBC Persian Television are housed in the new wing, which also contains the reception area for BBC Radio 1 and BBC Radio 1Xtra (the studios themselves are in the new extension to the main building).

The main building was refurbished, and an extension built to the rear. The radio stations BBC Radio 3, BBC Radio 4, BBC Radio 4 Extra and the BBC World Service transferred to refurbished studios within the building. The extension links the old building with the John Peel Wing, and includes a new combined newsroom for BBC News, with studios for the BBC News channel, BBC World News and other news programming. The move of news operations from BBC Television Centre was completed in March 2013.[2]

The official name of the building is Broadcasting House but the BBC now also uses the term new Broadcasting House (with a small 'n') in its publicity referring to the new extension rather than the whole building, with the original building known as old Broadcasting House.[3]

Construction

Construction of Broadcasting House began in 1928. Programmes transferred gradually to the building. On 15 March 1932 the first musical programme was given by the bandleader Henry Hall and the BBC Dance Orchestra. Hall also wrote and performed, with his dance band, Radio Times, the name of the BBC's schedule publication.[4]

The first news bulletin was read by Stuart Hibberd on 18 March. The last transmission from Savoy Hill was on 14 May, and Broadcasting House officially opened on 15 May 1932. George Val Myer designed the building in collaboration with the BBC's civil engineer, M. T. Tudsbery. The interiors were the work of Raymond McGrath, an Australian-Irish architect. He directed a team that included Serge Chermayeff and Wells Coates and designed the vaudeville studio, the associated green and dressing rooms, and the dance and chamber music studios in a flowing Art Deco style.

The building is built in two parts. Dispensing with the oft-found central light-well of contemporary buildings this size, the central core containing the recording studios was a windowless structure built of brick. (Structural brick rather than steel framing was used in order to reduce noise transmission both from without and between studios.) The surrounding outer portion, designed for offices and ancillary spaces, is steel framed and faced using Portland stone.[5][6] While the outer portion had plenty of windows, the inner core required special sound-dampened ventilation systems.[5]

There were two areas where right of ancient lights would cause height restrictions. While the rights on the southern side ceased to be a problem after the owners of those rights gave concessions, the rights on the eastern side were dealt with by sloping the roof away from the street from the fourth floor up, which affected not only the floorplan of the structure but meant that the interior recording tower could not be continued up to the top floor. (Thus, one studio on the top floor was actually outside the central studio core structure.)[5]

Underground structures, including a hundred-year-old sewer, also presented problems during construction. The building is above the Bakerloo line of the London Underground: the Victoria line was tunnelled beneath in the 1960s, and presented problems for construction of the Egton Wing (see below).[7] Noise from passing trains is audible within the radio theatre, but generally imperceptible in recordings. The ground floor was fitted with floor-to-ceiling windows overlooking the street, as the BBC believed that to finance such a project (costing £25 million in today's money) they would need to let the ground floor as a retail unit. The rapid expansion of the BBC meant this never occurred.

The original building is a Grade II* listed building.

Renovation

Beginning in 2003, Broadcasting House underwent a major renovation during the BBC's W1 Programme,[8] with the aim of refurbishing the building and combining a number of the BBC's operations in a new extension. This houses the television and radio operations of BBC News, relocated from Television Centre and the BBC World Service relocated from Bush House on 12 July 2012.[9] Many of the BBC's national radio stations are also broadcast from the building, with the exception of BBC Radio 5 Live and 5 Live Sports Extra which have moved to Salford Quays, and BBC Radio 2 and BBC Radio 6 Music which moved to new studios in nearby Wogan House in 2006 to make way for the renovation.[10][11]

The building work was completed in two phases. It began with the demolition of two post-war extensions to the original building.

"The redevelopment was part of a wider cost-saving strategy to consolidate the BBC's property portfolio and centralise its London operation. This will ultimately produce savings of more than £700m over the remaining 21-year life of the BBC lease on Broadcasting House."[12][13]

First phase

The first phase consisted of the renovation of the original building, which was starting to show its age and needed structural repair, and a new wing to the east.[14]

In the old building the sloped "cat slide" slate roof was taken off and many of the rooms stripped back to their walls, although much of the Art Deco architecture was retained and preserved. Much of the work focused on the lower walls and ceilings, which did not include Art Deco features. The reception area was renovated to include a new desk, while retaining the message and statue as the attention piece. Many rooms had ceilings removed, such as the south tower, and new reinforcement joists were added.

The new Egton Wing is roughly the same shape as the main building, with a modern design and window arrangement but retaining features such as Portland stone. Towards the rear a large block was created in the side, mirroring that created in the main building when the sloping roof was removed.

The design of the extension, intended to equal the original in "architectural creativity", was carried out by MacCormac Jamieson Prichard. Construction was completed in 2005 and the refurbished Broadcasting House and the new Egton wing were opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 20 April 2006 as part of her 80th birthday celebrations.[15] All areas of the Egton Wing were fully fitted out and completed by 2007.

In 2012, it was announced by the then Director-General Mark Thompson that the Egton Wing would be renamed the 'John Peel Wing' to commemorate the late Radio 1 disc jockey, whom he described as a "great radio talent".[16] Thompson described the wing as a "fitting tribute to a man who personified so much of what the BBC stands for". Later that year, the naming was placed in doubt when Peel was reported to have had a sexual relationship with a 15-year-old girl in the 1960s,[17] allegations which followed the Jimmy Savile sexual abuse scandal.

It houses BBC London, BBC Arabic Television and BBC Persian Television, together with the reception area for BBC Radio 1 and BBC Radio 1Xtra.

Second phase

The second phase was the creation of the large wing to the rear of the building, joining the two buildings, and creating a plaza between them. The original architects were replaced for not agreeing to cost-related revisions, as Sir Richard MacCormac was unwilling to sacrifice the quality of his design.[18] Construction was completed by Bovis Lend Lease[19] in 2010, and control handed over to the BBC in 2011. While the rebuilding process was under way, many BBC radio stations moved to other buildings near Portland Place.

The extension contains the BBC News and Journalism departments, and state-of-the-art technical equipment and new studios to house the BBC News bulletins on television, the BBC News Channel and BBC World News, the BBC Arabic Television service and the BBC Persian Television service. At the heart of this is a new newsroom, the largest live newsroom in the world.[15]

A walkway above the newsroom allows the public to view the work of journalists, connecting the foyer to the Radio Theatre and a new café for staff and the public. Complemented by the outdoor plaza, which could act as an outdoor arena and theatre, this is designed to engage the public with the television and radio making process.[15] The extension is glass-covered in the plaza area and curved to contrast both wings either side and to continue the glass on both sides high up the building. On the Portland Place side, it continues the same use of Portland stone and glass as with the John Peel Wing.

On Monday 18 March 2013 at 1 pm, following the BBC News Channel's final broadcast from Television Centre, the first news programme from Broadcasting House was aired: the BBC News at One, on BBC One and the BBC News Channel. BBC World News was the first of BBC's news services to move into the new building on Monday 14 January 2013, beginning with "GMT" at noon.

Queen Elizabeth II officially opened the extension on 7 June 2013.[20] The second phase development won the 'Programme of the Year' award at the 2013 annual awards of the Association for Project Management.[21]

Studios

Original

When built, Broadcasting House contained 22 radio studios[22][23] for all programme genres, in the art-deco style with an emphasis on both looks and practicality. The overall practicality of the studios changed rapidly as a result of the limitations of the time and the changing nature of broadcasting and the uses of the studios. These studios were:

NumberNameDesignerDesigned use
8AMilitary Band studioSerge ChermayeffDesigned for large band and vaudeville performances.[24]
8BSmall Debates studioSerge ChermayeffA small informally designed studio to encourage lively and confident debate.[25]
7AProduction studioWells CoatesAcoustically dead studio, used for one section of a drama.[26]
7BProduction studioWells CoatesUsed for speech in a play, drama, and piano performances.[26]
7CProduction studioWells CoatesAcoustically dead small drama studio.[26]
7DEffects studioWells CoatesSmall effects studio for producing foley.[26]
7EGramophone Effects studioWells CoatesSmall studio for producing effects from or involving gramophones.[26]
6AProduction studioWells CoatesDouble height, large production studio for drama productions.[27]
6BProduction studioWells CoatesSmall drama studio.[27]
6CProduction studioWells CoatesAcoustically dead small drama studio.[27]
6DEffects studioWells CoatesMain effects studio for the production of foley, with different floor coverings and coverings on the main table to achieve different effects, containing items including a wind machine and a water tank.[28]
6EGramophone Effects studioWells CoatesSmall studio for producing effects from or involving gramophones.[29]
4ANews studioWells CoatesAcoustically dead small studio for reading news bulletins. Contained gramophone records to be played in the event of an interruption.[30]
4BNews studioWells CoatesAcoustically dead small news studio with record players.[30]
3AProduction studioSerge ChermayeffA double-height large studio used for Children's Hour, chamber music recitals and the BBC Dance Orchestra.[31]
3BTalks studioSerge ChermayeffA small talks studio for unrehearsed debates.[31]
3CTalks studioSerge ChermayeffAn acoustically dead small talks studio for unrehearsed debates.[31]
3DLibrary Talks studioDorothy Warren TrotterA small talks studio for speeches and debates. It was decorated in the style of a personal library or study for the benefit of elderly or lordly speakers.[32]
3EReligious studioEdward MaufeA double-height large studio with a balcony, designed for religious broadcasts with a focus on all religions so that any religious member would feel comfortable. It was soon disused as listeners preferred the sound of a real church and congregation.[33]
The concert hallVal MyerA very large double-height concert hall for orchestras playing classical music.[34] It contains a large space for the orchestra, a large section and a balcony for seating, and the first organ suitable for broadcasting. It was renamed the Radio Theatre in 1994.[35]
BAVaudeville studioRaymond McGrathA double-height studio with balcony for theatre and variety performances, with an audience of 60.[36]
BBDance band studioRaymond McGrathA double-height studio with a small balcony for an audience for the BBC Dance Orchestra. It was taken over for experimental television broadcasts on 22 August 1932.[37]

Current

Following the rebuild and refurbishment, several studios have been added and the studio structure changed dramatically. The current studios are:

Radio studios

StudioUser(s)Programmes
30ABBC Radio 3
30BBBC Radio 3
30CBBC Radio 3
30DBBC Radio 3
40ABBC Radio 4Long Wave continuity studio, Yesterday in Parliament, the Daily Service, Test Match Special and the Shipping Forecast.[38]
40BBBC Radio 4Continuity studio for BBC Radio 4
40EBBC World ServiceFocus on Africa
40FBBC World ServiceFocus on Africa
50BBBC Radio 4The Media Show, Woman's Hour, Front Row
51ABBC Radio 5 LiveUsed for Radio 5 shows relay to Manchester
52ABBC World ServiceProgramme productions for BBC languages programme
52BBBC World ServiceProgramme productions for BBC languages programme
52CBBC World ServiceProgramme productions for BBC languages programme
52DBBC World ServiceProgramme productions for BBC languages programme
60ABBC Radio 3, BBC Radio 4, BBC Radio 4 Extra, BBC World ServiceRadio drama
62ABBC World ServiceProgramme productions for BBC languages programme
82ABBC Radio 1, BBC Radio 1Xtra & BBC Asian NetworkThe Radio 1 Breakfast Show, Scott Mills (radio show), Annie Mac also used for mixing live performances – adjacent to the Live Lounge
82BBBC Radio 1, BBC Radio 1Xtra & BBC Asian Network
82CBBC Radio 1, BBC Radio 1Xtra & BBC Asian Network
82DBBC Radio 1, BBC Radio 1Xtra & BBC Asian Networkadjacent to the Live Lounge, Nick Grimshaw, Clara Amfo
82EBBC Radio 1, BBC Radio 1Xtra & BBC Asian Network
82FBBC Radio 1, BBC Radio 1Xtra & BBC Asian Network
82GBBC Radio 1 & BBC Radio 1XtraNewsbeat (15-minute bulletins)
82HBBC Radio 1 & BBC Radio 1XtraNewsbeat (hourly bulletins)
82JBBC Radio 1, BBC Radio 1Xtra & BBC Asian Network"The Gallery" – All of the online video streaming content
is controlled here, including studio cameras.
83ABBC Asian NetworkNews studio
S31BBC World Service & BBC Radio 4
S32BBC World Service & BBC Radio 4Newsday
World Update
The World at One
PM
S33BBC Radio 4Today
The World Tonight
S34BBC World ServiceWorld Briefing
S42BBC World Service & BBC Radio 4
S46BBC World Service & BBC Radio 4
S48BBC World Service & BBC Radio 4
SL1BBC World Service & BBC Radio 4World Briefing
Six O'Clock News
Midnight News
The Newsroom
WG1BBC General News Service (GNS) networked national news bulletins for BBC English Regions
NewsroomMultipurposeOutside Source (radio)

Television studios

Studio Users Programmes
A Multipurpose
(Green screen virtual studio)
Newswatch
BBC News Summary
BBC Sport
Facebook Live
B Multipurpose The Andrew Marr Show
Sunday Politics
Newsnight
BBC World News (12:00–18:30, weekdays), including GMT, Impact, Global, World Have Your Say, Focus on Africa, World Business Report
Victoria Derbyshire Show
C BBC World News
BBC News
BBC World News
World Business Report
BBC News at Five (weekdays)
The Film Review (Friday)
Newsday
World News Today
Worklife (weekdays only)
BBC News Specials

Beyond 100 Days
The Briefing (weekdays only)
The Briefing/Business Briefing (weekdays only)
D Multipurpose BBC London News
BBC World News
BBC News Channel (emergencies)
E BBC News BBC News at One
BBC News at Six
BBC News at Five (weekends)
BBC News at Ten
BBC Weekend News
BBC News channel
Dateline London
World Business Report
BBC Newsroom Live (weekdays)
Afternoon Live (weekdays)
F BBC News 60 Seconds
G BBC Weather CSO (green/blue) studio
H BBC Weather CSO (green/blue) studio
J BBC Weather
BBC World News
Plasma touch-screen newsroom mezzanine position
Outside Source (TV)
BBC News at Five (segments)
Election Today/Election Tonight
Victoria Derbyshire Show (news updates), Reality Check
K BBC World Service BBC Russian, BBC Ukrainian, BBC What's New (African youth bulletin), BBC Hausa, BBC Afrique
L BBC World Service TV BBC Swahili Dira Ya Dunia (18:00 GMT weekdays), BBC Pashto (13:30 GMT weekdays), BBC Cash Eco, BBC World Service specials (e.g. BBC Persian election results programme 2013)
M BBC World Service TV - CSO (Green screen) studio Short language bulletins to various World Service partners
P BBC World Service TV - CSO (Green screen) studio Short language bulletins to various World Service partners
V BBC One The One Show
Sunday Morning Live
Rip Off Britain
The Film Show
Sounds of the 80s (BBC Radio 2 & BBC Red Button)
34D BBC World Service BBC Arabic Television
44D BBC World Service
(green screen virtual studio)
BBC Arabic Television until 2019

BBC Persian Television from November 2019 until approx March 2020

54D BBC World Service BBC Persian Television until November 2019. Currently (December 2019) closed for refurbishment.

Until programmes air information is subject to change. All times listed are either Greenwich Mean Time or British Summer Time depending on what is being used in London.

Artworks

The building showcases works of art, most prominently the statues of Prospero and Ariel (from Shakespeare's The Tempest) by Eric Gill. Their choice was fitting since Prospero was a magician and scholar, and Ariel a spirit of the air, in which radio waves travel. There was, reportedly, controversy over some features of the statues when built and they were said to have been modified. They were reported to have been sculpted by Gill as God and Man, rather than Prospero and Ariel, and that there is a small carved picture of a beautiful girl on the back of Prospero. Additional carvings of Ariel are on the exterior in many bas-reliefs, some by Gill, others by Gilbert Bayes.[39][40][41] The reception area contains a statue of 'The sower' by Gill.

Several works of art were commissioned by the BBC for the refurbishment of Broadcasting House, at an overall cost of more than £4 million.[42] Among these is World, a pavement artwork by the Canadian-born architect and artist Mark Pimlott. According to the BBC, the work "reflects the global dimension of the BBC’s broadcasting and consists of over 750 stone flags inscribed with place names from around the world, as well as those from history, mythology and fantasy. The artwork is enhanced by elegant steel lines of longitude and latitude, a subtle scheme of small embedded lights and some audio installation linked to key output from the World Service."[43]

On the roof of the John Peel wing, mirroring the radio mast, is Breathing, a cone-shaped glass structure reaching into the sky to the same height as the mast. It was sculpted by Jaume Plensa as a memorial to journalists killed in the line of duty. It includes words from a poem by James Fenton and is illuminated day and night. At 10 pm daily, in line with the BBC News at Ten, a column of light shines 900 metres (3000') into the sky. It was officially unveiled on 16 June 2008 by the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon.[44][45]

Broadcasting House in literature

Broadcasting House is a central feature in Penelope Fitzgerald's novel Human Voices, published in 1980, where the lead characters work for the BBC during the Second World War.[46] It is also the work place of Alexander Wedderburn in A.S. Byatt's 1995 novel Still Life,[47] and Sam Bell in Ben Elton's 1999 novel Inconceivable,[48] and also that of the evil nazi-sympathiser Ezzy Pound in Michael Paraskos's 2016 novel In Search of Sixpence.[49] The building is well realized as a setting in Nicola Upson's 2015 mystery novel London Rain.

George Orwell

In George Orwell's 1948 novel Nineteen Eighty-Four the building housing the Ministry of Truth, in which the lead character Winston Smith works, is based on Broadcasting House.[50] The head of BBC history, Robert Seatter, said "He reputedly based his notorious Room 101 from Nineteen Eighty-Four on a room he had worked in whilst at the BBC.[51]

On 7 November 2017 a statue of Orwell, sculpted by the British sculptor Martin Jennings, was unveiled, outside Broadcasting House. The wall behind the statue is inscribed with the following phrase: "If liberty means anything at all, it means the right to tell people what they do not want to hear". These are words from his proposed preface to Animal Farm and a rallying cry for the idea of free speech in an open society.[52][51]

MI5 involvement

In the 1980s it was revealed that MI5 had a special office in the building for the purpose of vetting BBC employees for national security purposes.[53]

See also

References

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  2. "BBC News' television output moves to new studios at Broadcasting House" (Press release). BBC. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  3. "Her Majesty The Queen officially opens BBC's new Broadcasting House" (Press release). BBC. 7 June 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  4. "Henry Hall's BBC Dance Orchestra – "Radio Times"". archive.org. 1930s. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  5. "Design and Construction of Broadcasting House in the 1930s". Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  6. "The Past". BBC. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  7. "Broadcasting House, London – the creation of a major new broadcast centre". BBC Press Office. April 2006. Archived from the original on 18 November 2012.
  8. "W1 Programme comes to a close". BBC. 30 April 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
  9. "BBC World Service leaves Bush House". BBC News. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  10. "Western House – The new studios". BBC Radio 2. Retrieved 10 April 2007.
  11. Sabbagh, Dan (7 September 2012). "The news from the BBC: its £1bn new base is finally coming on air". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
  12. BBC – Broadcasting House – Home Archived 9 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  13. Freedom of Information request – RFI20111247
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  15. "The Present". BBC. Archived from the original on 3 July 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  16. "BBC to name wing of new Broadcasting House after John Peel" (Press release). BBC. 2 March 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  17. Eccles, Louise; Ward, Alex (13 October 2012)."BBC to consider renaming Peel Wing at headquarters after claims DJ had affair with schoolgirl, 15". Daily Mail (London).
  18. Barnett, Antony (13 November 2005). "BBC in political row after sacking leading architect". The Observer. London. p. 2. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
  19. "Bovis to revamp BBC headquarters". The Daily Telegraph. London. 19 December 2002. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
  20. "Queen officially opens BBC's new Broadcasting House building". BBC News. 7 June 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  21. "BBC Triumphs at Awards". APM. 4 November 2013. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  22. "Key Facts: Broadcasting House, London". BBC Press Office. May 2004. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  23. Hines, Mark (2008). The Story of Broadcasting House, Home of the BBC (First ed.). London: Merrell. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-85894-421-0. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  24. "Eighth Floor – Studio 8A". Broadcasting House 1932. Old Radio Broadcasting Equipment and Memories (ORBEM). Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  25. "Eighth floor – 8B and Drama Control". Broadcasting House 1932. Old Radio Broadcasting Equipment and Memories (ORBEM). Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  26. "Seventh floor – 7B and Music control". Broadcasting House 1932. Old Radio Broadcasting Equipment and Memories (ORBEM). Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  27. "Sixth floor". Broadcasting House 1932. Old Radio Broadcasting Equipment and Memories (ORBEM). Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  28. "Sixth floor – Effects studio". Broadcasting House 1932. Old Radio Broadcasting Equipment and Memories (ORBEM). Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  29. "Sixth floor – Effects studio". Broadcasting House 1932. Old Radio Broadcasting Equipment and Memories (ORBEM). Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  30. "Fourth floor – 4A, 4B and office". Broadcasting House 1932. Old Radio Broadcasting Equipment and Memories (ORBEM). Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  31. "Third floor – 3A and 3B". Broadcasting House 1932. Old Radio Broadcasting Equipment and Memories (ORBEM). Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  32. "Third floor – Studio 3D". Broadcasting House 1932. Old Radio Broadcasting Equipment and Memories (ORBEM). Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  33. "Third floor – Studio 3E". Broadcasting House 1932. Old Radio Broadcasting Equipment and Memories (ORBEM). Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  34. "Lower Ground floor – Concert Hall". Broadcasting House 1932. Old Radio Broadcasting Equipment and Memories (ORBEM). Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  35. Hines, Mark (2008). The Story of Broadcasting House, Home of the BBC (First ed.). London: Merrell. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-85894-421-0. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  36. "Sub-Basement – Studio BA". Broadcasting House 1932. Old Radio Broadcasting Equipment and Memories (ORBEM). Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  37. "Sub-Basement – Studio BB". Broadcasting House 1932. Old Radio Broadcasting Equipment and Memories (ORBEM). Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  38. Priming the pips in studio 40B
  39. "Key Facts: Broadcasting House, London" (Press release). BBC. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  40. "Exterior Sculptures – Broadcasting House in 1932". Retrieved 10 April 2007.
  41. "BBC – Radio 4 – Archive Hour – The Home of Radio". Archived from the original on 30 June 2008. Retrieved 10 April 2007.
  42. Barnett, Antony (26 March 2006), "£4m price tag of BBC art collection", The Observer, retrieved 10 May 2017
  43. "What to see outside". BBC. Archived from the original on 20 October 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  44. "Killed reporters' memorial opens". BBC News. 16 June 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
  45. "Editorial: In praise of ... the Breathing light sculpture". The Guardian. London. 17 June 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
  46. Fitzgerald, Penelope (1999). Human Voices. London: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-395-95617-5.
  47. Byatt, A.S. (1985). Still Life. New York City: Simon & Schuster. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-684-83503-7.
  48. Elton, Ben (26 May 2010). Inconceivable. Dell. ISBN 978-0-3077-5554-4.
  49. Paraskos, Michael. In Search of Sixpence (London: Friction Press, 2016) ISBN 978-0-9929247-8-2
  50. Ferrell, Keith (24 March 2014). George Orwell: The Political Pen. London: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-5907-7355-0.
  51. Kennedy, Maev (9 August 2016). "Homage to George Orwell: BBC statue wins planning permission". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  52. "Orwell statue unveiled". BBC. 7 November 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  53. Bignell, Jonathan; Lacey, Stephen (12 May 2014). British Television Drama: Past, Present and Future. Springer. ISBN 978-1-1373-2758-1. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
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