Book of the Later Han

The Book of the Later Han, also known as the History of the Later Han and by its Chinese name Hou Hanshu, is one of the Twenty-Four Histories and covers the history of the Han dynasty from 6 to 189 CE, a period known as the Later or Eastern Han. The book was compiled by Fan Ye and others in the 5th century during the Liu Song dynasty, using a number of earlier histories and documents as sources.

Book of the Later Han
First page of the book
AuthorFan Ye et al
Original title後漢書
LanguageClassical Chinese
SubjectAncient Chinese history (Han dynasty)
Publication date
5th century
Book of the Later Han
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese


In 23 CE, Han dynasty official Wang Mang was overthrown by a peasants revolt known as the Red Eyebrows.[1] His fall separates the Early (or Western) Han Dynasty from the Later (or Eastern) Han Dynasty.

As an orthodox history the book is unusual in being completed over two hundred years after the fall of the dynasty. Fan Ye's primary source was the Dongguan Han Ji 東觀漢記 (Han Records of the Eastern Lodge), which was written during the Han dynasty itself.[2]


The book is part of four early historiographies of the Twenty-Four Histories canon, together with the Records of the Grand Historian, Book of Han and Records of the Three Kingdoms. Fan Ye used earlier histories, including accounts by Sima Qian and Ban Gu, along with many others (some had similar names, such as the Han Records of the Eastern Lodge by various contemporaries throughout the 2nd century, and the Records of Later Han by Yuan Hong from the 4th century), most of which did not survive intact.

The section on the Treatise on the Western Regions was based on a report composed by Ban Yong (with a few later additions) and presented to Emperor An of Han in around 125. It presumably includes notes from his father Ban Chao. It forms the 88th chapter (or 118th chapter in some editions)[3] of the Book of the Later Han, and is a key source for the cultural and socio-economic data on the Western Regions, including the earliest accounts of Daqin (the Roman Empire), and some of the most detailed early reports on India and Central Asia. It contains a few references to events occurring after the death of Emperor An, including a brief account of the arrival of the first official envoys from Rome in 166.[4]

Fan Ye, himself, clearly says that the new information contained in this section on the Western Regions, is largely based on information from the report of Ban Yong:

"Ban Gu has recorded in detail the local conditions and customs of each kingdom in the former book [Book of Han or 'History of the Former Han Dynasty']. Now, the reports of the Jianwu period [25-56] onwards recorded in this 'Chapter on the Western Regions' differ from the earlier [ones by Ban Gu]; they are from Ban Yong's report [presented] at the end of [the reign of] Emperor An [107-125], and so on."[5]

Annals (紀)

Volume 1 (Part 1)卷一上 光武帝紀 第一上Annals of Emperor GuangwuEmperor Guangwu of Han
Volume 1 (Part 2)卷一下 光武帝紀 第一下Annals of Emperor GuangwuEmperor Guangwu of Han
Volume 2卷二 顯宗孝明帝紀 第二Annals of Emperor Xianzong XiaomingEmperor Ming of Han
Volume 3卷三 肅宗孝章帝紀 第三Annals of Emperor Suzong XiaozhangEmperor Zhang of Han
Volume 4卷四 孝和孝殤帝紀 第四Annals of Emperor Xiaohe; Emperor XiaoshangEmperor He of Han; Emperor Shang of Han
Volume 5卷五 孝安帝紀 第五Annals of Emperor Xiao'anEmperor An of Han
Volume 6卷六 孝順孝沖孝質帝紀 第六Annals of Emperor Xiaoshun; Emperor Xiaochong; Emperor XiaozhiEmperor Shun of Han; Emperor Chong of Han; Emperor Zhi of Han
Volume 7卷七 孝桓帝紀 第七Annals of Emperor XiaohuanEmperor Huan of Han
Volume 8卷八 孝靈帝紀 第八Annals of Emperor XiaolingEmperor Ling of Han
Volume 9卷九 孝獻帝紀 第九Annals of Emperor XiaoxianEmperor Xian of Han; Liu Bian
Volume 10 (Part 1)卷十上 皇后紀 第十上Annals of EmpressesGuo Shengtong; Empress Yin Lihua; Empress Ma; Consort Jia; Empress Dou; Empress Yin; Empress Deng Sui
Volume 10 (Part 2)卷十下 皇后紀 第十下Annals of EmpressesEmpress Yan Ji; Empress Liang Na; Beautiful Lady Yu; Lady Chen; Empress Yan Ming; Empress Liang Nüying; Empress Deng Mengnü; Empress Dou Miao; Empress Dong; Empress Song; Empress He; Empress Fu Shou; Empress Cao Jie

Biographies (列傳)

Volume 11卷十一 劉玄劉盆子列傳 第一Biographies of Liu Xuan; Liu Penzi
Volume 12卷十二 王劉張李彭盧列傳 第二Biographies of Wang, Liu, Zhang, Li, Peng, LuWang Chang (王昌); Liu Yong (劉永); Pang Meng (龐萌); Zhang Bu (張步); Wang Hong (王閎); Li Xian (李憲); Peng Chong (彭寵); Lu Fang (盧芳)
Volume 13卷十三 隗囂公孫述列傳 第三Biographies of Wei Xiao; Gongsun Shu
Volume 14卷十四 宗室四王三侯列傳 第四Biographies of the Imperial Clan, Four Princes and Three MarquisesLiu Yan; Liu Xing (劉興); Liu Liang (劉良); Liu Zhi (劉祉); Liu Xi (劉歙); Liu Ci (劉賜); Liu Shun (劉順); Liu Jia (劉嘉)
Volume 15卷十五 李王鄧來列傳 第五Biographies of Li, Wang, Deng, LaiLi Tong (李通); Wang Chang (王常); Deng Chen (鄧晨); Lai Xi (來歙)
Volume 16卷十六 鄧寇列傳 第六Biographies of Deng, KouDeng Yu; Kou Xun (寇恂)
Volume 17卷十七 馮岑賈列傳 第七Biographies of Feng, Cen, JiaFeng Yi; Cen Peng (岑彭); Jia Fu (賈復)
Volume 18卷十八 吳蓋陳臧列傳 第八Biographies of Wu, Gai, Chen, ZangWu Han; Gai Yan (蓋延); Chen Jun (陳俊); Zang Gong (臧宮)
Volume 19卷十九 耿弇列傳 第九Biography of Geng Yan
Volume 20卷二十 銚期王霸祭遵列傳 第十Biographies of Tiao Qi; Wang Ba; Zhai Zun
Volume 21卷二十一 任李萬邳劉耿列傳 第十一Biographies of Ren, Li, Wan, Pi, Liu, GengRen Guang (任光); Li Zhong (李忠); Wan Xiu (萬脩); Pi Tong (邳彤); Liu Zhi (劉植); Geng Chun (耿純)
Volume 22卷二十二 朱景王杜馬劉傅堅馬列傳 第十二Biographies of Zhu, Jing, Wang, Du, Ma, Liu, Fu, Jian, MaZhu You (朱祐); Jing Dan (景丹); Wang Liang (王梁); Du Mao (杜茂); Ma Cheng (馬成); Liu Long (劉隆); Fu Jun (傅俊); Jian Tan (堅鐔); Ma Wu (馬武)
Volume 23卷二十三 竇融列傳 第十三Biography of Dou RongDou Rong (竇融); Dou Gu; Dou Xian; Dou Zhang (竇章)
Volume 24卷二十四 馬援列傳 第十四Biography of Ma Yuan
Volume 25卷二十五 卓魯魏劉列傳 第十五Biography of Zhuo, Lu, Wei, LiuZhuo Mao (卓茂); Lu Gong (魯恭); Wei Ba (魏霸); Liu Kuan (劉寬)
Volume 26卷二十六 伏侯宋蔡馮趙牟韋列傳 第十六Biographies of Fu, Hou, Song, Cai, Feng, Zhao, Mou, WeiFu Zhan (伏湛); Hou Ba (侯霸); Song Hong (宋弘); Cai Mao (蔡茂); Guo He (郭賀); Feng Qin (馮勤); Zhao Xi (趙憙); Mou Rong (牟融); Wei Biao (韋彪)
Volume 27卷二十七 宣張二王杜郭吳承鄭趙列傳 第十七Biographies of Xuan, Zhang, two Wangs, Du, Guo, Wu, Cheng, Zheng, ZhaoXuan Bing (宣秉); Zhang Zhan (張湛); Wang Dan (王丹); Wang Liang (王良); Du Lin (杜林); Guo Dan (郭丹); Wu Liang (吳良); Cheng Gong (承宮); Zheng Jun (鄭均); Zhao Dian (趙典)
Volume 28 (Part 1)卷二十八上 桓譚馮衍列傳 第十八上Biographies of Huan Tan; Feng Yan
Volume 28 (Part 2)卷二十八下 馮衍傳 第十八下Biography of Feng YanFeng Bao (馮豹)
Volume 29卷二十九 申屠剛鮑永郅惲列傳 第十九Biographies of Shentu Gang; Bao Yong; Zhi Yun
Volume 30 (Part 1)卷三十上 蘇竟楊厚列傳 第二十上Biographies of Su Jing; Yang Hou
Volume 30 (Part 2)卷三十下 郎顗襄楷列傳 第二十下Biographies of Lang Yi; Xiang Kai
Volume 31卷三十一 郭杜孔張廉王蘇羊賈陸列傳 第二十一Biographies of Guo, Du, Kong, Zhang, Lian, Wang, Su, Yang, Jia, LuGuo Ji (郭伋); Du Shi; Kong Fen (孔奮); Zhang Kan (張堪); Lian Fan (廉范); Wang Tang (王堂); Su Zhang (蘇章); Yang Xu (羊續); Jia Cong (賈琮); Lu Kang (陸康)
Volume 32卷三十二 樊宏陰識列傳 第二十二Biographies of Fan Hong; Yin Shi
Volume 33卷三十三 朱馮虞鄭周列傳 第二十三Biographies of Zhu, Feng, Yu, Zheng, ZhouZhu Fu (朱浮); Feng Fang (馮魴); Yu Yan (虞延); Zheng Hong (鄭弘); Zhou Zhang (周章)
Volume 34卷三十四 梁統列傳 第二十四Biography of Liang Tong
Volume 35卷三十五 張曹鄭列傳 第二十五Biographies of Zhang, Cao, ZhengZhang Chun; Zhang Fen (張奮); Cao Bao (曹褒); Zheng Xuan
Volume 36卷三十六 鄭范陳賈張列傳 第二十六Biographies of Zheng, Fan, Chen, Jia, ZhangZheng Xing (鄭興); Zheng Zhong (鄭衆); Fan Sheng (范升); Chen Yuan (陳元); Jia Kui (賈逵); Zhang Ba (張霸); Zhang Kai (張楷); Zhang Ling; Zhang Xuan (張玄)
Volume 37卷三十七 桓榮丁鴻列傳 第二十七Biographies of Huan Rong, Ding Hong
Volume 38卷三十八 張法滕馮度楊列傳 第二十八Biographies of Zhang, Fa, Teng, Feng, Du, YangZhang Zong (張宗); Fa Xiong (法雄); Teng Fu (滕撫); Feng Gun (馮緄); Du Shang (度尚); Yang Xuan (楊璿)
Volume 39卷三十九 劉趙淳于江劉周趙列傳 第二十九Biographies of Liu, Zhao, Chunyu, Jiang, Liu, Zhou, ZhaoLiu Ping (劉平); Zhao Xiao (趙孝); Chunyu Gong (淳于恭); Jiang Ge (江革); Liu Ban (劉般); Zhou Pan (周磐); Zhao Zi (趙咨)
Volume 40 (Part 1)卷四十上 班彪列傳 第三十上Biography of Ban Biao
Volume 40 (Part 2)卷四十下 班彪列傳 第三十下Biography of Ban BiaoBan Gu
Volume 41卷四十一 第五鍾離宋寒列傳 第三十一Biographies of Diwu, Zhongli, Song, HanDiwu Lun (第五倫); Zhongli Yi (鍾離意); Song Jun (宋均); Han Lang (寒朗)
Volume 42卷四十二 光武十王列傳 第三十二Biographies of Ten Princes of GuangwuLiu Jiang (劉彊); Liu Fu (劉輔); Liu Kang (劉康); Liu Yan (劉延); Liu Yan (劉焉); Liu Ying; Liu Cang (劉蒼); Liu Jing (劉荊); Liu Heng (劉衡); Liu Jing (劉京)
Volume 43卷四十三 朱樂何列傳 第三十三Biographies of Zhu, Yue, HeZhu Hui (朱暉); Sun Mu (孫穆); Yue Hui (樂恢); He Chang (何敞)
Volume 44卷四十四 鄧張徐張胡列傳 第三十四Biographies of Deng, Zhang, Xu, Zhang, HuDeng Biao (鄧彪); Zhang Yu (張禹); Xu Fang (徐防); Zhang Min (張敏); Hu Guang (胡廣)
Volume 45卷四十五 袁張韓周列傳 第三十五Biographies of Yuan, Zhang, Han, ZhouYuan An; Yuan Jing (袁京); Yuan Chang (袁敞); Zhang Pu (張酺); Han Leng (韓棱); Zhou Rong (周榮)
Volume 46卷四十六 郭陳列傳 第三十六Biographies of Guo, ChenGuo Gong (郭躬); Chen Chong (陳寵)
Volume 47卷四十七 班梁列傳 第三十七Biographies of Ban, LiangBan Chao; Liang Jin (梁慬)
Volume 48卷四十八 楊李翟應霍爰徐列傳 第三十八Biographies of Yang, Li, Di, Ying, Huo, Yuan, XuYang Zhong (楊終); Li Fa (李法); Di Pu (翟酺); Ying Feng (應奉); Ying Shao; Huo Xu (霍諝); Yuan Yan (爰延); Xu Qiu (徐璆)
Volume 49卷四十九 王充王符仲長統列傳 第三十九Biographies of Wang Chong, Wang Fu, Zhongchang Tong
Volume 50卷五十 孝明八王列傳 第四十Biographies of Eight Princes of XiaomingLiu Jian (劉建); Liu Xian (劉羨); Liu Gong (劉恭); Liu Dang (劉黨); Liu Yan (劉衍); Liu Chang (劉暢); Liu Bing (劉昞); Liu Chang (劉長)
Volume 51卷五十一 李陳龐陳橋列傳 第四十一Biographies of Li, Chen, Pang, Chen, QiaoLi Xun (李恂); Chen Shan (陳禪); Pang Shen (龐參); Chen Gui (陳龜), Qiao Xuan
Volume 52卷五十二 崔駰列傳 第四十二Biography of Cui Yin
Volume 53卷五十三 周黃徐姜申屠列傳 第四十三Biographies of Zhou, Huang, Xu, Jiang, ShentuZhou Xie (周燮); Huang Xian (黃憲); Xu Zhi (徐稺); Jiang Gong (姜肱); Shentu Pan (申屠蟠)
Volume 54卷五十四 楊震列傳 第四十四Biography of Yang Zhen
Volume 55卷五十五 章帝八王傳 第四十五Biographies of Eight Princes of Emperor ZhangLiu Kang (劉伉); Liu Quan (劉全); Liu Qing; Liu Shou (劉壽); Liu Kai (劉開); Liu Shu (劉淑); Liu Wansui (劉萬歳); Liu Sheng (劉勝)
Volume 56卷五十六 張王種陳列傳 第四十六Biographies of Zhang, Wang, Zhong, ChenZhang Hao (張晧); Wang Gong (王龔); Zhong Gao (種暠); Chen Qiu (陳球)
Volume 57卷五十七 杜欒劉李劉謝列傳 第四十七Biographies of Du, Luan, Liu, Li, Liu, XieDu Gen (杜根); Luan Ba (欒巴); Liu Tao (劉陶); Li Yun (李雲); Liu Yu (劉瑜); Xie Bi (謝弼)
Volume 58卷五十八 虞傅蓋臧列傳 第四十八Biographies of Yu, Fu, Gai, ZangYu Xu (虞詡); Fu Xie (傅燮); Gai Xun (蓋勳); Zang Hong (臧洪)
Volume 59卷五十九 張衡列傳 第四十九Biography of Zhang Heng
Volume 60 (Part 1)卷六十上 馬融列傳 第五十上Biography of Ma Rong
Volume 60 (Part 2)卷六十下 蔡邕列傳 第五十下Biography of Cai Yong
Volume 61卷六十一 左周黃列傳 第五十一Biographies of Zuo, Zhou, HuangZuo Xiong (左雄); Zhou Ju (周舉); Zhou Xie (周勰); Huang Qiong (黃瓊); Huang Wan (黃琬)
Volume 62卷六十二 荀韓鍾陳列傳 第五十二Biographies of Xun, Han, Zhong, ChenXun Shu; Xun Shuang; Xun Yue; Han Shao (韓韶); Zhong Hao (鍾皓); Chen Shi (陳寔); Chen Ji (陳紀)
Volume 63卷六十三 李杜列傳 第五十三Biographies of Li, DuLi Gu (李固); Du Qiao (杜喬)
Volume 64卷六十四 吳延史盧趙列傳 第五十四Biographies of Wu, Yan, Shi, Lu, ZhaoWu You (吳祐); Yan Du (延篤); Shi Bi (史弼); Lu Zhi; Zhao Qi
Volume 65卷六十五 皇甫張段列傳 第五十五Biographies of Huangfu, Zhang, DuanHuangfu Gui (皇甫規); Zhang Huan (張奐); Duan Jiong (段熲)
Volume 66卷六十六 陳王列傳 第五十六Biographies of Chen, WangChen Fan; Wang Yun
Volume 67卷六十七 黨錮列傳 第五十七Biographies of Partisan ProhibitionsLiu Shu (劉淑); Li Ying; Du Mi (杜密); Liu You (劉佑); Wei Lang (魏朗); Xia Fu (夏馥); Zong Ci (宗慈); Ba Su (巴肅); Fan Pang (范滂); Yin Xun (尹勳); Cai Yan (蔡衍); Yang Zhi (羊陟); Zhang Jian (張儉); Cen Zhi (岑晊); Chen Xiang (陳翔); Yuan Kang (苑康); Tan Fu (檀敷); Liu Ru (劉儒); Jia Biao (賈彪); He Yong
Volume 68卷六十八 郭符許列傳 第五十八Biographies of Guo, Fu, XuGuo Tai (郭泰); Fu Rong (符融); Xu Shao
Volume 69卷六十九 竇何列傳 第五十九Biographies of Dou, HeDou Wu; He Jin
Volume 70卷七十 鄭孔荀列傳 第六十Biographies of Zheng, Kong, XunZheng Tai (鄭泰); Kong Rong; Xun Yu
Volume 71卷七十一 皇甫嵩朱鑈列傳 第六十一Biographies of Huangfu Song, Zhu Jun
Volume 72卷七十二 董卓列傳 第六十二Biography of Dong Zhuo
Volume 73卷七十三 劉虞公孫瓚陶謙列傳 第六十三Biographies of Liu Yu, Gongsun Zan, Tao Qian
Volume 74 (Part 1)卷七十四上 袁紹劉表列傳 第六十四上Biographies of Yuan Shao, Liu Biao
Volume 74 (Part 2)卷七十四下 袁紹劉表列傳 第六十四下Biographies of Yuan Shao, Liu Biao
Volume 75卷七十五 劉焉袁術呂布列傳 第六十五Biographies of Liu Yan, Yuan Shu, Lü Bu
Volume 76卷七十六 循吏列傳 第六十六Biographies of Upright OfficialsWei Sa (衛颯); Wang Jing (王景); Qin Peng (秦彭); Wang Huan (王渙); Xu Jing (許荊); Meng Chang (孟嘗); Diwu Fang (第五訪); Liu Ju (劉矩); Liu Chong (劉寵); Qiu Lan (仇覽); Tong Hui (童恢); Di Yi (弟翊)
Volume 77卷七十七 酷吏列傳 第六十七Biographies of Cruel OfficialsDong Xuan (董宣); Fan Ye (樊曄); Li Zhang (李章); Zhou Zi (周錙); Huang Chang (黃昌); Yang Qiu (陽球); Wang Ji (王吉)
Volume 78卷七十八 宦者列傳 第六十八Biographies of EunuchsZheng Xi (鄭觿); Cai Lun; Sun Cheng; Cao Teng; Shan Chao (單超); Hou Lan; Cao Jie; Shen Zhong (審忠); Lü Qiang (呂強); Zhang Rang
Volume 79 (Part 1)卷七十九上 儒林列傳 第六十九上Biographies of Confucian ScholarsLiu Kun (劉昆); Zi Die (子軼); Wa Dan (窪丹); Yang Hong (陽鴻); Ren An (任安); Yang Zheng (楊政); Zhang Xing (張興); Dai Ping (戴憑); Wei Man (魏滿); Sun Qi (孫期); Ouyang Xi (歐陽歙); Cao Zeng (曹曾); Song Deng (宋登); Zhang Xun (張馴); Yin Min (尹敏); Zhou Fang (周防); Kong Xi (孔僖); Yang Lun (楊倫)
Volume 79 (Part 2)卷七十九下 儒林列傳 第六十九下Biographies of Confucian ScholarsGao Xu (高詡); Bao Xian (包鹹); Wei Ying (魏應); Fu Gong (伏恭); Ren Mo (任末); Jing Luan (景鸞); Xue Han (薛漢); Du Fu (杜撫); Zhao Xun (召馴); Yang Ren (楊仁); Zhao Ye (趙曄); Shi Shan (時山); Dong Jun (董鈞); Ding Gong (丁恭); Zhou Ze (周澤); Zhang Kan (張堪); Zhong Xing (鐘興); Zhen Yu (甄宇); Lou Wang (樓望); Cheng Zeng (程曾); Zhang Xuan (張玄); Li Yu (李育); He Xiu (何休); Fu Qian (服虔); Ying Rong (穎容); Xie Gai (謝該); Xu Shen; Cai Xuan (蔡玄)
Volume 80 (Part 1)卷八十上 文苑列傳 第七十上Biographies of WritersDu Du (杜篤); Wang Long (王隆); Xia Gong (夏恭); Fu Yi (傅毅); Huang Xiang (黃香); Liu Yi (劉毅); Li You (李尤); Su Shun (蘇順); Liu Zhen (劉珍); Ge Gong (葛龔); Wang Yi (王逸); Cui Qi (崔琦); Bian Shao (邊韶)
Volume 80 (Part 2)卷八十下 文苑列傳 第七十下Biographies of WritersZhang Sheng (張升); Shi Jun (仕郡); Zhao Yi (趙壹); Liu Liang (劉梁); Bian Rang (邊讓); Li Yan (酈炎); Hou Jin (侯瑾); Gao Biao (高彪); Zhang Chao (張超); Mi Heng
Volume 81卷八十一 獨行列傳 第七十一Biographies of LonersQiao Xuan (譙玄); Li Ye (李業); Liu Mao (劉茂); Wen Xu (溫序); Peng Xiu (彭修); Suolu Fang (索盧放); Zhou Jia (周嘉); Fan Shi (範式); Li Shan (李善); Wang Tun (王忳); Ling Xu (陵續); Li Chong (李充); Miao Rong (繆肜); Chen Zhong (陳重); Lei Yi (雷義); Fan Ran (范冉); Dai Jiu (戴就); Zhao Bao (趙苞); Xiang Xu (向栩); Liang Fu (諒輔); Liu Yi (劉翊); Wang Lie (王烈)
Volume 82 (Part 1)卷八十二上 方術列傳 第七十二上Biographies of AlchemistsRen Wengong (任文公); Guo Xian (郭憲); Xu Yang (許楊); Gao Huo (高獲); Wang Qiaozhe (王喬者); Xie Yiwu (謝夷吾); Yang You (楊由); Li Nan (李南); Li He (李合); Feng Zhou (馮冑); Duan Yi (段翳); Liao Fu (廖扶); Zhe Xiang (折像); Fan Ying (樊英)
Volume 82 (Part 2)卷八十二下 方術列傳 第七十二下Biographies of AlchemistsTang Tan (唐檀); Gongsha Mu (公沙穆); Xu Man (許曼); Zhao Yan (趙彥); Fan Zhizhang (樊志張); Shan Yang (單揚); Han Shuo (韓說); Dong Fu (董扶); Guo Yu (郭玉); Hua Tuo; Xu Deng (徐登); Fei Changfang (費長房); Ji Zixun (薊子訓); Liu Gen (劉根); Zuo Ci; Ji Zixun (計子勳); Wang Heping (王和平)
Volume 83卷八十三 逸民列傳 第七十三Biographies of HermitsXiang Chang (向長); Feng Meng (逢萌); Zhou Dang (周黨); Wang Ba (王霸); Yan Guang (嚴光); Jing Dan (井丹); Liang Hong (梁鴻); Gao Feng (高鳳); Tai Tong (台佟); Han Kang (韓康); Jiao Shen (矯慎); Dai Liang (戴良); Fa Zhen (法真); Pang Gong (龐公)
Volume 84卷八十四 列女傳 第七十四Biographies of Exemplary Women
Volume 85卷八十五 東夷列傳 第七十五Treatise on the DongyiFuyu; Yilou; Gaojuli; Woju; Huimo; Sanhan; Wo
Volume 86卷八十六 南蠻西南夷列傳 第七十六Treatise on the Nanman, Southwestern Barbarians
Volume 87卷八十七 西羌傳 第七十七Treatise on the Western QiangQiang
Volume 88卷八十八 西域傳 第七十八Treatise on the Western RegionsYutian; Tiaozhi; Anxi; Daqin; Yuezhi; Tianzhu; Yancai; Shule; Yanqi; Jushi
Volume 89卷八十九 南匈奴列傳 第七十九Treatise on the Southern Xiongnu
Volume 90卷九十 烏桓鮮卑列傳 第八十Treatise on the Wuhuan, Xianbei

Records (志)

Volume 91第一 律曆上One: Rhythm and the Calendar Part One
Volume 92第二 律曆中Two: Rhythm and the Calendar Part Two
Volume 93第三 律曆下Three: Rhythm and the Calendar Part Three
Volume 94第四 禮儀上Four: Etiquette Part One
Volume 95第五 禮儀中Five: Etiquette Part Two
Volume 96第六 禮儀下Six: Etiquette Part Three
Volume 97第七 祭祀上Seven: Rituals and Worship Part One
Volume 98第八 祭祀中Eight: Rituals and Worship Part Two
Volume 99第九 祭祀下Nine: Rituals and Worship Part Three
Volume 100第十 天文上Ten: Astronomy Part One
Volume 101第十一 天文中Eleven: Astronomy Part Two
Volume 102第十二 天文下Twelve: Astronomy Part Three
Volume 103第十三 五行一Thirteen: Five Elements Part One
Volume 104第十四 五行二Fourteen: Five Elements Part Two
Volume 105第十五 五行三Fifteen: Five Elements Part Three
Volume 106第十六 五行四Sixteen: Five Elements Part Four
Volume 107第十七 五行五Seventeen: Five Elements Part Five
Volume 108第十八 五行六Eighteen: Five Elements Part Six
Volume 109第十九 郡國一Nineteen: Commanderies and States Part One
Volume 110第二十 郡國二Twenty: Commanderies and States Part Two
Volume 111第二十一 郡國三Twenty One: Commanderies and States Part Three
Volume 112第二十二 郡國四Twenty Two: Commanderies and States Part Four
Volume 113第二十三 郡國五Twenty Three: Commanderies and States Part Five
Volume 114第二十四 百官一Twenty Four: Officials Part One
Volume 115第二十五 百官二Twenty Five: Officials Part Two
Volume 116第二十六 百官三Twenty Six: Officials Part Three
Volume 117第二十七 百官四Twenty Seven: Officials Part Four
Volume 118第二十八 百官五Twenty Eight: Officials Part Five
Volume 119第二十九 輿服上Twenty Nine: Records on Clothing Part One
Volume 120第三十 輿服下Thirty: Records on Clothing Part Two



  1. L.,, Tignor, Robert. Worlds together, worlds apart. Adelman, Jeremy,, Aron, Stephen,, Brown, Peter, 1935-, Elman, Benjamin A., 1946-, Liu, Xinru,, Pittman, Holly, (Fourth edition, [Two volume edition] ed.). New York. ISBN 0393922081. OCLC 870312289.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  2. Durrant, Stephen (2017). "Chapter 13: Histories (Shi 史)". The Oxford Handbook of Classical Chinese Literature (1000 BCE-900CE) (e-book ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 195–196.
  3. Hill (2015) Vol. I, pp. xvi - xviii.
  4. Hill (2015) Vol. I, pp. 11; 13; 27; 181; Vol. II, pp. 202-203.
  5. Hill (2015), Vol. I, p. 13.



Further reading

  • Yap, Joseph P. (2019). The Western Regions, Xiongnu and Han, from the Shiji, Hanshu and Hou Hanshu. ISBN 978-1792829154.
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