British Rail Class 40

The British Rail Class 40 is a type of British railway diesel electric locomotive. A total of 200 were built by English Electric between 1958 and 1962. They were numbered D200-D399.[1] They were for a time the pride of the British Rail early diesel fleet. Despite their initial success, by the time the last examples were entering service they were already being replaced on some top-link duties by more powerful locomotives. As they were slowly relegated from express passenger uses, the type found work on secondary passenger and freight services where they worked for many years. The final locomotives ended regular service in 1985.

English Electric Type 4
British Rail Class 40
40135 at Crewe Works, 2003.
Type and origin
Power typeDiesel-electric
Builder
Build date1958–1962
Total produced200
Specifications
Configuration:
  UIC(1′Co)(Co1′)
  Commonwealth1Co-Co1
Gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Wheel diameterDriving: 3 ft 9 in (1.143 m)
Idling: 3 ft 0 in (0.914 m)
Minimum curve4.5 chains (91 m)
Wheelbase61 ft 3 in (18.67 m)
Length69 ft 6 in (21.18 m)
Width9 ft 0 in (2.74 m)
Height12 ft 10 in (3.91 m)
Loco weight133 long tons (135 t; 149 short tons)
Fuel capacity710 imp gal (3,200 l; 850 US gal)
Prime moverEnglish Electric 16SVT MkII
GeneratorDC generator
Traction motorsDC traction motors
TransmissionDiesel-electric transmission
MU working Blue Star
Train heatingSteam
Train brakesVacuum; later Dual (Air & Vacuum)
Performance figures
Maximum speed90 mph (140 km/h)
Power outputEngine: 2,000 bhp (1,490 kW)
At rail: 1,550 hp (1,160 kW)
Tractive effortMaximum: 52,000 lbf (231 kN)
Brakeforce51 long tons-force (508 kN)
Career
OperatorsBritish Railways
NumbersD200–D399, later 40 001–40 199
NicknamesWhistler
Axle load classRoute availability 6
Withdrawn1967 (1), 1976-1985
DispositionSeven preserved, remainder scrapped

Origins

The origins of the Class 40 fleet lay in the prototype diesel locomotives (Types D16/1 ordered by the London, Midland and Scottish Railway and British Railways and D16/2 ordered by British Railways between 1947 and 1954) and most notably with the Southern Region locomotive No. 10203, which was powered by English Electric's 16SVT MkII engine developing 2,000 bhp (1,460 kW).[2] The bogie design and power train of 10203 was used almost unchanged on the first ten production Class 40s.

Prototypes

British Railways originally ordered ten Class 40s, then known as "English Electric Type 4s", as evaluation prototypes.[3] They were built at the Vulcan Foundry in Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire.[4] The first locomotive, D200, was delivered to Stratford on 14 March 1958. Following fitter and crew training, D200 made its passenger début on an express train from London Liverpool Street to Norwich on 18 April 1958.[2] Five of the prototypes, Nos. D200, D202-D205, were trialled on similar services on the former Great Eastern routes, whilst the remaining five, Nos. D201, D206-D209, worked on Great Northern services on the East Coast Main Line.

Sir Brian Robertson, then chairman of the British Transport Commission, was less than impressed, believing that the locomotives lacked the power to maintain heavy trains at high speed and were too expensive to run in multiple – opinions that were later proved to be correct. Airing his views at the regional boards prompted others to break cover and it was agreed that later orders would be uprated to 2500 hp (a change that was never applied). Direct comparisons on the Great Eastern Main Line showed they offered little advantage over the "Britannia" class steam locomotives, when driven well, and the Eastern Region declined to accept further machines as they deemed them unsuitable to replace the Pacific steam locomotives on the East Coast Main Line[5] preferring to hold on until the "Deltic" Class 55 diesels were delivered.

The London Midland Region was only too pleased, as the Eastern Region's decision released additional locomotives to replace their ageing steam fleet, Class 40s managing Camden Bank, just north of Euston, with apparent ease. The West Coast Main Line had been starved of investment for many years and the poor track and generally lower speeds (when compared to the East Coast route) suited Class 40s, as the need to hold trains at speed for long periods simply did not exist and it better exploited their fairly rapid acceleration.

Production

Following the mixed success of the prototypes, another 190 locomotives were ordered by British Railways, and were numbered from D210 to D399. All were built at Vulcan Foundry, except a batch of twenty (Nos. D305–D324) which were built at Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns factory in Darlington. All the locomotives were painted in the British Railways diesel green livery, and the final locomotive, D399, was delivered in September 1962.[6]

Batches of the class were built with significant design differences, due to changes in railway working practices. The first 125 locomotives, Nos. D200–D324, were built with steam-age 'disc' headcode markers,[7] which BR used to identify services. Later, it was decided that locomotives should display the four character train reporting number (or headcode) of the service they were hauling, and Nos. D325–D344 were built with 'split' headcode boxes,[7] which displayed two characters either side of the locomotive's central gangway doors. Another policy decision led to the discontinuing of the gangway doors (which enabled train crew to move between two or three locomotives in multiple). The remaining locomotives, Nos. D345–D399, carried a central four-character headcode box.[7] In 1965, seven of the first batch of locomotives, Nos. D260–D266, which were based in Scotland, were converted to the central headcode design.[7][8][9]

From 1973, locomotives were renumbered to suit the TOPS computer operating system, and became known as 'Class 40'. Locomotives D201 to D399 were renumbered in sequence into the range 40 001 to 40 199. The first built locomotive, D200, was renumbered 40 122, which was vacant due to the scrapping of D322 as the result of accident damage.

The named 40s

Locomotives in the range D210–D235 were to be named after ships operated by the companies Cunard Line, Elder Dempster Lines, and Canadian Pacific Steamships, as they hauled express trains to Liverpool, the home port of these companies. The only locomotive not to carry a name was D226 which was to carry the name Media but never did so. From approximately 1970, with Class 40s no longer working these trains, the nameplates were gradually removed.[6]

Names of Class 40 locomotives D210–D235
LocoNameShipping lineDate named
D210Empress of BritainCanadian Pacific SteamshipsMay 1960
D211MauretaniaCunard LineSeptember 1960
D212AureolElder Dempster LinesSeptember 1960[nb 1]
D213AndaniaCunard LineJune 1962
D214AntoniaCunard LineMay 1961
D215AquitaniaCunard LineMay 1962
D216CampaniaCunard LineMay 1962
D217CarinthiaCunard LineMay 1962
D218CarmaniaCunard LineJuly 1961
D219CaroniaCunard LineJune 1962
D220 FranconiaCunard LineFebruary 1963
D221IverniaCunard LineMarch 1961
D222LaconiaCunard LineOctober 1962
D223LancastriaCunard LineMay 1961
D224LucaniaCunard LineAugust 1962
D225LusitaniaCunard LineMarch 1962
D226MediaCunard LineNever
D227ParthiaCunard LineJune 1962
D228SamariaCunard LineSeptember 1962
D229SaxoniaCunard LineMarch 1963
D230ScythiaCunard LineApril 1961
D231SylvaniaCunard LineMay 1962
D232Empress of CanadaCanadian Pacific SteamshipsMarch 1961
D233Empress of EnglandCanadian Pacific SteamshipsSeptember 1961
D234AccraElder Dempster LinesMay 1962
D235ApapaElder Dempster LinesMay 1962

A series of unofficial names were applied to the Class 40s by enthusiasts and enthusiastic depot staff. Some locos ran in service with these names applied for many months, others were painted out within days.[10]

The locos to carry these unofficial names were:[10]

  • 40 060 'Ancient Mariner' (while in departmental duties as 97 405)
  • 40 104 'Warrior'
  • 40 129 'Dracula'
  • 40 131 'Spartan'
  • 40 132 'Hurricane'
  • 40 134 'Andromeda'
  • 40 137 'Trojan'
  • 40 145 'Panther'
  • 40 150 'Crewe'
  • 40 155 'Vulcan Empress'
  • 40 164 'Lismore'

BR service

Distribution of locomotives,
March 1974[11]
GD
HA
HM
KM
LO
SP
YK
CodeNameQuantity
GDGateshead8
HAHaymarket19
HMHealey Mills32
KMKingmoor26
LOLongsight Diesel53
SPSprings Branch40
YKYork21
Withdrawn (1967)1
Total built: 200

The Class 40s operated in all areas of British Railways although sightings in the Western and Southern Regions have always been exceptionally rare and usually the result of special trains and/or unusual operational circumstances, but examples have been recorded such as D317 hauling a parcels train between Micheldever and Basingstoke on 3 July 1967,[12] and 335 operating the 07:35 Oxford to Paddington and 10:16 Paddington - Birmingham on 29 June 1971.[13] A review of the areas of operation published towards the end of the class's operational life showed no regular operational service on the Southern Region, and the only parts of the Western Region regularly visited were the Cambrian Line between Shrewsbury and Aberystwyth, and freights on the Gloucester to Severn Tunnel Junction route.[14]

After the early trials the majority of Class 40s were based at depots in northern England, notably Longsight, Carlisle Kingmoor, and Wigan Springs Branch on the Midland Region, and Thornaby and Gateshead on the Eastern Region.

The heyday of the class was in the early 1960s, when they hauled top-link expresses on the West Coast Main Line[15] and in East Anglia. However, the arrival of more powerful diesels such as Class 47 and Class 55, together with the electrification of the West Coast Main Line, meant that the fleet was gradually relegated to more mundane duties.

In later life the locomotives were mainly to be found hauling heavy freight and passenger trains in the north of England and Scotland. As more new rolling stock was introduced, their passenger work decreased, partly due to their lack of electric train heating (D255 was fitted with electric train heating for a trial period in the mid-1960s) for newer passenger coaches. They lost their last front-line passenger duties – in Scotland – in 1980, and the last regular use on passenger trains was on the North Wales Coast Line between Holyhead, Crewe and Manchester, along with regular forays across the Pennines on Liverpool to York and Newcastle services.

Throughout the early 1980s Class 40s were common performers on relief, day excursion (adex) and holidaymaker services along with deputisation duties for electric traction, especially on Sundays between Manchester and Birmingham. This resulted in visits to many distant parts of the network. It would be fair to say that few routes in the London Midland and Eastern regions did not see a Class 40 worked passenger service from time to time. Regular destinations included the seaside resorts of Scarborough, Skegness and Cleethorpes on the Eastern region, with Blackpool and Stranraer being regularly visited on the West Coast.

Much rarer workings include visits to London's Paddington and Euston stations, Norwich, Cardiff and even Kyle of Lochalsh. The fact that 40s could turn up almost anywhere resulted in them being followed by a hard core of bashers, enthusiasts dedicated to journeying over lines with rare traction for the route.

Withdrawal

Withdrawal of the Class 40s started in 1976, when three locomotives (40 005, 40 039 and 40 102) were taken out of service.[3] At over 130 tons the Class were by then considered underpowered. In addition, some were found to be suffering from fractures of the plate-frame bogies (due mainly to inappropriate use on wagon-load freight and the associated running into tightly curved yards[16]), and spares were also needed to keep other locomotives running.

Also, many Class 40s were not fitted with air braking, leaving them unable to haul more modern freight and passenger vehicles. Despite this, only seventeen had been withdrawn by the start of the 1980s.[17] The locomotives became more popular with railway enthusiasts as their numbers started to dwindle.

Withdrawals then picked up apace, with the locomotives which lacked air brakes taking the brunt of the decline. In 1981, all 130 remaining locomotives were concentrated in the London Midland region of BR. Classified works overhauls on the Class 40s were also gradually phased out, only 29 members of the class had a full classified in 1980, and the final two emerged from Crewe Works in 1981. The last to receive a classified overhaul was 40 167 in February 1981.

After that, numbers dwindled slowly until, by the end of 1984, there were only sixteen still running. These included the pioneer locomotive, 40 122, which, having been withdrawn in 1981, was reinstated in July 1983 and painted in the original green livery to haul rail enthusiasts' specials. The last passenger run by a Class 40, apart from 40 122, occurred on 27 January 1985, when 40 012 hauled a train from Birmingham New Street to York.[3] All the remaining locomotives except 40 122 were withdrawn the next day.[3]

The majority of Class 40s were cut up at Crewe, Doncaster, and Swindon works. Crewe works dismantled the most 40s, the totals are listed below.

The other ten locos to be scrapped were cut at Derby, Glasgow, Inverkeithing, and Vic Berry at Leicester.

1981 and 1983 saw the highest number of Class 40 withdrawals, a total of 41 locomotives being withdrawn both years.

The very last Class 40s to be cut up were 40 091 and 40 195 by A. Hampton contractors at Crewe Works in December 1988.

Table of withdrawals by year
YearQuantity in
service at
start of year
Quantity
withdrawn
Locomotive numberNotes
19672001D322Accident damage
19761991140 005/21/39/41/43/45/53/89/102/189-9040 039 never received B.R blue livery.
1977188440 048/54/59/72
1978184140 051Vacuum brake only
19791830
19801832040 011/26/38/40/42/71/100/105/108-110/112/114/119/123/142/146-147/156/161
19811634140 010/14/16-19/23/31-32/37/62/65-67/70/75/78/83/95/98/107/111/113/116-117/120/122/125/134/137/144/149/151/165/171/173/175-176/178-179/19340 122 would be reinstated 24 April 1983.

40 010 withdrawn only 14 months after receiving a full classified works overhaul.

19821223240 003/08/20/25/36/55/64/87-88/92/94/101/103/115/127-128, 130/132/136/138-140/148/154, 162-163/166/182/184/186-187/19940 183 was due for an E exam, the loco was withdrawn but then reinstated and given E exam 8 September 1982. Final withdrawal came on 1 June 1983 with bogie fractures.
1983904140 006-07/27/30/46/49-50/52/61/68-69/73/76-77/80-81/84/90/93/96-97/106/121/131/141/145/153/157-159/164/169-170/172/180/183/185/188/191/197-19840 185 withdrawn 2yrs overdue a classified works repair.

40 076 provided bogies for the restoration of 40 122.

1984493340 001-02/04/09/15/22/24/28-29/33-35/47/56-58/63/74/82/85/91/99/124/126/129/133/160/167-168/174/177/195-19640 009 the last vacuum braked Class 40 withdrawn 7 November 1984 with bearings and traction motor problems. 40 126 was the locomotive stopped at Sears Crossing in the 1963 Great Train Robbery.
1985161640 012-13/44/60/79/86/104/118/135/143/150/152/155/181/192/194All locos were switched off surplus to requirements or life expired by 22 January 1985.[18]

Further use

The Class 40 story was not quite over, however. Upon the joint initiative of enthusiasts Howard Johnston and Murray Brown who noticed 40 122 on the withdrawn sidings at Carlisle Kingmoor depot in summer 1981 ready to go to Swindon Works for breaking up. 40 122 was reinstated by BR and overhauled at Toton depot with parts from 40 076. Now in working condition and repainted in BR green, it was regularly used to haul normal passenger trains in the hope of attracting enthusiasts, as well as special trains. In addition, four locomotives were temporarily returned to service as Class 97 departmental locomotives, numbered 97 405–408. They were used to work engineering trains for a remodelling project at Crewe station.[3] These were withdrawn by March 1987.[3]

40 122 was eventually withdrawn in 1988 and presented to the National Railway Museum. Six other locomotives were preserved, and on 30 November 2002, over sixteen years after the last Class 40 had hauled a mainline passenger train, the Class 40 Preservation Society's 40 145 hauled an enthusiasts' railtour, "The Christmas Cracker IV", from Crewe to Holyhead via Birmingham.[3][19] Following a three-year hiatus, after suffering a traction motor flashover, 40 145 returned to mainline operation in 2014.[20]

Accidents and incidents

  • On 3 June 1962. D244, just 30 months old was at the head of the 22:15 Kings Cross - Edinburgh sleeper from the previous night. The train was diverted from Peterborough via Sleaford with a route conductor taking charge. Approaching Lincoln at 00:45 hours on the Sunday morning, too fast for a 15 mph permanent speed restriction, the locomotive lurched but stayed on the track, though its train of sleeping cars were all derailed. The rear portion of the train narrowly missed demolishing Pelham Street Signal Box. Three people were killed in the incident, including the Sleeping Car Attendant whilst 30 others were injured.[21]
  • On 26 December 1962, D215 Aquitania was hauling the up Mid-Day Scot when it collided with the rear of a Liverpool-Birmingham train. 18 were killed and 34 injured, including the guard. Contrary to popular belief, the infamous D326 was not hauling the train.[22]
  • On 13 May 1966, a freight train became divided between Norton Junction and Weaver Junction, Cheshire. Locomotive D322, hauling an express passenger train, was in collision with the rear part of the freight train, which had run away. Both driver and secondman were killed.[23] The locomotive was withdrawn in September 1967.[24]
  • On 7 May 1965, a freight train was derailed at Preston-le-Skerne, County Durham. Locomotive No. D350 was hauling a newspaper train that ran into the derailed wagons and was itself derailed. Recovery of the locomotive was not until 16 May.[25]
  • On 14 August 1966, locomotive No. D311 was hauling a passenger train which was derailed when it ran into a landslip at Sanquhar, Dumfriesshire.[26]
  • On 6 August 1975, locomotive No. 40 189 was hauling a freight train which was unable to stop due to a lack of brake power. It was in collision with another freight train at Weaver Junction, Cheshire.[26]
  • On 26 October 1975, an express passenger train failed at Lunan, Angus. Locomotive No. 40 111 was sent to its assistance but ran into the rear of the failed train at 25 miles per hour (40 km/h). One person was killed and eleven were injured.[27]
  • On 24 December 1977, 40 164 was in collision with coaches (due to form the 06:00 service to Mallaig) in platform 5 of Glasgow Queen Street Station. The driver had lost control of the locomotive on the 1 in 45 descending gradient in Queen Street Tunnel. The cause of the accident was identified at the subsequent inquiry to packing pieces not having been inserted into the brake system after the locomotive's wheels had been profiled on the wheel lathe, reducing their diameter.[28]
  • In September 1978, locomotive No. 40 044 was hauling a freight train that ran away and was derailed by trap points at Chinley, Derbyshire.[25]

D326: The Great Train Robbery, 1963

D326 (later 40 126) was the most famous Class 40, but for unfortunate reasons. The engine had an early chequered history, she was classed as a jinxed loco by some railwaymen, with some drivers being reluctant to drive it. In 1963 it was involved in the infamous "Great Train Robbery", a year later in August 1964 a secondman was electrocuted[29] when washing the windows. Finally, in August 1965, it suffered total brake failure with a maintenance train at Birmingham New Street and hit the rear of a freight train, injuring the guard.[29] It then settled down and had a normal life until it was scrapped in 1984.

40126 was withdrawn from service on 15 February 1984. Upon withdrawal the locomotive was offered to the National Railway Museum at York as an exhibit loco regarding its past history, however, the NRM declined and she was reduced to a pile of scrap metal at Doncaster Works with indecent haste, no doubt to stop any pillaging souvenir hunters. Other famous "40s" include 40 106, which was the last one to remain in BR green livery, and 40 009, the last 40 to still have vacuum brakes only.[30]

Preservation

Seven locomotives and one cab end (40 088) have been preserved on heritage railways, including the first built, number D200, and the Departmental Locomotives, 97 406, 97 407, 97 408. Not all locos may be carrying their names so ones noted show they aren't currently carrying their names.

Of the seven class 40's to be preserved all except for 40118 have run in preservation and three have run on the main line in preservation, these being Nos D200 (40122), D213 (40013) and D345 (40145). As of 2018 D213 & D345 are operational on the main line.

Numbers (current in bold) Name Builder Livery Location Built Withdrawn Service Life Status Notes
D200 40 122 Vulcan Foundry BR Green National Railway Museum
March 1958
April 1988
30 Years, 1 Month
Static Exhibit Headcode discs - Part of the National Collection
D212 40 012 97 407 Aureol[nb 1] Vulcan Foundry BR Blue East Lancashire Railway
May 1959
April 1986
26 Years, 11 Months
Operational Headcode discs. Currently located at the East Lancashire Railway, previously at Barrow Hill for overhaul.
D213 40 013 Andania Vulcan Foundry BR Green Crewe Diesel TMD
June 1959
October 1984
25 Years, 4 Months
Operational & Mainline registered Headcode discs. Mainline certified for operation on main line as part of Locomotive Services Limited's mainline diesel fleet.[31]
D288 40 088 Vulcan Foundry BR Blue Crewe Heritage Centre
August 1960
February 1982
21 Years, 6 Months
Cab Used As Static Exhibit Headcode discs - Only one cab saved and is mounted on a road trailer. Owned by the Class 40 Preservation Society.
D306 40 106 Atlantic Conveyor Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns BR Green East Lancashire Railway
October 1960
April 1983
22 Years, 6 Months
Operational Headcode discs. Named in preservation. Owned by the Class 40 Preservation Society.
D318 40 118 97408 Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns BR Blue Tyseley Locomotive Works
February 1961
February 1986
25 Years
Under Overhaul Headcode discs.
D335 40 135 97 406 Vulcan Foundry BR Blue East Lancashire Railway
March 1961
December 1986
25 Years, 9 Months
Under Overhaul Split headcode boxes. Owned by the Class 40 Preservation Society.
345 40 145 Vulcan Foundry BR Blue East Lancashire Railway
May 1961
June 1983
22 Years
Operational & Mainline registered Headcode Blinds. Named during the East Lancashire Railway 20th Anniversary however currently not carrying nameplate. Owned by the Class 40 Preservation Society.

Notes

  1. Originally named at Liverpool Riverside on 20 September 1960.[3]

References

  1. http://www.brdatabase.info/locoqry.php?action=class&type=D&id=33
  2. Class 40 History Part 1 Archived 13 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine Class 40 Preservation Society - Retrieved on 2007-07-17
  3. Flowers, Andy (October 2008). "Whistler Golden Jubilee". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 154 no. 1, 290. pp. 14–21. ISSN 0033-8923.
  4. Class 40 Page The Railway Centre - Retrieved on 2007-07-18
  5. BRITISH RAIL STANDARD DIESELS OF THE 1960s - p94 - Ian Allan Publishing
  6. Class 40 History Part 2 Archived 4 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine Class 40 Preservation Society - Retrieved on 2007-07-23
  7. "Whistle while you work". RAIL. No. 84. EMAP National Publications. September 1988. pp. 70–71. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699.
  8. Haresnape, Brian (June 1984) [1982]. British Rail Fleet Survey 3: Production Diesel-Electrics Types 4 and 5 (2nd ed.). Shepperton: Ian Allan. pp. 22–26, 27. ISBN 0-7110-1450-7. CX/0684.
  9. Strickland, D.C. (March 1983). D+EG Locomotive Directory. Camberley: Diesel & Electric Group. p. 96. ISBN 0-906375-10-X.
  10. The official and unofficial namers!
  11. British Railways Locoshed Book 1974 edition. Shepperton: Ian Allan. 1974. pp. 28–30. ISBN 0-7110-0558-3.
  12. Vaughan, John (1980). Diesels on the Southern. Shepperton: Ian Allan. p. 67. ISBN 0 7110 0989 9.
  13. "Motive power miscellany". Railway World. Vol. 32 no. 376. Shepperton: Ian Allan. September 1971. p. 416.
  14. Dyer, Malcolm (1982). Oakley, Michael (ed.). BR Class 40 Diesels. Truro: Bradford Barton. p. 24. ISBN 0 85153 430 9.
  15. "West Coast 'Whistlers'". Rail Express. No. 224. January 2015. pp. 20–23. ISSN 1362-234X.
  16. The British Rail Dieselisation Programme: The Type 4s and 5s
  17. Withdrawal list Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Class 40 page - Retrieved on 2007-07-24
  18. Scrap
  19. 40145 maiden journey 2002 Six Bells Junction - Retrieved on 2007-07-24
  20. "Compass takes 'Whistler' to Saltburn". Rail Express. No. 224. January 2015. pp. 32–33. ISSN 1362-234X.
  21. "Report on the Derailment that occurred on 3rd June 1962 at Lincoln in the Easter Region of British Railways" (PDF). London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Retrieved 1 July 2017. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  22. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  23. Report on the Collision that occurred on 13 May 1966 at Acton Grange Junction in the London Midland Region British Railways Accident report at The Railways Archive
  24. Incidents in 1967 Railblue.com - Retrieved on 2007-07-23
  25. Earnshaw, Alan (1990). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 6. Penryn: Atlantic Books. pp. 44–45. ISBN 0-906899-37-0.
  26. Hoole, Ken (1983). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 4. Truro: Atlantic Books. pp. 9–10, 26–27. ISBN 0-906899-07-9.
  27. Trevena, Arthur (1981). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 2. Redruth: Atlantic Books. p. 43. ISBN 0-906899-03-6.
  28. http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/documents/DoT_Glasgow1977.pdf
  29. Wrate, C.H. (November 1983). "40126 - Loco with a dark history". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. pp. 28–29. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.
  30. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  31. "Class 40 Andania joins the LSL TOC diesel fleet - Icons Of Steam". 14 January 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2018.

Further reading

  • Brown, Murray (1984). Rail portfolios 1: The 40s. London: Jane's. ISBN 9780710603050. OCLC 15790305.
  • Buck, Martin (1982). Class 40s In Action. Peter Watts. ISBN 9780906025420. OCLC 650498303.
  • Buck, Martin (1984). English Electric Class 40s. Peter Watts. ISBN 9780906025550. OCLC 17550963.
  • Chalcraft, John (1984). Named diesel and electric locomotives of British Rail - Part 5: The 40s. Bristol: Rail Photoprints. ISBN 9780906883051. OCLC 60032700.
  • Chalcraft, John; Turner, Steve (1979). Class 40s in and around Manchester. Rail Photoprints. ISBN 9780906883006. OCLC 16541723.
  • Chapman, Stephen (1982). 40 Country. York: York Railpress. ISBN 9780946371006. OCLC 16606288.
  • Clarke, David (2006). Diesels in depth - Class 40. Ian Allan. ISBN 9780711031661. OCLC 64960461.
  • Derrick, Kevin (2010). Looking back at Class 40 locomotives. Strathwood. ISBN 9781905276356.
  • Dyer, Malcolm (1982). BR Class 40 Diesels. Bradford Barton. ISBN 9780851534305.
  • Haresnape, Brian (1989). British Rail Fleet Survey 3: Production Diesel-Electrics Types 4 and 5. Ian Allan. ISBN 9780711018594. OCLC 499095615.
  • Hayward, David; Derrick, Kevin (2005). Heritage Traction in Colour: The Class 40s. Appleby-in-Westmorland: Trans Pennine Publishing Ltd. ISBN 9781903016435. OCLC 931362807.
  • Heavyside, Tom (1984). The Class 40s an appreciation. Battenhall Books. ISBN 9780950857718.
  • Hobson, A. Wyn (1985). The last years of the Class 40s. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 9780711014671. OCLC 16224331.
  • McManus, Michael. Ultimate Allocations, British Railways Locomotives 1948 - 1968. Wirral. Michael McManus.
  • Morris, Steve (2004). British railway diesels in colour: In focus - Class forties to Holyhead. Caernarfon: Cheona Publications. ISBN 9781900298308. OCLC 931405354.
  • Morrison, Gavin (2005). The Heyday of the Class 40s. Hersham: Ian Allan. ISBN 9780711030589. OCLC 57575553.
  • Preedy, Norman E. (1983). Book of the Forties. Gloucester: Peter Watts. ISBN 9780906025437. OCLC 655339007.
  • Turner, Steve (1985). In memory of the 40s. Temple Cloud: Rail Photoprints. ISBN 9780906883099. OCLC 16921488.
  • Turner, Steve (1983). 25 years of the 40s. Bristol: Rail Photoprints. ISBN 9780906883068. OCLC 12452888.
  • Vaughan, John (1981). Class 40s at work. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 9780711011205. OCLC 9196199.
  • Whitaker, Alan (1985). Indian Summer of the 40s. Bradford: Autobus Review. ISBN 9780907834090. OCLC 16352567.
  • Whiteley, J.S.; Morrison, G.W. (1981). Profile of the 40s. Oxford: Oxford Publishing Co. ISBN 9780860931447. OCLC 9853553.
  • Whiteley, J.S.; Morrison, G.W. (1978). The Power of the 40s. Oxford: Oxford Publishing Co. ISBN 9780860930334. OCLC 6378719.
  • "Prototype '40' could be doomed". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. December 1981 – January 1982. p. 53. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.
  • "Project D200". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. June 1982. p. 57. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.
  • Knight, Tim (October 1982). "The Whistlers' last stand". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. pp. 42–43. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.
  • "'Whistlers' wearing out fast". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. October 1982. p. 50. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.
  • Johnston, Howard (March 1983). "'Cracking' tour brings £3,000 Class 40 boost". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. p. 48. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.
  • Johnston, Howard (July 1983). "D200: The transformation begins". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. pp. 6–7. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.
  • Johnston, Howard (September 1983). "D200: From rusting hulk to mobile masterpiece". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. p. 42. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.
  • Johnston, Howard (October 1983). "'Not bad for an old banger'". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. pp. 6–9. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.
  • Cruikshank, Robert H. (November 1983). "The day I cornered the black widow". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. pp. 29–30. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.
  • Johnston, Howard (June 1988). "The 'Queen' abdicates". RAIL. No. 81. EMAP National Publications. pp. 6–7. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699.
  • Johnston, Howard (August 1988). "Two celebrity 'Whistlers' saved for preservation". RAIL. No. 83. EMAP National Publications. p. 18. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699.
  • Johnston, Howard (September 1988). "Preservation for Class 40 Nos. 40118 and 40013". RAIL. No. 84. EMAP National Publications. p. 16. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699.
  • Hill, Paul (8–21 February 1990). "The man with appeal". RAIL. No. 115. EMAP National Publications. pp. 24–31. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699.

Locomotive details

  • Detailed photoguides (annotated):
  1. "Class 40 Drivers Desk – an explanation" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2004., including driver's desk, secondman's position, AWS equipment
  2. "Class 40 Nose Area – an explanation" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2011., including sanding gear, hand brake, vacuum brake controls
  3. "Components of a Class 40 Bogie – an explanation" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2011., including bogie structure; brake, heating and electrical connections
  4. "Class 40 cam shaft equipment" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2011., camshaft and associated components
  5. "Class 40 Control Cubicle – Principle Components" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2011.

Preservation groups

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