British Tanker Company

British Tanker Company Limited was the maritime transport arm of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, the forerunner of BP. Formed in 1915 with an initial fleet of seven oil tankers, the British Tanker Company became the BP Tanker Company in 1955.

British Tanker Company Limited
IndustryShip transport
Founded1915
Headquarters,
Key people
Charles Greenway
ProductsOil
OwnerAnglo-Persian Oil Company
Anglo Iranian Oil Company

History

Early days

From the moment oil was discovered in Persia (now Iran) in May 1908, the issue arose of how best to ship it back to Britain. The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) initially employed independent contractors; principally the Asiatic Petroleum Company, a subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell, to carry the oil by sea.[1] In 1912 the company acquired its first ocean going ship, the SS Ferrara, a conventional freighter that carried oil products in metal cases.[2] Tankers were unable to berth in Abadan owing to a natural sand bar off the coast known as the Shatt-al-Arab Bar, and often had to anchor up to 40 miles from the port. This meant oil had to be lightered out to the ships. Accordingly, APOC made two further shipping purchases, a barge Friesland and a tug Sirdar-i-Naphte. This situation remained until the mid 1920s when the bar was eventually dredged to allow ships direct access to the port.[2]

1915 to 1945

However, the directors of APOC soon decided it would be better for the company to possess its own fleet of tankers. It set up the British Tanker Company Limited (BTC) in April 1915, with an initial capital of £100,000. The BTC placed orders with two Tyne based shipbuilders, Armstrong Whitworth and Swan Hunter, for a total of seven steam-powered oil tankers. The names of the first ships bore the prefix British, and most future additions to the fleet followed the same naming convention. This acknowledged the fact that the British government had invested heavily in the fledgling company to ensure a supply of fuel oil for the Royal Navy.[1]

BTC's first tanker was the 3,663 grt British Emperor, launched in 1916. She was employed to take oil from Abadan to the ports of Bombay, Karachi, Madras and Calcutta. She was the only BTC vessel not to be chartered by the Admiralty in World War I. Her career eventually ended in 1941, when she was sunk by the German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin, after evading all the Pinguin's attempts to capture her intact.

BTC's share capital was doubled to £200,000 in 1916, and further increased to £3,000,000 in November 1917.

In 1917 APOC made a successful offer to the British government for the assets of the former German-owned Benzin und Petroleum BP AG seized on the outbreak of war. This included the associate Petroleum Steamship Company (PSSC) whose 13 oil tankers passed into BTC ownership. The same year BTC was chosen by the Royal Navy to manage seven RFA tankers, giving it management experience that proved valuable post-war. The PSSC, now a subsidiary of BTC, took over ownership of the locally manned and managed fleet of small craft operating at Abadan.[1]

By 1919 the fleet had grown to 25 ships, a motley collection of new and second hand vessels including the Scandinavia, the only sailing ship ever operated by BTC.[1]

Over the next decade, the demand for oil grew throughout the industrialised world, and BTC expanded its fleet accordingly. By 1924 the fleet numbered 60 vessels. The 60th ship was the new flagship, the 6,998 grt British Aviator. She was the BTC's first diesel engined oil tanker, and was at that time the most powerful single-screw motor ship in the world.[2] A significant event was the signing of a contract with P&O in 1923 to supply bunkering facilities for the latter's ships.[1]

The cargoes carried by BTC ships consisted of both crude oil and refined oil products; the main refined products being fuel oil, benzine and kerosine. During the 1920s the principal destination for BTC was the United Kingdom, which accounted for around half of all cargoes discharged. Twice as much crude oil was delivered to the United Kingdom as refined products, with most of the crude oil being taken to the newly established refineries at Llandarcy and Grangemouth. The next largest destination for BTC was India, receiving 14% of the total cargoes carried. Cargoes discharged in Europe increased steadily, and by 1928 accounted for 13% of the total. In 1928 BTC's fleet consisted of 80 seagoing tankers, five coastal vessels and four government owned steamers, with a further 13 seagoing tankers being chartered by the BTC.

The Depression

With the onset of the Great Depression in the early 1930s, the merchant navies around the world faced increasing unemployment. However, through a number of strategic mergers, as well as the continuing support of the Shah of Iran, APOC managed to strengthen its position within the industry, and the BTC's fleet continued to grow until the launch of British Energy in 1931 marked the end of the post-war fleet renewal. In 1932, APOC reached an agreement with Royal Dutch Shell to combine their UK domestic marketing and distribution networks. This involved the transfer of some ships to a jointly owned company, Shell-Mex and BP. With careful management BTC only laid up six ships for an average of six weeks between 1930-35. In 1935, with the Depression receding, the company started placing orders with British shipyards for a further 24 ships. The same year, at the Shah's request, the company was renamed the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.[1]

World War 2

With the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, the British government chartered BTC's whole fleet of 93 vessels to transport fuel for its armed forces. In addition the company was made responsible for the management of requisitioned ships and American assistance tonnage. By 1942 the company had 146 ships under its control. The fleet lost 44 of its own ships and six managed ships sunk during the war, many during the Battle of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean U-Boat campaign, with two others so badly damaged they could only be used as storage hulks.[3] In addition two ex-BTC tankers operated by Italian companies were sunk by British submarines while a third was sunk by RAF Coastal Command.

1945 to 1955

Within two years of peace in 1945, BTC had restored its fleet to its pre-war total of 93 ships. This included the purchase of 10 American wartime T2 tankers[3] and three ex merchant aircraft carriers.[2] The recovery was further bolstered by the building of 57 new tankers, each of 8,600 grt. These new ships increased the tonnage of oil transported from the Abadan refinery, but they remained within the limits imposed by the requirement to sail through the shallow waters of the Suez Canal. At this time the company decided that the old principle of owning 90% of its required tonnage was too onerous and that chartered vessels should be employed to make up the average 50% annual shortfall.[4] To ease the problems of managing this large fleet an associated shipping company, the Lowland Tanker Company, was formed in association with Mathesons and Common Brothers of Newcastle to operate 10 time-chartered tankers exclusively for BTC.[4]

In 1951 the situation changed dramatically, when Iran nationalised its oil industry. AIOC removed all its staff from the country, and for a while had no access to Iranian oil. AIOC set about forming new alliances with other oil producing countries, especially Kuwait and Bahrain. The crisis lead to a major emergency logistics operation being undertaken to reroute and repurpose the tanker fleet to cope with the loss of the refining capacity at Abadan. In addition the Petroleum Steamship Company's fleet of barges, tugs, lighters and ancillary craft was hastily evacuated to Basra and Kuwait.[4]

In the early 1950s BTC began increasing the size of its deep-sea ships by building 13 so-called 'supertankers', each of 18,000 grt. These larger ships were particularly useful during the Suez crisis of 1956, which closed the Suez Canal and forced ships to sail around the Cape of South Africa, adding 9,000 nautical miles (17,000 km) to their journey.

In November 1954 AIOC renamed itself the British Petroleum Company, and the BTC became the BP Tanker Company from 1 Jun 1956, British Soldier being the first ship turned out in the new company's colours.[4]

The ships

Fleet list 1915 to 1945

ShipBuiltGRTPhotoBuilt byNotes
Aras18933,210Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastlePurchased 1918. Sold 1930 and renamed Lina Campanella. Scrapped in 1950.
British Admiral19176,842Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1937.
British Advocate19226,994Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, SunderlandCaptured 20 February 1941 by the German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer and renamed Adolf, later renamed Nordstern. Sank 1944 during an air raid.[5]
British Ambassador19246,940Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, SunderlandScrapped in 1954.
British Architect19227,388Blythswood Shipbuilding Co Ltd, GlasgowScrapped in 1953.
British Ardour19287,124Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleSunk 5 April 1943 by torpedo from U-706
British Aviator19246,998Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleFirst diesel engined vessel. Scrapped in 1953.
British Baron19084,906Armstrong, Whitworth & Co Ltd., Newcastleex PSSC Roumanian acquired 1917.[3] Sold 1925 and renamed Norne. Resold 1928 and renamed Vincas. Scrapped in 1936.
British Beacon19186,891Workman, Clark & Co Ltd, BelfastOperated first for the Shipping Controller then after 1919 for the Admiralty. 1937 removed from management and renamed Olcades. Scrapped in 1948.
British Birch19165,882Short Brothers Ltd, SunderlandLaunched as RFA Oldbury, completed as RFA Birchleaf. Purchased and renamed British Birch in 1919. Scrapped in 1931.
British Bombardier19428202Harland & Wolff Ltd, BelfastLaid down as Empire Fusilier, launched as Empire Bombardier. Operated for the MoWT. Purchased 1946. Scrapped 1960.[6]
British Bugler19453,766J. L. Thompson & Sons Ltd., SunderlandEx Empire Arrow operated for the MoWT. Purchased 1946. Sold 1957 and renamed Montmajour. Resold 1963 and renamed Mantinia. Scrapped in 1981.
British Captain19236,968Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleSunk 2 December 1941 by mine
British Cavalier19429,891Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, Sunderlandex Empire Cavalier operated for the MoWT. Purchased 1945. Scrapped in 1959.
British Chancellor19217,086Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, SunderlandSold 1952 and renamed Wanmas. Then sold 1954 and renamed Viva. Finally sold 1955 and renamed Gaaton. Scrapped in 1963.
British Character19418,453Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1959.
British Chemist19256,997Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1953.
British Chivalry19297,118Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleSunk 22 February 1944 by torpedo from Japanese submarine I-37
British Colonel19216,999Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, SunderlandScrapped in 1953.
British Colony19276,917Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleSunk 13 May 1942 by torpedo from U-162
British Commander19226,896Caledon Shipbuilding & Engineering Co Ltd, DundeeSunk 26 August 1940 by the German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin
British Commando19428,194Harland & Wolff Ltd, BelfastEx Empire Chapman operated for the MoWT. Purchased 1946, Scrapped in 1959.
British Commerce19224,205William Beardmore & Co Ltd, GlasgowScrapped in 1937.
British Commodore19236,865Caledon Shipbuilding & Engineering Co Ltd, DundeeScrapped in 1953.
British Confidence19368,494Cammell Laird & Co Ltd, BirkenheadRenamed Anglian Confidence in 1957. Scrapped in 1958.
British Consul19246,940Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, SunderlandSunk 19 August 1942 by torpedo from U-564
British Corporal19226,972Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleRequisitioned by the MoWT in 1940 and renamed Empire Corporal. Sunk 18 August 1942 by torpedo from U-598
British Councillor19227,045Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, SunderlandSunk 3 February 1940 by mine
British Courage19286,952Lithgows Ltd, Port GlasgowScrapped in 1953.
British Destiny19378,470Harland & Wolff Ltd, GlasgowRenamed Gaelic Destiny in 1957. Scrapped in 1958.
British Diligence19378,408Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleRenamed Anglian Diligence in 1957. Scrapped in 1958.
British Diplomat19266,484John Brown & Co Ltd, ClydebankRequisitioned by the MoWT in 1940 and renamed Empire Diplomat. Laid up in 1944 and scrapped in 1946.
British Dominion19286,983Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleSunk 10 January 1943 by torpedo from U-620 while sailing in Convoy TM 1
British Dragoon19439,909Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, Sunderlandex Empire Alliance operated for the MoWT. Purchased 1945. Scrapped in 1962.
British Drummer19443,758J. L. Thompson & Sons Ltd., Sunderlandex Empire Ensign operated for the MoWT. Purchased 1946. Sold 1957 and renamed Anella. Resold 1958 and renamed Norse Commander. Scrapped in 1966.[7]
British Duchess19245,973J L Thompson & Sons Ltd, SunderlandSold 1952 and renamed Duchess. Scrapped in 1959.
British Duke18993,645Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, Sunderlandex PSSC Terek acquired 1917. Sold to Italy 1930 and renamed Laura Corado. Sunk 30 March 1941 by torpedo from HMS Rorqual[8]
British Earl19016,288Armstrong, Whitworth & Co Ltd., Newcastleex PSSC Pinna acquired 1917. Sold to Italy 1929. Scuttled 1940 but refloated and taken over by the US Government. Renamed Orissa, scrapped in 1950.[3]
British Emperor19163,637Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd, NewcastleFirst ship built for BTC.[2] Sunk 7 May 1941 by the German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin
British Empress19176,847Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1936.
British Endeavour19274,580Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd, NewcastleSunk 22 February 1940 by torpedo from U-50
British Endurance19368,406Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, Newcastle1959 sold and renamed Redwijs II. Scrapped in 1959.
British Energy19317,209Greenock Dockyard Co Ltd, GreenockDamaged in an air-raid at Birkenhead in 1940. Scrapped in 1955.
British Engineer19226,993Workman, Clark & Co Ltd, BelfastSold 1952 and renamed Emily. Resold 1954 and renamed Yarkon. Scrapped in 1959.
British Ensign19177,048Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1937.
British Enterprise19214,204William Beardmore & Co Ltd, GlasgowScrapped in 1936.
British Faith19286,950Caledon Shipbuilding & Engineering Co Ltd, DundeeScrapped at Milford Haven in 1956
British Fame19368,303Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleRepresented the company at the 1937 Review of the Fleet off Spithead.[1] Sunk 12 August 1940 by torpedo from Italian submarine Alessandro Malaspina
British Fern19175,831Napier & Miller Ltd, GlasgowBuilt as Fernleaf. Purchased 1920. Scrapped in 1931.
British Fidelity19388,465Harland & Wolff Ltd, Glasgow1957 renamed Gaelic Fidelity. Scrapped in 1958.
British Fortitude19378,482Cammell Laird & Co Ltd, BirkenheadDamaged 23 February 1943 by torpedo from U-202, but survived. 1957 renamed Anglian Fortitude. Scrapped in 1958.
British Fortune19304,696Lithgows Ltd, Port GlasgowSunk 31 October 1941 by German aircraft
British Freedom19286,985Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleSunk 14 January 1945 by torpedo from U-1232
British Fusilier19236,943Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1953.
British General18933.245Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd, Newcastleex Georgian Prince acquired 1918. Sold to Spain 1922 and renamed Ebros. Scrapped 1940.[9]
British General19226,985Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleSunk 7 October 1940 by torpedo from U-37
British Genius19398,553William Doxford & Sons Ltd, SunderlandScrapped in 1961.
British Glory19286,993Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, SunderlandDamaged 15 October 1940 by torpedo from U-138, but survived. Scrapped in 1954.
British Governor19266,840Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1953.
British Gratitude19428,463Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1959.
British Grenadier19226,888Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleSunk 22 May 1941 by torpedo from U-103
British Guardsman19428,128Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleEx Empire Garrick operated for the MoWT. Purchased 1945. Sold 1951 and renamed Alan Evelyn. Resold in 1955 and renamed Westbrook. Scrapped in 1960.
British Gunner19226,894Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleSunk 24 February 1941 by torpedo from U-97
British Harmony19418,453Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1960.
British Holly19175,162William Hamilton & Co Ltd, Port GlasgowScrapped in 1931
British Honour19286,991Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, Newcastle1953 sold and renamed Marisin M. 1957 renamed Mario Martini. Scrapped in 1961.
British Hope19286,951Caledon Shipbuilding & Engineering Co Ltd, DundeeScrapped in 1957.
British Hussar19236,944Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1953.
British Industry19274,297Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1953.
British Influence19398,431Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleSunk 14 September 1939 by torpedo and gunfire from U-29
British Integrity19378,412Harland & Wolff Ltd, Glasgow1957 renamed Gaelic Integrity. Scrapped in 1958.
British Inventor19267,101Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleSunk 13 June 1940 by mine
British Isles19177,108Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1938
British Judge19216,735Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, SunderlandScrapped in 1953.
British Justice19286,982Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1954.
British Knight19084,762Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, Newcastleex PSSC Danubian acquired 1917.[3] Sold 1929 and renamed Sanvik then sold again 1938 and renamed Arrivabene. Wrecked 1940.[10]
British Lady19236,098J L Thompson & Sons Ltd, SunderlandSold to the Admiralty in 1939 and scrapped in 1946[1]
British Lancer19429,891Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, SunderlandEx Empire Wordsworth operated for the MoWT. Purchased 1945. Scrapped 1960.
British Lantern19186,897Workman, Clark & Co Ltd, BelfastTaken over by the Royal Fleet Auxiliary in 1937 as RFA Oligarch. Survived the War but was scuttled in the Red Sea in 1945.[11]
British Liberty19398,435Furness Shipbuilding Co, Haverton Hill-on-TeesSunk 6 January 1940 by mine
British Light19176,470Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleManaged for the Shipping Controller. 1919 transferred to the Admiralty. 1937 removed from management and renamed Olwen. Sold 1949 and renamed Mushtari. Scrapped in 1960.
British Lord19226,098J L Thompson & Sons Ltd, SunderlandScrapped in 1953.
British Loyalty19286,993Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleTorpedoed and sunk by a Japanese midget submarine in Diego Suarez on 30 May 1942. Later refloated and repaired.[12] Sunk 9 March 1944 by torpedo from U-183, but salvaged as a hulk. Scrapped in 1946.
British Major19134,147Tyne Iron Shipbuilding Co, Newcastleex Roumanian Prince acquired 1918. Sold to Italy 1929 and renamed Riva Sicular. Scrapped in 1933.[13]
British Maple18988,747CS Swan & Hunter, WallsendBuilt as Mount Royal, renamed Mapleleaf in 1916. Acquired 1919 & renamed British Maple in 1920. Hulked in 1933 and scrapped in 1935.
British Mariner19226,996Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleSeverely damaged 20 October 1941 by torpedo from U-126, but salvaged and used as a hulk. 1947 sold, repaired and renamed Tex-Africa. Scrapped in 1951.
British Marquis19084,997Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, Sunderlandex PSSC Servian acquired 1917.[3] 1930 sold and renamed Conte di Misurata. Sunk by gunfire in 1941.
British Marshall 19124,158Tyne Iron Shipbuilding Co, Newcastleex Russian Prince acquired 1918. Sold to Italy 1929 and renamed Tritone. Scrapped 1933.[13]
British Merchant19226,994William Beardmore & Co Ltd, GlasgowScrapped in 1949.
British Merit19428,093Harland & Wolff Ltd, GlasgowDamaged 25 July 1942 by torpedo from German submarine U-552, but survived. Scrapped in 1960.
British Might19458,200Harland & Wolff Ltd, GlasgowScrapped in 1961.
British Motorist19246,891Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleSunk 19 February 1942 by Japanese aircraft
British Officer19226,990Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleSunk 1 December 1940 by mine.
British Patience19438,097Harland & Wolff Ltd, GlasgowScrapped in 1961.
British Peer19084,920Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd, Newcastleex PSSC Carpathian acquired 1917.[3] Sold to Italy 1930 and renamed Tampico. Torpedoed 1941 and scuttled 1945.[14]
British Petrol19256,906Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleSunk 14 June 1940 by the German auxiliary cruiser Widder
British Pluck19281,025Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleTransferred to Shell-Mex and BP and renamed Shelbrit 1 in 1936. Sank after hiiting a mine 19 Sep 1940
British Power19368,451Harland & Wolff Ltd, GlasgowScrapped in 1958.
British Premier19225,872Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleSunk 24 December 1940 by torpedo from U-65
British Prestige19317,106Lithgows Ltd, Port GlasgowScrapped in 1956.
British Pride19317,106Lithgows Ltd, Port GlasgowScrapped in 1955.
British Princess19177,019Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd, Newcastle1946 renamed British Veteran. Scrapped in 1949.
British Progress19274,581Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd, NewcastleScrapped 4 November 1943 after being severely damaged by torpedo from a German E-Boat
British Promise19428,443Cammell Laird & Co Ltd, BirkenheadDamaged 21 November 1942 by torpedo from U-518, but survived. Scrapped in 1959.
British Prudence19398,620Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, SunderlandSunk 23 March 1942 by torpedo from U-754
British Purpose19435,845Furness Shipbuilding Co, Haverton Hill-on-TeesDamaged 20 October 1943 by torpedo from U-532, but survived. 1959 sold and renamed Annella. Scrapped in 1961.
British Reliance19287,000Greenock Dockyard Co Ltd, GreenockSunk 2 April 1941 by torpedo from U-46
British Renown19286,997Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, SunderlandDamaged 21 November 1942 by torpedo from U-518, but survived. Scrapped in 1954.
British Resolution19378,408Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1959.
British Resource19317,209Greenock Dockyard Co Ltd, GreenockSunk 15 March 1942 by torpedo from U-124
British Respect19438,479Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1959.
British Restraint19438,448Cammell Laird & Co Ltd, BirkenheadScrapped in 1959.
British Rose19166,572Sir Raylton Dixon & Co Ltd, MiddlesbroughOrdered as the Rona but taken over on the stocks and launched as RFA Califol. Transferred to the Shipping Controller and renamed Roseleaf. Purchased 1920. Sold 1930 and renamed Portofino. Bombed and sunk by RAF aircraft in 1942.
British Sailor19185,576Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleEx War Rajah purchased 1920. 1951 sold and renamed Viva. Scrapped in 1954.
British Science19317,138Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleSunk 18 April 1941 by torpedo from Italian aircraft
British Scout19221,507Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1957.
British Security19378,470Harland & Wolff Ltd, GlasgowSunk 23 May 1941 by torpedo from U-566
British Sergeant19225,868Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleSunk 9 April 1942 by Japanese aircraft
British Sincerity19398,533Cammell Laird & Co Ltd, BirkenheadScrapped in 1958.
British Soldier19185,564William Gray & Co Ltd, HartlepoolEx War Sikh, purchased 1919. Sold 1952 and renamed Marina. 1954 resold and renamed Romano. 1959 resold and renamed Menora. Scrapped in 1959.
British Sovereign19173,657Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1951.
British Splendour19317,138Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleSunk 7 April 1942 by torpedo from U-552
British Star19186,888Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleManaged for the Shipping Controller then transferred to the Admiralty in 1919. Removed from management in 1937 and renamed Olynthus. Sold to Itakl 1949 and renamed Pensilvania. Scrapped in 1959.
British Statesman19236,991Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, SunderlandScrapped in 1963.
British Strength19317,139Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleThe last ship built by Palmers.[1] Sunk 15 March 1941 by German battleship Scharnhorst or Gneisenau
British Tenacity19398,439Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1959.
British Thrift1928707Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleRenamed Thriftie in 1935, then Shelbrit 2 in 1936. 1943 sold to Shell-Mex and BP and renamed Shell Loader. Sold 1961 and renamed Amphitrite. Scrapped 1984.[15]
British Tommy19211,411Lithgows Ltd, Port GlasgowScrapped in 1946.
British Trader19214,204William Beardmore & Co Ltd, GlasgowSold in 1953 and renamed Flisvos. 1954 resold and renamed Manco Capac. Scrapped in 1961.
British Tradition19428,443Cammell Laird & Co Ltd, BirkenheadScrapped in 1961.
British Triumph19368,402Lithgows Ltd, Port GlasgowSunk 13 February 1940 by mine
British Trust19398,466Harland & Wolff Ltd, GlasgowSunk 1 May 1943 by torpedo from German aircraft
British Union19276,987Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleSunk 18 January 1941 by the German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran
British Unity19398,407Lithgows Ltd, Port GlasgowScrapped in 1961.
British Valour19276,952Lithgows Ltd, Port GlasgowScrapped in 1954.
British Venture19304,696Lithgows Ltd, Port GlasgowSunk 24 June 1943 by torpedo, from Japanese submarine I-27
British Vigilance19428,093Harland & Wolff Ltd, GlasgowSunk 24 January 1943 by torpedo from U-105
British Vigour19435,844Furness Shipbuilding Co, Haverton Hill-on-TeesThe first vessel with a welded hull.[2] Sold in 1959 and renamed Thoronet. Scrapped in 1964.
British Vine19017,474Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleLaunched as the Patrician. In 1914 acquired by the Admiralty and converted to the dummy battleship HMS Invincible. In 1915 she was fitted with oil tanks and transferred to the RFA as the RFA Tarakol. Transferred to the Shipping Controller in 1917 and renamed Vineleaf. Purchased 1919. Sold in 1923 and renamed Busen. Scrapped in 1935.
British Virtue19458,500Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1962
British Viscount18803,287Oswald, Mordaunt & Co, SouthamptonEx Rock Light acquired 1917. Sunk 23 February 1918 by torpedo from U-91[3]
British Viscount19216,895Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleSunk 3 April 1941 by torpedo from U-73
British Wisdom19458,130Blythswood Shipbuilding Co Ltd, GlasgowScrapped in 1962.
British Workman19226,994Workman, Clark & Co Ltd, BelfastSunk 3 May 1942 by torpedo from U-455
British Yeoman19236,990Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleSunk 15 July 1942 by torpedo from U-201
British Zeal19378,532Lithgows Ltd, Port GlasgowDamaged 31 December 1940 by torpedo from U-65, but survived. Sold 1958 and renamed Redwijs I. Scrapped in 1959
Empire Gem19418,139Harland & Wolff Ltd, GlasgowOperated for the MoWT. Torpedoed and sunk 24 January 1941 by U-66.[16]
Empire Metal19428,201Harland & Wolff Ltd, GlasgowOperated for the MoWT. Sunk 2 January 1943 by air attack.[17]
Eupion19143575Mackay Brothers Ltd., AlloaSunk 3 Oct 1918 by torpedo from UB-90
Ferrara18801,175Robert Steele & Company, ClydesideTaken over from parent company in 1915. Sold to India 1923 and gutted by fire later the same year.[18]
Josefina Thorden19326,620Eriksberg Mekaniske Verkstad A/B, GothenburgOperated for the MoWT 1941. Mined and sunk 6 Apr 1943.[19]
Kura18892,391Armstrong & Mitchell Co. Ltd, NewcastlePurchased 1918, sold 1924 to Italy and renamed Persiano. Sunk by torpedo from HMS Tetrarch in 1941[20]
Kerman19074,397Flensburger Schiffsbouw Ges., FlensburgEx Furth. A second freighter acquired in 1915 after capture by the Royal Navy to carry cased oil. 1920 sold and renamed Sultania. Scrapped in 1933.
Khuzistan1924871Amble Shipbuilding Company Ltd., AmbleFreighter adapted to carry cased oil. Sold 1953 and renamed Effigyny. Scrapped in 1959.
Melpomene19237,011Ateliers & Chantiers De La Gironde, BordeauxOperated for the MoWT. Sunk 5 March 1942 by torpedo from the Italian submarine Giuseppe Finzi.[21]
Mexican Prince18933028Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleAcquired 1918. Sold 1919 and renamed Southern Isles. Resold 1930 and renamed Silva Porto. Scrapped in 1937.[22]
Oltania II19286,394Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd, NewcastleOperated for the MoWT. Sunk 8 January 1943 by torpedo from U-436.[23]
Rion18892,186Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastlePurchased 1918, sold 1924 and renamed Italiano. Resold 1925 and renamed Federico Garolla, sank after an explosion at sea in 1930[24]
Saint PatriceAcquired and disposed of in 1922.
Suram18932,186Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd, SunderlandPurchased 1918, sold and renamed Bithnia 1920, scrapped in 1931.
Scandinavia1905456N. V. Werf V. Rijkee & Company, RotterdamSchooner, the only sailing vessel in the BTC fleet. Acquired 1917. Scrapped in 1923 after being wrecked at Portland[2]
Taraqqi1930388G. Brown & Company, GreenockCoaster adapted to carry cased oil. Sold in 1955. Resold in 1967 and again in 1973 and renamed Tara Q. Deleted from Lloyd's Register in 1998.
War Nawab19195,586Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleOperated for the Shipping Controller. Transferred to Admiralty in 1921, then to RFA in 1936, scrapped 1958.[25]
War Nizam19185,605Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleOperated for the Shipping Controller. Transferred to Admiralty in 1921, then to RFA in 1937, scrapped 1949.[26]
War Sudra19205,599Palmers' Shipbuilding & Iron Co Ltd, NewcastleOperated for the Shipping Controller. Transferred to Admiralty in 1921. Sold 1948, renamed Germaine in 1951, scrapped 1954.[27]

Fleet list 1945 to 1956

ShipBuiltGRTPhotoBuilt byNotes
Beecher Island194410,668Alabama Drydock and Shipbuilding CompanyT2 tanker purchased 1947, scrapped in 1959.
British Admiral19478,378Furness Shipbuilding Company, Haverton Hill on TeesScrapped in 1962.
British Adventure195118,573Vickers Armstrong, Barrow-in-FurnessThe first "Supertanker". Sold 1973 and renamed Vrahos. Scrapped 1975.
British Advocate19488,573Lithgows Ltd., Port GlasgowScrapped in 1962.
British Ardour19498,616Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1962.
British Baron19478,556Cammell Laird & Co., BirkenheadScrapped in 1962.
British Birch19518,688Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1964.
British Builder19518,699Wm. Doxford & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1963.
British Bulldog195118,593Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1972.
British Captain19498,700Harland and Wolff Ltd., GlasgowScrapped in 1962.
British Caution19458,552Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1961.
British Chancellor195411,356Blythswood Shipbuilding Company Ltd., GlasgowTransferred to BP Clyde Tanker Co in 1961 and renamed Clyde Chancellor. In 1964 reverted to BP Tanker Company and resumed original name. Scrapped in 1972.
British Chivalry194911,217Blythswood Shipbuilding Company Ltd., GlasgowTransferred to BP Clyde Tanker Co in 1958 and renamed Clyde Chivalry. In 1963 reverted to BP Tanker Company and resumed original name. Scrapped in 1972.
British Commander19508,655Harland and Wolff Ltd., GlasgowScrapped in 1962.
British Commerce19466,092Wm. Doxford & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1961.
British Consul19508,655Harland and Wolff Ltd., GlasgowScrapped in 1963.
British Corporal195410,071Harland and Wolff Ltd., BelfastTransferred to BP Clyde Tanker Co in 1957 and renamed Clyde Corporal. In 1964 reverted to BP Tanker Company and resumed original name. Scrapped in 1972.
British Councillor19488,573Lithgows Ltd., Port GlasgowScrapped in 1967.
British Craftsman19518,697Wm. Doxford & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1964.
British Crown195218,570Cammell Laird & Co., BirkenheadScrapped in 1966 after an explosion and fire.
British Crusader195411,346Cammell Laird & Co., BirkenheadTransferred to BP Clyde Tanker Co in 1957 and renamed Clyde Crusader. In 1964 reverted to BP Tanker Company and resumed original name. Scrapped in 1972.
British Defender19506,138Wm. Doxford & Sons Ltd., SunderlandSold 1965 and renamed El Flamingo. 1969 rebuilt as a suction dredger. Scrapped in 1982.
British Diplomat19506,155Wm. Doxford & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1961.
British Duke19488,562Cammell Laird & Co., BirkenheadScrapped in 1962.
British Earl19468,745Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleHit a mine off Denmark in 1947 which required major repairs.[28] Scrapped in 1961.
British Empress19478,745Furness Shipbuilding Company, Haverton Hill on TeesScrapped in 1961.
British Endeavour19498,589R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Company Ltd., HebburnScrapped in 1962.
British Engineer195421,077Harland and Wolff Ltd., Belfast1972 sold and renamed Petrola V. Scrapped in 1976.
British Ensign19478,738Furness Shipbuilding Company, Haverton Hill on TeesScrapped in 1961.
British Enterprise19466,095Wm. Doxford & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1961.
British Envoy195311,349Wm. Doxford & Sons Ltd., SunderlandTransferred to BP Clyde Tanker Co in 1958 and renamed Clyde Envoy. In 1963 reverted to BP Tanker Company and resumed original name. Scrapped in 1970.
British Escort19438,908Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleLaid down as British Virtue but taken over by the MoWT and launched as the merchant aircraft carrier Empire MacCabe. Purchased and renamed in 1946.[2] Scrapped in 1962.
British Explorer19508,644Harland and Wolff Ltd., GlasgowTransferred to BP Clyde Tanker Co in 1958 and renamed Clyde Explorer. Scrapped in 1964.
British Fame194911,203Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1971.
British Fern19478,582Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1961.
British Flag195311,327R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Company Ltd., HebburnScrapped in 1971.
British Fortune19496,108Wm. Doxford & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1961.
British Freedom195011,207Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1972.
British General19508,775Furness Shipbuilding Company, Haverton Hill on TeesScrapped in 1964.
British Guardian195311,359Lithgows Ltd., Port GlasgowTransferred to BP Clyde Tanker Co in 1958 and renamed Clyde Guardian. In 1963 reverted to BP Tanker Company and resumed original name. Scrapped in 1972.
British Guide19518,778Furness Shipbuilding Company, Haverton Hill on TeesScrapped in 1963 after being in collision with Ocean Enterprise.
British Gunner195410,076Harland and Wolff Ltd., GlasgowTransferred to BP Clyde Tanker Co in 1961 and renamed Clyde Gunner. In 1964 reverted to BP Tanker Company and resumed original name. Scrapped in 1972.
British Hero195411,358Lithgows Ltd., Port GlasgowScrapped in 1972.
British Holly19468,582Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1964.
British Isles19478,738Furness Shipbuilding Company, Haverton Hill on TeesScrapped in 1962.
British Knight19468,629Harland and Wolff Ltd., GlasgowScrapped in 1961.
British Lady19516,140Smiths Dock Company Ltd., MiddlesbroughScrapped in 1963.
British Liberty19498,589Wm. Doxford & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1964.
British Loyalty19498,592Wm. Doxford & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1967.
British Major19468,564Wm. Doxford & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1962.
British Maple19518,686Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1965.
British Mariner19488,576Harland and Wolff Ltd., GlasgowScrapped in 1962 after colliding with and sinking the Palmyra off Ushant.[29]
British Marquis19468,563Wm. Doxford & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1962.
British Marshall19468,582Wm. Doxford & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1961.
British Merchant195421,064Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, Newcastle1973 sold and renamed Petrola VII. 1976 resold and renamed Petrola 7. Scrapped in 1978.
British Navigator19516,135J. L. Thompson & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1964.
British Oak195311,307Smiths Dock Company Ltd., MiddlesbroughScrapped in 1972.
British Officer195411,362William Hamilton and Company, GlasgowScrapped in 1973.
British Patriot19508,661Lithgows Ltd., Port GlasgowScrapped in 1963.
British Patrol195411,380Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, Newcastle1973 sold and renamed Maripatrol. 1980 resold and renamed Nona Maro. Suffered a fire and explosion at Flushing in 1980.[30] Scrapped in 1981
British Peer19508,661Lithgows Ltd., Port GlasgowScrapped in 1963.
British Pilot19439,133Laird, Son & Co., BirkenheadLaid down as British Caution but taken over by the MoWT and launched as the merchant aircraft carrier Empire MacColl. Purchased and renamed in 1946.[2] Scrapped in 1962
British Pioneer19518,651Blythswood Shipbuilding Company, GlasgowTransferred to BP Clyde Tanker Co in 1958 and renamed Clyde Pioneer. Scrapped in 1965.
British Piper19458,238Harland and Wolff Ltd., GlasgowLaid down as Empire Grenada but completed for BTC in 1946. Scrapped in 1961.
British Pluck1945930Harland and Wolff Ltd., GlasgowEx Empire Tesella. Managed for MoWT. Purchased 1951 and scrapped in 1954.
British Premier19518,661Lithgows Ltd., Port GlasgowScrapped in 1964.
British Princess19468,582Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1962.
British Progress19488,577Blythswood Shipbuilding Company, GlasgowScrapped in 1963.
British Prospector19508,655Harland and Wolff Ltd., BelfastTransferred to BP Clyde Tanker Co in 1958 and renamed Clyde Prospector. Scrapped in 1964.
British Prudence19498,577Blythswood Shipbuilding Company, GlasgowScrapped in 1966.
British Ranger19488,575Harland and Wolff Ltd., GlasgowTransferred to BP Clyde Tanker Co in 1957 and renamed Clyde Ranger. Scrapped in 1963.
British Realm195218,571Fairfield Company Ltd., GlasgowScrapped in 1970.
British Reliance195011,201Sir James Laing & Sons Ltd., Sunderland1973 sold and renamed Bangor Bay. 1974 resold and renamed Ocean Princess. Scrapped in 1975.
British Resource194911,200R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Company Ltd., HebburnScrapped in 1972.
British Rover19516,137J. L. Thompson & Sons Ltd., Sunderland1961 sold and renamed Makeni Palm. 1967 resold and renamed Kerkennah. 1971 renamed Palau. Scrapped in 1976.
British Rose19466,101J. L. Thompson & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1961.
British Sailor195320.961John Brown & Company, Clydebank1972 sold and renamed Marisira. 1974 resold and renamed Fagr. Scrapped in 1980.
British Scientist19488,545Cammell Laird & Co., BirkenheadTransferred to BP Clyde Tanker Co in 1957 and renamed Clyde Scientist. Scrapped in 1963.
British Seafarer195111,220R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Company Ltd., HebburnScrapped in 1973.
British Sergeant195410,073Harland and Wolff Ltd., GlasgowTransferred to BP Clyde Tanker Co in 1960 and renamed Clyde Sergeant. In 1963 reverted to BP Tanker Company and resumed original name. Scrapped in 1972.
British Security19488,583Harland and Wolff Ltd., BelfastSold 1966 and renamed Mana. Resold 1967 and renamed Ypatia. Wrecked off Mozambique in 1968 and scrapped in 1969.[31]
British Skill195218,550Harland and Wolff Ltd., BelfastScrapped in 1972.
British Soldier195421,082John Brown & Company, Clydebank1972 Sold and renamed Maribruna. Scrapped in 1976.
British Sovereign195421,138Vickers-Armstrongs Ltd., Barrow in Furness1972 sold and renamed Petrola VI. 1976 renamed Petrola 6. Scrapped in 1977.
British Splendour195011,233Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1972.
British Sportsman195111,231Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1972.
British Strength19488,580Harland and Wolff Ltd., BelfastScrapped in 1966.
British Success19458,215Blythswood Shipbuilding Company Ltd., GlasgowLaid up 1957. Scrapped in 1961.
British Supremacy19458,242Harland and Wolff Ltd., BelfastThe first of the post-war ships. Scrapped 1962.
British Surveyor19508,655Harland and Wolff Ltd., BelfastTransferred to BP Clyde Tanker Co in 1961 and renamed Clyde Surveyor. Scrapped in 1964.
British Swordfish19438,908Harland and Wolff Ltd., GlasgowLaid down as British Wisdom but taken over by the MoWT and launched as the merchant aircraft carrier Empire MacKay. Purchased and renamed in 1946.[2] Scrapped in 1959.
British Talent195218,593R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Company Ltd., HebburnScrapped in 1972.
British Triumph19498,640Cammell Laird & Co., BirkenheadScrapped in 1956.
British Trust19508,640Cammell Laird & Co., BirkenheadTransferred to BP Clyde Tanker Co in 1957 and renamed Clyde Inventor. Scrapped in 1963.
British Union19508,663Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1962.
British Venture19486,119J. L. Thompson & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1961.
British Victory195521,153Vickers-Armstrongs Ltd., Barrow in Furness1973 sold and renamed Marivic. Scrapped in 1977.
British Viscount19518,664Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, NewcastleScrapped in 1965.
British Vision195411,349J. L. Thompson & Sons Ltd., SunderlandScrapped in 1972.
British Warrior19516,143J. L. Thompson & Sons Ltd., Sunderland1961 sold and renamed Anne. 1964 resold and renamed LSCO Pandacan. scrapped in 1977.
British Workman19498,575Harland and Wolff Ltd., GlasgowIn 1960 collided with and sank the Mongabara in fog off the German coast. Scrapped in 1967.[32]
British Yeoman19498,741Furness Shipbuilding Company, Haverton Hill on TeesScrapped in 1963.
Chisholm Trail194410,660Alabama Drydock and Shipbuilding CompanyT2 tanker purchased 1947, sold 1955 and renamed Montsoreau. Scrapped after collision in 1961.
Cottonwood Creek194410,647Alabama Drydock and Shipbuilding CompanyT2 tanker purchased 1947, sold 1955 and renamed Brissac. Sold 1959 and renamed Bulk Mariner but reverted to original name in 1960. Sold 1965, wrecked and abandoned 1970.
El Morro194410,673Kaiser CompanyT2 tanker purchased 1947, scrapped in 1959.
Fort Frederika194410,672Kaiser CompanyT2 tanker purchased 1947, scrapped in 1959.
Fort Stevens194410,639Alabama Drydock and Shipbuilding CompanyT2 tanker purchased 1947, scrapped in 1959.
Iran1943798Grangemouth Dockyard Company Ltd., GrangemouthEx Empire Settler purchased 1947. Renamed Widad in 1958. Sold in 1962 and renamed Motol VII. Scrapped in 1968.
Mesa Verde194410,660Kaiser CompanyT2 tanker purchased 1947, sold 1955 and renamed Villandry. Scrapped in 1961.
Pazan1942438Greifenwerft G.m.b.H., StettinEx Luftwaffe August. Acquired by AIOC in 1948, renamed Angliran 20 and transferred to PSSC. Transferred to BTC in 1949. Sold in 1956 and renamed Southern Pioneer. Scrapped after an explosion and fire at Mombasa in 1964.
Red Bank194410,639Alabama Drydock and Shipbuilding CompanyT2 tanker purchased 1947, sold 1959 and renamed Bank. Scrapped in 1960.
Rogue River194410,647Alabama Drydock and Shipbuilding CompanyT2 tanker purchased 1947, sold 1959 and renamed Hunsfors. Renamed Apache in 1960. Sold 1968 and renamed Pacmerchant. Scrapped in 1977.
Smoky Hill194410,448Kaiser CompanyT2 tanker purchased 1947, sold 1957. Scrapped in 1967.

Subsidiary companies

A number of second-hand ships weren't integrated into the main fleet but were operated by subsidiary companies, often a single ship per company. These vessels were not renamed into the British sequence.[3] The principal subsidiary companies were The Petroleum Steam Ship Company, The Lowland Tanker Company and the jointly owned Shell-Mex and BP company.

House flag

The first house flag consisted of the black letters BTC set in a white circle on a white horizontal band, the white bordered with black, all set against a red background.

In 1926 the flag was changed to include the Persian colours. This new house flag consisted of the red Cross of Saint George on a white background, with a large green lozenge imposed over the centre of the cross, the lozenge containing a golden lion 'passant guardant'; the lion being a symbol of Persia. This remained until 1954, when a red lion ‘rampant’ replaced the golden lion.

References

  1. BP Shipping 100, Chp. 1.
  2. "BP Shipping 100 Pt 6" (PDF). BP.com. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  3. Middlemiss, N L. The BritishTankers. Newcastle upon Tyne: Shield Publications. ISBN 1 871128 03 X.
  4. "BP Shipping 100 Pt 2" (PDF). BP.com. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  5. "British Advocate". Wrecksite.EU. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
  6. Mullett, Chris. "British Bombardier". GTZX. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
  7. Mullett, Chris. "British Drummer". GTZX. Archived from the original on 22 August 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
  8. "Terek". Wrecksite.EU. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  9. "Prince Line". Red Duster. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  10. "British Knight". Wrecksite.EU. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  11. "Oligarch". Red Sea Wreck Project. DiveMedia. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  12. Wilson, Michael; (2000), A Submariners War; Stroud, Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-3276-1
  13. "Prince Line". Red Duster. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  14. "British Peer". Wrecksite.EU. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  15. Harvey & Soller. BP Tankers: A Group Fleet History.
  16. "Empire Gem". uboat.net. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  17. "Empire Metal". Wrecksite.EU. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  18. "SS Ferrara". Clydeships. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  19. "Josefina Thorden tanker". Wrecksite.EU. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  20. "Kura Tanker 1924-1941". Wrecksite.EU. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  21. "Melpomene tanker". Wrecksite.EU. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  22. "Prince Line". Red Duster. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  23. "Oltenia II". uboat.net. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  24. "Rion 1889". Tyne Built Ships. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  25. "Forces War Records". Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  26. "Forces War Records". Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  27. "Forces War Records". Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  28. "British Earl". gtzx.org. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
  29. "British Mariner". gtzx.org. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  30. "British Patrol". gtzx.org. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  31. "British Security". gtzx.com. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
  32. "British Workman". gtzx.org. Retrieved 16 October 2015.

Sources

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