British Columbia New Democratic Party

The New Democratic Party of British Columbia[lower-alpha 1] (BC NDP) is a social-democratic[5] provincial political party in British Columbia, Canada, which currently governs the province. It previously governed from 1972 to 1975 and from 1991 to 2001. Following a hung parliament as a result of the 2017 election and the BC Liberal government's failure to win a confidence vote in the legislature, the BC NDP secured a confidence and supply agreement with the BC Green Party to form a minority government. The BC NDP is the British Columbia provincial arm of the federal New Democratic Party (NDP).

British Columbia New Democratic Party
Active provincial party
LeaderJohn Horgan
PresidentCraig Keating
Founded1933 (1933) (as BC CCF)
Headquarters4180 Lougheed Highway
Unit 301
Burnaby, British Columbia
V5C 6A7
Youth wingBritish Columbia Young New Democrats
IdeologySocial democracy
Political positionCentre-left[1][2]
National affiliationNew Democratic Party
International affiliationProgressive Alliance[3]
ColoursOrange, blue
Seats in Legislature
41 / 87

The party won the largest number of seats in three provincial elections, 1972, 1991 and 1996, but was reduced to two seats in the 2001 before rebounding in 2005 and returning to government in 2017. Six leaders of the NDP have served as Premier of British Columbia: Dave Barrett, Mike Harcourt, Glen Clark, Dan Miller, Ujjal Dosanjh, and John Horgan.


Founding the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (British Columbia section)

The party was formed in 1933 as the British Columbia section of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) by a coalition of the Socialist Party of Canada (BC), the League for Social Reconstruction, and affiliated organizations. In August 1933, the latter two organizations merged to become the Associated CCF Clubs. The new party won seven seats in the 1933 provincial election, enough to form the official opposition. A further merger with the SPC (BC) took place in 1935. In 1936 the party split as its moderate leader, Reverend Robert Connell was expelled over doctrinal differences in what was called the "Connell Affair". Three other CCF members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) in what had been a 7-member caucus quit and joined Connell in forming the Social Constructive Party, leaving only Harold Winch, Ernest Winch and Dorothy Steeves as CCF MLAs.[6] The Constructivists nominated candidates in the 1937 election but failed to win a seat. The CCF regained their former contingent of seven MLAs but lost official opposition status to the reconstituted British Columbia Conservative Party.

Harold Winch succeeded Connell as CCF leader and guided the party until the 1950s.

The two-party system in Canada was challenged with the rise of the CCF and the Social Credit movement in western Canada during the Great Depression of the 1930s. The CCF first took power in 1944 in Saskatchewan under Premier Tommy Douglas, and made major inroads in British Columbia.

In order to block the rise of the CCF in BC, the provincial Liberal and Conservative parties formed a coalition government after the 1941 provincial election when neither party had enough seats to form a majority government on its own. For the ten years that the coalition held together, the CCF was the Official Opposition in the legislature.

Solidification as opposition party

After the coalition fell apart in 1951, the government introduced the alternative vote electoral system, with the expectation that Conservative voters would list the Liberals as their second choice and vice versa. In introducing the measure, the government hoped to prevent the CCF from winning in a three party competition. What they did not contemplate was that there was a new fourth party on the rise: the BC Social Credit League.

In the election on 12 June 1952, the Liberals and Conservatives were decimated. The Social Credit League was the main beneficiary of the new voting system as many non-CCF voters chose Social Credit as either their first or second choices. Social Credit emerged as the largest party, with one more seat than Winch's CCF. Social Credit then chose a new leader, W. A. C. Bennett.

When Social Credit lost a motion of no confidence in the legislature in March 1953, Winch argued that the CCF should be allowed to try to form a government instead of the house being dissolved for an early election. The Liberals, however, refused to support the CCF's bid to form a government and new elections were called.

In the 1953 election, Bennett won a majority government, and both the Liberal and the Conservative parties were reduced to fringe parties. Throughout the 1950s, Bennett's new electoral movement was able to keep the CCF at bay. As this was during the height of the Cold War, Bennett was able to effectively use the scare tactic of the "Red Menace" against the CCF, referring to them as the "socialist hordes".

Creation of the BC New Democratic Party

In 1960, the CCF's name was changed nationally to the New Party, then in 1961 to the "New Democratic Party" (NDP), reflecting the national party formed from an alliance of the CCF and the Canadian Labour Congress. Bennett was able to keep the CCF and the NDP out of power throughout the 1960s through four successive general elections. Each time, Bennett was able to effectively use the "Red Menace" tactic against the NDP and its leaders during this time, Robert Strachan and, in the 1969 general election, against Thomas Berger.

Barrett government

The BC NDP first won election in 1972 under Dave Barrett, who served as Premier for three years. The BC NDP passed a great deal of legislation in a very short time. Among lasting changes were the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia, the Agricultural Land Reserve, and additions such as Question Period to the legislature. The BC NDP drove the small BC Liberal caucus to abandon their leader David Anderson for the Social Credit Party, as did one of the two Tories elected in 1972. The BC NDP introduced capital taxes, slashed funding to universities, but suffered the most for bringing clarity to the accounting Social Credit had used, and showed that BC was significantly in debt.

In the 1975 election Social Credit, under W. A. C. Bennett's son Bill Bennett, won a snap election called by Barrett. The Barrett government had initiated a number of reforms in the areas of labour relations, the public service and social programs, most of which endured through to the restraint budget of 1983.

The BC NDP peaked in popular support in the 1979 election with 46% of the vote. And after a minor decline in the party's vote share in 1983, Barrett retired as leader.

Riding high in the polls, it appeared that the party was poised to win the 1986 election against the unpopular Social Credit government of the day but due to a minor verbal gaffe by its new leader Bob Skelly during the campaign and the surprising charisma and telegenic performance of the Socreds' new leader William Vander Zalm, the party failed to score its anticipated breakthrough.

Harcourt government

The New Democratic Party governed BC for nine and a half years, winning two back-to-back general elections in 1991 and 1996 before being defeated in 2001. Although the party's majority was reduced in 1996, it was nevertheless able to triumph over the divided remnants of the Social Credit Party. In 1991, due in part to Social Credit's scandal-plagued final term in office under Premier William Vander Zalm and in part to the stellar performance of then–British Columbia Liberal Party (BC Liberals) leader Gordon Wilson in the televised leader's debate, the old Social Credit vote split between the BC Liberals, which garnered 33% of the vote and BC Social Credit Party with 25%. This allowed the BC NDP, under the leadership of former Vancouver mayor Mike Harcourt, who had succeeded former leader Bob Skelly in 1987, to win with 41% of the popular vote (one percentage point lower than the share the party had lost with in 1986).

Whereas Harcourt's first two years in government were characterized by a notably social democratic policy agenda, which included increases in welfare spending and rates, the government took a dramatic turn to the right in 1993 with Harcourt's famous province-wide televised address in which he lashed out against "welfare cheats, deadbeats and varmints".[7][8] This speech inaugurated a set of welfare reforms enacted between 1993 and 1995 similar to those adopted by new Progressive Conservative provincial governments elected in Alberta and Ontario in the same time period. These cutbacks were, in part, a reaction to a dramatic reduction in federal transfer payments by the federal Liberal government of Prime Minister Jean Chrétien and concomitant repeal of the Canada Assistance Plan bill of rights which included a right to food and a right to shelter. Unlike the reforms of the Harris and Klein governments, the BC Benefits package of cutbacks and restrictions in social assistance eligibility was bundled with a childcare bonus paid to low- and medium-income families.[7] The changes were unpopular with the province's anti-poverty movement and the then-marginal BC Green Party, and were condemned by a motion at the party's 1997 convention.[7]

Three months before BC Benefits was introduced by the Harcourt government, a protracted conflict began with the elements of the province's environmentalist movement. Harcourt's "Peace in the Woods" pact which brought together traditionally warring environmental groups and forest workers' unions began to collapse when Harcourt's cabinet exempted an environmentally-sensitive area of Vancouver Island, Clayoquot Sound, from its province-wide mediation process for land-use conflicts, CORE (the Commission on Resources and the Environment). This touched off logging road blockades in which over 800 people were arrested and alienated of some key environmental leaders such as David Suzuki and Colleen McCrory who shifted their support to the Green Party in the 1996 provincial election.

Although low in the polls for much of his term in office, Harcourt and his newly appointed Attorney-General Ujjal Dosanjh succeeded in regaining substantial public support by taking a hard line against a fringe aboriginal group's occupation of a farmer's field in the Cariboo region of the province. The Gustafsen Lake siege, led by Dosanjh became the largest-scale police operation in British Columbia history, in which armoured vehicles provided by the Canadian military were used by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)for protection. The military strongly rejected attempts by the RCMP to have them take over control of the situation, and ultimately it remained a police operation. Anti-vehicle mines were deployed and thousands of rounds of ammunition were shot at protesters.

However, less than 72 hours before a planned election call, with the BC NDP riding high in the polls for its hard line against welfare recipients and aboriginal and environmental radicals, the party's provincial office was raided by RCMP officers as part of an ongoing investigation of illegal use of charity bingo money, coined "Bingogate" by the media, by former provincial cabinet minister and member of parliament Dave Stupich. Although Harcourt was not implicated in either the raid or the probe and was later fully exonerated, he resigned nevertheless and the party was led into the 1996 provincial general election by Glen Clark.

Clark years

Clark, who entered the 1996 election far back in the polls, proved an excellent campaigner who succeeded, at least for the duration of the election, in re-unifying the party's traditional coalition with the slogan "On Your Side". He effectively portrayed the BC Liberals' new leader, former Vancouver mayor Gordon Campbell, as a pawn of big business and a dangerous right-wing extremist. Clark was aided in delivering this message by Jack Weisgerber, leader of the BC Reform Party (the name under which the majority of the Social Credit caucus had rebranded itself), and Wilson, by then leader of the Progressive Democratic Alliance (PDA) after being deposed by Campbell as leader of the BC Liberals. Although the BC NDP won only 39% of the vote to Campbell's 42%, it managed to secure 39 seats to Campbell's 33.

Although largely continuing Harcourt's policy agenda, Clark's government appeared rudderless with the campaign behind it and the Premier's scrappy style began to further alienate parts of the BC NDP coalition outside of the core group of labour activists who had masterminded Clark's campaign. It was also discovered, shortly after the election, that the balanced budgets for the 1995–96 and 1996–97 fiscal years on which Clark had campaigned were not, in fact, balanced but actually small deficits of approximately $100 million. This was termed the "fudge-it" budget fiasco. Further, large debt was shifted onto Crown Corporations so as to create a perception of "surpluses".

During these years, the BC NDP began to bleed support and activists to the BC Greens who reached 5% in the polls in the fall of 1997 and 11% by the fall of 1998; however, by far the majority of the BC NDP's former voters deserted the party for the BC Liberals. New scandals also surfaced, this time appearing to implicate Clark in using his influence to win a casino licence for a neighbour, Dimitrios Pilarinos, who had helped him with some home renovations. Another blunder was the botched construction of the PacifiCat BC Ferries, which would later become part of the fast ferry scandal; the project, designed to speed transportation between Vancouver and Nanaimo, was plagued by cost over-runs and poor technical decisions. By mid-1999, an obvious rift had appeared in the administration as Attorney General Dosanjh and Finance Minister Joy MacPhail challenged Clark's legitimacy. The party and province endured a few chaotic months of government with frequent cabinet shuffles, following a police raid on Clark's home before the premier stepped aside. In 2002 Clark was acquitted of breach of trust and corruption charges in the Pilarinos case; Pilarinos was convicted of six charges.

Dan Miller, the longest-serving member of the legislature stepped-in as premier and interim-party leader during an acrimonious leadership race between Dosanjh, maverick West Kootenay MLA Corky Evans and Wilson, who had been persuaded to fold his stalled PDA in 1998 and join Clark's cabinet. Despite clear favouritism from Clark, Wilson finished last with Dosanjh winning a majority of votes at the convention, despite Evans winning the support of over two-thirds of the party's constituency associations.

Dosanjh's leadership and out of power

Having bottomed out at 15 percent in the polls,[9] the Dosanjh government attempted to capitalize on the new Premier's high personal approval rating with their remaining year in power. The government made a number of concessions to the party's anti-poverty and environmental wings in an attempt to reforge the coalition but the party would not budge in the polls. Halfway through his mandate, Dosanjh seemed to lose interest in governing and left for a lengthy tour of his native Punjab.

Dosanjh waited as long as possible to call the next election, finally doing so in April 2001. By this time, the party had risen to 21 percent in opinion polling – a slight improvement from the nadir of a year earlier.[9] Nonetheless, it became obvious that the BC NDP would not be re-elected. Midway through the campaign, Dosanjh conceded defeat in a pre-recorded message and asked the electorate to give the BC NDP a chance as a strong opposition party.[10] De facto leadership passed to MacPhail, who managed to reinvigorate the campaign. The BC NDP's popular vote dropped to 22 percent, while its seat count dropped to only two – MacPhail and neighbouring Vancouver-Mount Pleasant MLA Jenny Kwan. They were also the only surviving members of the previous Cabinet; even Dosanjh lost his seat. All 77 other seats were captured by the BC Liberals who won 58 percent of the vote. It was the second-worst defeat of a sitting provincial government in Canada. Despite the severe defeat, MacPhail was credited for saving the party from being completely wiped off the electoral map.

Shortly after the election, Dosanjh resigned as leader and Joy MacPhail was appointed interim leader.

Opposition and recovery

MacPhail and Kwan were initially not granted official party status by Campbell on the grounds that the legislature's rules stipulated a party must hold four seats, though that claimed rule is not in the law and was widely panned in the media. However, the Speaker of the Assembly, former Social Credit cabinet minister-turned BC Liberal Claude Richmond, recognized MacPhail as Leader of the Official Opposition. Ultimately, Richmond's position gradually won out, and he was able to ensure that the remains of the BC NDP were provided the resources of an official party.

Given the high level of support within the party for her leadership, MacPhail surprised many by choosing not to seek the full-time leadership in 2003. The low-key leadership campaign was contested by establishment favourite and former Victoria School Board chair Carole James, Oak Bay City Councillor Nils Jensen, former MLAs Leonard Krog and Steve Orcherton, and a few minor candidates. First ballot results had James first followed by Jensen, Krog, and Orcherton. James won on the second ballot.

In late 2004, the party won an upset election victory in the constituency of Surrey-Panorama Ridge. Jagrup Brar became the third member of the party's caucus, winning a riding that had supported the NDP in 1991 before falling to the Liberals in 1996. Brar beat a locally popular BC Liberal candidate and Adriane Carr, the BC Green Party's leader, winning an absolute majority of the vote.

In the 2005 provincial election, James came closer to forming a government than even the BC NDP had predicted, winning 33 seats to Campbell's 45 and receiving a vote share 5% higher in suburban Vancouver than any pollster had predicted. The BC NDP also exceeded 40% of the vote for the first time since 1991.

In 2008, the BC NDP won two key by-elections in Vancouver-Fairview and Vancouver-Burrard.

In the 2009 provincial election, the BC NDP came a close second to the BC Liberals, with a 45%–42% popular vote, with 35 New Democrats elected to the BC Liberals 49. Despite the popular vote, only 3,500 votes separated the party from forming government.[11]

The NDP under Adrian Dix was widely expected to win the May 2013 provincial election as the NDP enjoyed a 20-point lead in the polls prior to the election campaign. However, the Liberals gained four seats, while the NDP lost two, in an election that returned the Liberal government under Premier Christy Clark. In September 2013, Dix announced his intention to resign as party leader once a leadership election was held.[12]

Horgan government

Following Dix's resignation, John Horgan, MLA for Langford-Juan de Fuca, was acclaimed as party leader in the 2014 party leadership election, and subsequently became the Leader of the Opposition in the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia. In the May 2017 provincial election, the NDP under Horgan occasionally led the Liberals in polls. The May 9 election returned 43 Liberal MLAs, 41 NDP MLAs and a record 3 Green MLAs. This was one of the closest elections in BC's history, exemplified by the popular vote breakdown: 40.36% for the Liberals, 40.28% for the NDP, and 16.84% for the Greens. The Liberals won the popular vote by a razor-thin margin of just 1,566 votes province-wide. Following the election, the Greens entered into negotiations with both the Liberals and NDP to decide which party they should support in the minority parliament. On May 29, Horgan and Green Leader Andrew Weaver announced that the Greens would support an NDP minority government in a confidence and supply agreement. This meant the Greens are obliged to vote with the NDP in matters of confidence – keeping the government from falling – but were allowed to vote freely on legislation brought forward by the NDP government. On June 29, the minority Liberal government of Premier Christy Clark was defeated 44–42 by the NDP-Green alliance in a confidence vote, leading Lieutenant Governor Judith Guichon to ask Horgan to form a government, making him British Columbia's 36th premier and first NDP premier in 16 years; the NDP formed a minority government, the first time the NDP has had such a government in provincial history.


"" denotes acting or interim leader.


# Party Leader Highest Position Tenure Notes
1 Robert Connell Leader of the Opposition 1933–1939 In 1936, Connell was expelled and three other MLAs resigned from the CCF. They formed the Social Constructive Party.[13]
2 Harold Edward Winch Leader of the Opposition 1939–1953
3 Arnold Webster Leader of the Opposition 1953–1956
4 Robert Strachan Leader of the Opposition 1956–1961


# Party Leader Highest Position Tenure Notes
1 Robert Strachan Leader of the Opposition 1961–1969
2 Thomas R. Berger Leader of the Opposition 1969
3 Dave Barrett Premier 1969–1984 First NDP premier of British Columbia, 1972–1975
4 Bob Skelly Leader of the Opposition 1984–1987
5 Mike Harcourt Premier 1987–1996
6 Glen Clark Premier 1996–1999
Dan Miller Premier 1999–2000
7 Ujjal Dosanjh Premier 2000–2001
Joy MacPhail Leader of the Opposition 2001–2003
8 Carole James Leader of the Opposition 2003–2011
Dawn Black Leader of the Opposition 2011
9 Adrian Dix Leader of the Opposition 2011–2014
10 John Horgan Premier 2014–present Became premier in 2017 after signing a confidence and supply agreement with the Green Party

Election results

Results shown are for CCF from 1933–1960, NDP since 1963.

Election Leader Seats +/- Place Votes % Change Position
1933 Robert Connell
7 / 47
n/a 2nd 120,185 31.53% n/a Official Opposition
1937 vacant
7 / 48
3rd 119,400 28.57% 2.96% Third Party
1941 Harold Winch
14 / 48
7 2nd 151,440 33.36% 4.79% Official Opposition
10 / 48
4 2nd 175,960 37.62% 4.26% Official Opposition
7 / 48
3 2nd 245,284 35.10% 2.52% Official Opposition
18 / 48
11 2nd 236,562 30.78% 4.32% Official Opposition
1953 Arnold Webster
14 / 48
4 2nd 224,513 30.85% 0.07% Official Opposition
1956 Robert Strachan
10 / 52
4 2nd 231,511 28.32% 2.53% Official Opposition
16 / 52
6 2nd 326,094 32.73% 4.41% Official Opposition
14 / 52
2 2nd 269,004 27.80% 4.93% Official Opposition
16 / 55
2 2nd 252,753 33.62% 5.82% Official Opposition
1969 Thomas Berger
12 / 55
4 2nd 331,813 33.92% 0.30% Official Opposition
1972 Dave Barrett
38 / 55
26 1st 448,260 39.59% 5.67% Majority Government
18 / 55
20 2nd 505,396 39.16% 0.43% Official Opposition
26 / 57
8 2nd 646,188 45.99% 6.83% Official Opposition
22 / 57
4 2nd 741,354 44.94% 1.05% Official Opposition
1986 Robert Skelly
22 / 69
2nd 824,544 42.60% 2.34% Official Opposition
1991 Michael Harcourt
51 / 75
19 1st 595,391 40.71% 1.89% Majority Government
1996 Glen Clark
39 / 75
12 1st 624,395 39.45% 1.26% Majority Government
2001 Ujjal Dosanjh
2 / 79
37 2nd 343,156 21.56% 17.89% No Status
2005 Carole James
33 / 79
31 2nd 694,978 41.43% 19.87% Official Opposition
35 / 85
2 2nd 691,342 42.14% 0.71% Official Opposition
2013 Adrian Dix
34 / 85
1 2nd 715,999 39.71% 2.43% Official Opposition
2017 John Horgan
41 / 87
7 2nd 795,527 40.28% 0.57% Official Opposition
Minority government[lower-alpha 2]

Current MLAs

As of July 2019, the following individuals serve as NDP MLAs:

Member District Elected Notes
Anne Kang Burnaby-Deer Lake 2017
Raj Chouhan Burnaby-Edmonds 2005
Katrina Chen Burnaby-Lougheed 2017 Minister of State (Childcare)
Janet Routledge Burnaby North 2017
Selina Robinson Coquitlam-Maillardville 2013 Minister of Municipal Affairs and Housing
Ronna-Rae Leonard Courtenay-Comox 2017
Ravi Kahlon Delta North 2017
Mitzi Dean Esquimalt-Metchosin 2017
Katrine Conroy Kootenay West 2005 Minister of Children and Family Development
John Horgan Langford-Juan de Fuca 2005 Premier of British Columbia
Bob D'Eith Maple Ridge-Mission 2017
Lisa Beare Maple Ridge-Pitt Meadows 2017 Minister of Tourism, Arts, and Culture
Scott Fraser Mid Island-Pacific Rim 2005 Minister of Indigenous Relations and Reconciliation
Sheila Malcolmson Nanaimo 2019
Doug Routley Nanaimo-North Cowichan 2005
Michelle Mungall Nelson-Creston 2009 Minister of Energy, Mines, and Petroleum Resources
Judy Darcy New Westminster 2013 Minister of Mental Health and Addictions
Jennifer Rice North Coast 2013
Claire Trevena North Island 2005 Minister of Transportation and Infrastructure
Bowinn Ma North Vancouver-Lonsdale 2017
Mike Farnworth Port Coquitlam 1991[lower-alpha 3] Minister of Public Safety and Solicitor General
Rick Glumac Port Moody-Coquitlam 2017
Nicholas Simons Powell River-Sunshine Coast 2005
Lana Popham Saanich South 2009 Minister of Agriculture
Doug Donaldson Stikine 2009 Minister of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development
Jagrup Brar Surrey-Fleetwood 2004[lower-alpha 4]
Rachna Singh Surrey-Green Timbers 2017
Garry Begg Surrey-Guildford 2017
Harry Bains Surrey-Newton 2005 Minister of Labour
Jinny Sims Surrey-Panorama 2017 Minister for Citizens' Services
Bruce Ralston Surrey-Whalley 2005 Minister of Jobs, Trade and Technology
George Heyman Vancouver-Fairview 2013 Minister of Environment and Climate Change Strategy
George Chow Vancouver-Fraserview 2017 Minister of State (Trade)
Shane Simpson Vancouver-Hastings 2005 Minister of Social Development and Poverty Reduction
Mable Elmore Vancouver-Kensington 2009
Adrian Dix Vancouver-Kingsway 2005 Minister of Health
Melanie Mark Vancouver-Mount Pleasant 2016 Minister of Advanced Education and Skills Training
David Eby Vancouver-Point Grey 2013 Minister of Justice and Attorney General
Spencer Chandra Herbert Vancouver-West End 2008[lower-alpha 5]
Carole James Victoria-Beacon Hill 2005 Deputy Premier and Minister of Finance
Rob Fleming Victoria-Swan Lake 2005 Minister of Education


  1. The party's constitution defines the full name to be the "New Democratic Party of British Columbia,"[4] however, it is registered with Elections BC simply as the "BC NDP" and is usually referred to as such. The expanded form "British Columbia New Democratic Party" can also be found in use both internally and externally.
  2. The May 9, 2017, election resulted in a hung parliament. Initially, the British Columbia Liberal Party formed a minority government but was defeated in a confidence motion on June 29, 2017. The NDP then formed a minority government with the support of the Green Party of British Columbia via a confidence and supply agreement.
  3. Out of the Legislature from 2001–2005
  4. Out of the Legislature from 2013–2017
  5. Chandra Herbert was first elected in a 2008 by-election to the Vancouver-Burrard district, which for the 2009 general election was split into Vancouver-West End and Vancouver-False Creek.

See also


  1. Magnusson, Warren; Shaw, Karena (2003). A Political Space: Reading the Global Through Clayoquot Sound. U of Minnesota Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-8166-4039-3.
  2. Susan Lee Kang (2008). Contestation and Collectivies: Protecting Labor Organizing Rights in the Global Economy. ProQuest. p. 315. ISBN 978-0-549-63283-2. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
  3. "Parties & Organisations of the Progressive Alliance". Retrieved 6 October 2018.
  4. "Constitution of the New Democratic Party of British Columbia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 6, 2011. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
  5. R. Kenneth Carty (1996). Politics, Policy and Government in British Columbia. UBC Press. p. 315. ISBN 978-0-7748-0583-4. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
  6. Howard, Irene, "The Struggle for Social Justice in British Columbia: Helena Gutteridge", UBC Press, 1992, page 183-184
  7. "Vancouver Sun recalls BC NDP record on welfare rate cuts – A Socialist in Canada". A Socialist in Canada. 2011-12-06. Retrieved 2017-06-16.
  8. Young, Margot; Boyd, Susan; Brodsky, Gwen; Day, Shelagh (2011-11-01). Poverty: Rights, Social Citizenship, and Legal Activism. UBC Press. p. 83. ISBN 9780774840835.
  9. "Just another futile gesture?". Toronto Star. December 9, 2000. p. NR02.
  10. MacQueen, Ken (May 21, 2001). "Vanishing Act". Maclean's. 114 (21): 55–56.
  11. "Report of the Chief Electoral Officer on the 39 th Provincial General Election and Referendum on Electoral Reform" (PDF). Elections BC.
  12. "Adrian Dix resigns as B.C. NDP Leader". Globe and Mail. September 18, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
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