Bombardier Zefiro

Bombardier Zefiro is a family of high-speed passenger trains designed by Bombardier Transportation whose variants have top operating speeds of between 250 km/h (155 mph) and 380 km/h (236 mph).

Bombardier Zefiro 380
Width2.9 or 3.4 m (9 ft 6 in or 11 ft 2 in) [1][2]
Height3.890 m (12 ft 9.1 in)[1]
Wheel diameter915 mm (36.0 in)/835 mm (32.9 in) (new/worn)[1]
Wheelbase17.375 m (57.00 ft)
(between bogie centres)[1]
Maximum speed250 to 380 km/h (155 to 236 mph)[3]
Axle load16.5 t (16.2 long tons; 18.2 short tons)
Power supply(?)
Electric system(s)Overhead catenary
1.5 & 3 kV DC, 15 kV AC & 25 kV 50 Hz AC (any of)[1][3]
Current collection methodPantograph
UIC classificationBo'Bo'-2'2'-2'2'-Bo'Bo'-Bo'Bo'-2'2'-2'2'-Bo'Bo'
(300 km/h or 186 mph 8-car version)[1]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)

The family consists of: the Zefiro 250, which has a top operating speed of 250 km/h (155 mph) and which is for the moment wholly manufactured in China; the Zefiro 300, which has a top operating speed of 300 km/h (186 mph); and the Zefiro 380, which has a top operating speed of 380 km/h (236 mph).


Bombardier transportation and its predecessor companies produced a variety of high-speed trainsets,[4] as part collaborations with other conglomerates, such as the Intercity-Express family of locomotives[5] (Germany), AVE Class 102,[5] RENFE class 130 (Spain), ICN (Switzerland), the Acela express[5] (USA), and parts of the TGV Duplex, Eurostar, Thalys, and ETR 500[5] trainsets (Europe various).

Additionally the company has independently produced high-speed trainsets for specific markets, such as CRH1, "Xinshisu" (China), X 2000,[5] Regina (Sweden) and BM71 (Norway).[6]

In November 2005 Bombardier launched its general solution, the Zefiro single-deck train for high-speed rail lines, available in 4-, 8-,12- or 16-car sets,[4] capable of being configured for a variety of supply voltages,[3] and produced in either standard (2.9 m or 9 ft 6 in) or a wide (3.4 m or 11 ft 2 in) widths.[2]


The Zefiro trainset is a conventional (non-inter-coach articulated) single-deck electrical-multiple-unit high-speed train. It consists of powered and unpowered cars, with motorized power cars at either end.[4] Car bodies are constructed of aluminium, with the exception of the wide-bodied Zefiro 250 trains, which have stainless steel bodies. They have customisable open-plan layouts.[7]

Trains are made up of 4-car units, each of which contains a transformer and its own power supply. Typically, the end cars of each 4-car unit have powered bogies, with the two middle cars being unpowered. The pantograph is located on one of the unpowered cars.[1]

The specifications for all current designs (2009) describe asynchronous three-phase motors, with forced air cooling.[1] However, Bombardier also offers the option of permanent-magnet synchronous motors[8] (which it groups in its "ECO4" energy-saving technologies),[9] which were tested on modified Regina trains in 2008 on the "Green Train" (Swedish: Gröna Tåget).[10]


Zefiro 250

Zefiro 250
Formation8 or 16 cars (sleeper or seated)[11]
Capacity480 beds, 16 luxury beds, 122 seats (16-car sleeper version)[11]
Operator(s)Chinese Ministry of Railways
Car body constructionStainless steel carbody in wide profile[11]
Train length216 m (709 ft) (8 cars),
428.9 m (1,407 ft)(16 cars)[11]
Car length28.25 m (92.7 ft) (Cab cars), 26.6 m (87 ft 3 in)
(Intermediate cars)[11]
Width3.328 m (10 ft 11.0 in)[11]
Height4.04 m (13 ft 3 in)[11]
Maximum speed250 km/h (155 mph)[11]
Weight890 t (880 long tons; 980 short tons)
(16-car trainset)[11]
Axle load16.5 t (16.2 long tons; 18.2 short tons)
Power output13.5 MW (18,100 hp)
(for propulsion),
11 MW (15,000 hp) (CRH1E)[11]
TransmissionAC - AC
Acceleration0.6 m/s2 (2.0 ft/s2)[11]
Power supplyOverhead catenary
Electric system(s)25 kV 50 Hz AC[11]
Current collection methodPantograph
BogiesRegina type ("FLEXX link") with 2.7 m (8 ft 10 in) wheelbase[11]
Braking system(s)Electro-pneumatic, Regenerative
Multiple workingPossible for two 8-car trainsets, not possible for 16-car trainset[11]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge

The first variant of the Zefiro concept to be produced was a series of twenty 16-car EMU sleeper trains produced by Bombardier's joint venture Sifang Power (Qingdao) Transportation (BSP), which were delivered from 2009. These trains were the first high-speed trains license manufactured in China as well as the highest speed sleeper trains at that time.[5]

Under China railways use they are classified class CRH1E.[12]

Starting acceleration is greater than 0.6 m/s2 (2.0 ft/s2), with a 16-car train weight of 859 t (845 long tons; 947 short tons) and an axle load of 16.5 t (16.2 long tons; 18.2 short tons), bogie type is that found on the Regina (train) with 2.7 m (8 ft 10 in) wheelbase with 63% of axles motorized.[13]

In July 2010 The Ministry of Railways ordered 40 more 8-car 250 km/h (155 mph) CRH1E Zefiro high-speed trains from the Sifang (Qingdao) Transportation Ltd joint venture.[14]

In September 2012, based on a modified contract with Bombardier, The MOR ordered an additional 106 8-car trains, 60 of which are to be a new variant, designated the Zefiro 250NG. This variant is an evolution of the original, and will utilize different materials in order to provide weight savings and more efficient operation.[15]

Zefiro 300

Zefiro 300
Formationup to 16 cars[13]
Capacity600 seats (8 cars)[13]
1,200 seats (16 car)[13]
Car body constructionAluminium carbody, UIC profile[13]
Train length202 m (663 ft) (8-car train),
402 m (1,319 ft) (16-car train)[13]
Width2.924 m (9 ft 7.1 in)[16]
Height4.08 m (13 ft 5 in)
Floor height1.24 m (4 ft 1 in)
Doors28 total
Maximum speed360 to 400 km/h (224 to 249 mph)[13]
Weight(empty) 454 t (446.8 long tons; 500.4 short tons)
Axle load~17 t (16.7 long tons; 18.7 short tons).[13]
Traction systemIGBT Inverters and AC Asynchronous Motors
Power output9.8 MW (13,100 hp) (8-car train @300 km/h or 186 mph)[13]
Acceleration0.7 m/s2 (1.6 mph/s)[13]
Deceleration1.2 m/s2 (2.7 mph/s)
Power supplyOverhead catenary
Electric system(s)1.5 & 3 kV DC, 15 kV 16.7 Hz & 25 kV 50 Hz AC
Current collection methodPantograph
Bogies"FLEXX speed", 2.85 m (9 ft 4 in) wheelbase[13]
Braking system(s)Regenerative, Friction
Multiple workingPossible for two 8-car trainsets,
not possible for 16-car trainset[13]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)

The Zefiro 300 is intended for European operations, with a UIC profile, and capable of being fitted for use on all four European electrification schemes (1.5 & 3 kV DC, 15 & 25 kV AC). Bogies are FLEXX type with a 2.85 m (9 ft 4 in) wheelbase,[13] 50% of which are motorized. Starting acceleration is greater than 0.60 m/s2 (2.0 ft/s2). It has an axle load of approximately 17 t (16.7 long tons; 18.7 short tons).[13] Two 8-car sets can be joined together to form one longer train.[13]

A variant of the Zefiro 300 was offered by Bombardier in association with AnsaldoBreda to Trenitalia, the Italian national railway service, as part of a bid for 50 new high-speed trainsets in 2010.[17] Trenitalia selected this bid as the winner on 5 August 2010.[18] These entered service in 2015 and are designated ETR 1000.[19]

Zefiro 380

Zefiro 380
Entered service2012[3]
Formation8 or 16 cars[20]
Capacity664 seats (max) 8 car
1,336 seats (max) 16 car[20]
Operator(s)China Railway Corporation
Car body constructionAluminium carbody, wide profile[20]
Train length215.3 m (706 ft) (8 car)
428.1 m (1,405 ft) (16 car)[20]
Car length27.85 m (91 ft 4 in) (Cab car)
26.6 m (87 ft 3 in) (Intermediate car)[20]
Width3.4 m (11 ft 2 in)[20]
Height4.16 m (13 ft 8 in)[20]
Maximum speed380 km/h (236 mph)
Weight462 t (455 long tons; 509 short tons) (Empty)
1,088 t (1,071 long tons; 1,199 short tons) (Full axle load)[20]
Power output20 MW (26,800 hp) (16-car @380 km/h or 236 mph)
10 MW (13,400 hp) (8-car @380 km/h or 236 mph)[20]
TransmissionAC - AC
Acceleration0.48 m/s2 (1.6 ft/s2)[20]
Power supplyOverhead catenary
Electric system(s)25 kV 50 Hz AC
Current collection methodPantograph
UIC classificationBo′Bo′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′ (8 car set)
Bo′Bo′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′ (16 car set)
Bogies"FLEXX speed" with 2.7 m (8 ft 10 in) wheelbase[20]
Braking system(s)Regenerative and pneumatic
Multiple workingPossible for two 8-car trainsets, not possible for 16-car trainset[20]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge

In September 2009, Bombardier announced an order for eighty Zefiro 380 high-speed trains by the Chinese Ministry of Railways (MOR) to be produced at Bombardier's joint venture Sifang (Qingdao) Transportation Ltd. The order of twenty 8-car sets and sixty 16-car sets was estimated to be worth 27.4 billion RMB (approx €2.7 billion or $4 billion). The value of Bombardier's share is estimated at €1.3 billion. [21][22]

Under China railways use these trains have been designated CRH1C (8-car set) and CRH1D (16-car set).[12] which was in December 2010 revised to CRH380C and CRH380CL and once again to CRH380D (8-car set) & CRH380DL (16-car set) according to the new numbering system.[23]

As of the most recent news, the order has been amended to include only seventy 8-car sets, designated as the CRH380D. Orders for the 16-car DL sets were converted to D sets in late 2011.[15]

All the 85 trainsets have been delivered and are currently operated by Shanghai Railway Bureau & Chengdu Railway Bureau.

Zefiro Express

Swedish regional transport authority Västtrafik ordered 40 new trains in 2018, later increased to 45 trains, of a new model capable of 200 km/h. They will have three cars and be around 80 meters long. First delivery is planned to end of 2021.[24][25]

See also


  1. BOMBARDIER ZEFIRO High-speed Trains for 200 to 350 km/h Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine Bombardier zefiro technical description. via
  2. Bombardier launches high-speed train International Railway Journal, December 2005, via
  3. ZEFIRO high speed trains Project Overview Archived October 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  4. High speed from Bombardier – ZEFIRO (presentation) Flavio Canetti, Bombardier Transportation via
  5. Will Zefiro take high-speed forward? After years of collaboration in high-speed trains, Bombardier will soon launch its own dedicated train called Zefiro, and the company has high expectations of this exciting new design International Railway Journal, March 2008, via
  6. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-08-28. Retrieved 2009-10-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. Backgrounder: Bombardier Zefiro: The next step in very high-speed rail technology
  8. MITRAC Permanent Magnet Motor Archived October 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ECO4: Revolutionary Energy-Saving Technologies
  10. ECO4 – Now, More than Ever, the Climate is Right for Trains Archived October 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine page 5
  11. "ZEFIRO - High Speed Trains - Bombardier Transportation" (PDF).
  12. The New High Speed Superpower
  13. "ZEFIRO - High Speed Trains - Bombardier Transportation" (PDF).
  14. "Fourth order for CRH1 high speed trains". Railway Gazette International. 16 July 2010. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011.
  15. Ltd, DVV Media International. "Zefiro 250NG included in revised high speed train contract".
  16. "V300 Zefiro: A New Sense of Speed" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-16. Retrieved 2012-07-08.
  17. "AnsaldoBreda and Bombardier combine to offer V300 Zefiro". Railway Gazette International. 9 June 2010.
  18. "Trenitalia awards contract for 50 high speed trains". Railway Gazette International. 5 August 2010.
  19. "Railway Gazette: Trenitalia signs V300ZEFIRO high speed train contract". Retrieved 2010-10-01.
  20. Zefiro 380 Datasheet - Bombardier
  21. Bombardier Sifang Wins Contract to Build 80 Very High Speed Trains for China Market Wire, September 2009 via
  22. Bombardier Sifang Wins Contract to Build 80 Very High Speed Trains for China September 28, 2009 , press release
  23. Ministry of Railway, Passenger Division, Bulletin Nr. 807, 2010
  24. Västtrafik selects Bombardier to supply EMUs
  25. Bombardier's EMU for Västtrafik now has a name: Zefiro Express – 5 more ordered
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