Blue Angels

The Blue Angels is the United States Navy's flight demonstration squadron which was initially formed in 1946,[1] making it the second oldest formal aerobatic team (under the same name) in the world, after the French Patrouille de France formed in 1931. The Blue Angels' McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornets (numbered 1–6) are currently flown by five Navy demonstration pilots and one Marine Corps demonstration pilot.

Blue Angels
U.S. Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron
The Blue Angels F/A-18 Hornets "1–4" fly in a tight diamond formation, maintaining 18-inch (0.5 m) wing tip to canopy separation.
Active24 April 1946 – present
Country United States
Branch United States Navy
RoleAerobatic flight demonstration team
SizeNavy—12 officers
Marine Corps—four officers
Navy/Marine Corps—114 enlisted
Garrison/HQNAS Pensacola, Florida
NAF El Centro, California
Colors"Blue Angel" blue
"Insignia" yellow
Capt. Eric Doyle
Aircraft flown
three F/A-18A Hornets (single seat)
one F/A-18B Hornet (two seats)
10 F/A-18C Hornets (single seat)
two F/A-18D Hornets (two seats)
(Demonstrations use F/A-18C Hornets "1–6"; backup is F/A-18D Hornet "7")
TransportMarine Corps
one C-130J Super Hercules

The Blue Angels typically perform aerial displays annually in at least 60 shows at 30 locations throughout the United States and two shows at one location in Canada.[2] The "Blues" still employ many of the same practices and techniques used in the inaugural 1946 season. An estimated 11 million spectators view the squadron during air shows from March through November each year. Members of the Blue Angels team also visit more than 50,000 people in schools, hospitals, and community functions at air show cities.[3] Since 1946, the Blue Angels have flown for more than 505 million spectators.[4]

As of November 2011, the Blue Angels received $37 million annually out of the annual DoD budget.[5][6]


The mission of the United States Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron is "to showcase the pride and professionalism of the United States Navy and Marine Corps by inspiring a culture of excellence and service to country through flight demonstrations and community outreach."[3]

Air shows

The Blue Angels' current show season has 61 shows at 32 locations from the middle of March through the beginning of November 2019.[7] The "Blues" perform at both military and non-military airfields, and often over major U.S. cities and capitals such as the Chicago Air and Water Show, Cleveland's annual Labor Day Air Show, Jacksonville's Sea and Sky Spectacular, Milwaukee Air and Water Show, Oklahoma City's Star Spangled Salute Air Show, San Francisco's "Fleet Week" Maritime Festival, and Seattle's annual Seafair Festival.[8] A show is also performed annually each May for the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, including a flyover of graduation ceremonies. Canada is also included in the Blue Angels schedule for air shows, such as the Greenwood, Nova Scotia, Canada Air Show Atlantic.[9]

During their aerobatic demonstration, the Blues fly six F/A-18 Hornet aircraft, split into the Diamond Formation (Blue Angels 1 through 4) and the Lead and Opposing Solos (Blue Angels 5 and 6). Most of the show alternates between maneuvers performed by the Diamond Formation and those performed by the Solos. The Diamond, in tight formation and usually at lower speeds (400 mph), performs maneuvers such as formation loops, rolls, and transitions from one formation to another. The Solos showcase the high performance capabilities of their individual aircraft through the execution of high-speed passes, slow passes, fast rolls, slow rolls, and very tight turns. The highest speed flown during an air show is 700 mph (just under Mach 1) and the lowest speed is 120 mph.[3] Some of the maneuvers include both solo aircraft performing at once, such as opposing passes (toward each other in what appears to be a collision course) and mirror formations (back-to-back, belly-to-belly, or wingtip-to-wingtip, with one jet flying inverted). The Solos join the Diamond Formation near the end of the show for a number of maneuvers in the Delta Formation.

The parameters of each show must be tailored in accordance with local weather conditions at showtime: in clear weather the high show is performed; in overcast conditions a low show is performed, and in limited visibility (weather permitting) the flat show is presented. The high show requires at least an 8,000-foot (2,400 m) ceiling and visibility of at least 3 nautical miles (6 km) from the show's centerpoint. The minimum ceilings allowed for low and flat shows are 3,500 feet (~1 km) and 1,500 feet (460 m), respectively.[10]


The team flies the Boeing F/A-18 Hornet since 1986, which had served in the fleet and are constantly being maintained and updated to be combat-ready fighter aircraft.[11] Modifications to each F/A-18 include removal of the weapons and replacement with the tank that contains smoke-oil used in demonstrations, and outfitting with the control stick spring system for more precise aircraft control input. Control sticks are tensioned with 35 pounds (16 kg) of force installed on the control stick as to allow the pilot minimal room for uncommanded movement.

The show's narrator flies Blue Angel 7, a two-seat F/A-18D Hornet, to show sites. The Blues use this jet for backup, and to give demonstration rides to VIP civilians. Three backseats at each show are available; one of them goes to members of the press, the other two to "Key Influencers".[12] The No. 4 slot pilot often flies the No. 7 aircraft in Friday's "practice" shows.

The Blue Angels formerly used a United States Marine Corps Lockheed C-130T Hercules, nicknamed "Fat Albert", for their logistics, carrying spare parts, equipment, and to carry support personnel between shows. Beginning in 1975, "Bert" was used for Jet Assisted Take Off (JATO) and short aerial demonstrations just prior to the main event at selected venues, but the JATO demonstration ended in 2009 due to dwindling supplies of rockets.[13] "Fat Albert Airlines" flies with an all-Marine crew of three officers and five enlisted personnel. The current "Bert" (BUNO 164763) was retired from service in May 2019 with 30,000 flight hours. The Blue Angels will be replacing it with an Ex-RAF C-130J.[14]

In August 2018, Boeing was awarded a contract to convert nine single-seat F/A-18E Super Hornets and two F/A-18F two-seaters for Blue Angels use, the converted aircraft are due to be completed 2021.[15]

Team members

As of the 2019 season, there have been 267 demonstration pilots in the Blue Angels since their inception.[16] List of every Blue Angels team.

All team members, both officer and enlisted, pilots and staff officers, come from the ranks of regular Navy and United States Marine Corps units. The demonstration pilots and narrator are made up of Navy and USMC Naval Aviators. Pilots serve two to three years,[3] and position assignments are made according to team needs, pilot experience levels, and career considerations for members. Other officers in the squadron include a Naval Flight Officer who serves as the Events Coordinator, three USMC C-130 pilots, an Executive Officer, a Maintenance Officer, a Supply Officer, a Public Affairs Officer, an Administrative Officer, and a Flight Surgeon. Enlisted members range from E-4 to E-9 and perform all maintenance, administrative, and support functions. They serve three to four years in the squadron.[3] After serving with the squadron, members return to fleet assignments.

The officer selection process requires pilots and support officers (flight surgeon, events coordinator, maintenance officer, supply officer, and public affairs officer) wishing to become Blue Angels to apply formally via their chain-of-command, with a personal statement, letters of recommendation, and flight records. Navy and Marine Corps F/A-18 demonstration pilots and naval flight officers are required to have a minimum of 1,250 tactical jet hours and be carrier-qualified. Marine Corps C-130 demonstration pilots are required to have 1,200 flight hours and be an aircraft commander.[18]

Applicants "rush" the team at one or more airshows, paid out of their own finances, and sit in on team briefs, post-show activities, and social events. It is critical that new officers fit the existing culture and team dynamics. The application and evaluation process runs from March through early July, culminating with extensive finalist interviews and team deliberations. Team members vote in secret on the next year's officers. Selections must be unanimous. There have been female and minority staff officers as Blue Angel members,[19] including minority Blue Angel pilot Lt. Andre Webb on the 2018 team. Flight surgeons serve a two-year term. The flight surgeon provides team medical services, evaluates demonstration maneuvers from the ground, and participates in each post-flight debrief. The first female Blue Angel flight surgeon was Lt. Tamara Schnurr, who was a member of the 2001 team.[20]

The Flight Leader (No. 1) is the Commanding Officer and is always a Navy commander, who may be promoted to captain mid-tour if approved for captain by the selection board. Pilots of numbers 2–7 are Navy lieutenant commanders or lieutenants, or Marine Corps majors or captains. The No. 7 pilot narrates for a year, and then typically flies Opposing and then Lead Solo the following two years, respectively. The No. 3 pilot moves to the No. 4 (slot) position for his second year. Blue Angel No. 4 serves as the demonstration safety officer, due largely to the perspective he is afforded from the slot position within the formation, as well as his status as a second-year demonstration pilot.

Flight Leader/Commanding Officer

Captain Eric C. Doyle is the 37th Blue Angels Flight Leader/Commanding Officer.[21] He is from League City, Texas and graduated from Texas A&M with a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering in 1996. After college, Doyle went to Officer Candidate School in Pensacola, Florida, where he was commissioned as an ensign in the U.S. Navy in December 1996. Doyle became a naval aviator in 1999, and has accumulated more than 4,000 flight hours and has 750 carrier-arrested landings. He also is a graduate and former staff instructor at the Navy Fighter Weapons School (TOPGUN). He joined the Blue Angels in September 2017,[22] and took command of the squadron on 12 November for the 2018–2019 seasons.[23] His military awards include the following decorations: Meritorious Service Medal, seven Air Medals (Strike/Flight) with Combat "V", five Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medals with Combat "V", and Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal.

Training and weekly routine

Annual winter training takes place at NAF El Centro, California, where new and returning pilots hone skills learned in the fleet. During winter training, the pilots fly two practice sessions per day, six days a week, in order to fly the 120 training missions needed to perform the demonstration safely. Separation between the formation of aircraft and their maneuver altitude is gradually reduced over the course of about two months in January and February. The team then returns to their home base in Pensacola, Florida, in March, and continues to practice throughout the show season. A typical week during the season has practices at NAS Pensacola on Tuesday and Wednesday mornings. The team then flies to its show venue for the upcoming weekend on Thursday, conducting "circle and arrival" orientation maneuvers upon arrival. The team flies a "practice" airshow at the show site on Friday. This show is attended by invited guests but is often open to the general public. The main airshows are conducted on Saturdays and Sundays, with the team returning home to NAS Pensacola on Sunday evenings after the show. Monday is an off day for the Blues' demonstration pilots and road crew. Extensive aircraft maintenance is performed on Sunday evening and Monday by maintenance team members.

Pilots maneuver the flight stick with their right hand and operate the throttle with their left. They do not wear G-suits because the air bladders inside repeatedly deflate and inflate, interfering with that stability. To prevent blood from pooling in their legs, Blue Angel pilots have developed a method for tensing their muscles to prevent blood from pooling in their lower extremities, possibly rendering them unconscious.[24]



The Blue Angels were originally formed in April 1946 as the Navy Flight Exhibition Team.[25]

The Flight Exhibition Team was first introduced as the Blue Angels during an air show in July 1946.[26]

The first Blue Angels demonstration aircraft were navy blue (nearly black) with gold lettering. The current shades of blue and yellow were adopted when the first demonstration aircraft were transitioned from the Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat to the Grumman F8F-1 Bearcat in August 1946; the aircraft were an all-yellow scheme with blue markings during the 1949 show season.[27]

The original Blue Angels insignia or crest was designed in 1949, by Lt. Commander Raleigh "Dusty" Rhodes, their third Flight Leader and first jet fighter leader. The aircraft silhouettes change as the team changes aircraft.[1]

The Blue Angels transitioned from propeller-driven aircraft to blue and gold jet aircraft (Grumman F9F-2B Panther) in August 1949.[28]

The Blue Angels demonstration teams began wearing leather jackets and special colored flight suits with the Blue Angels insignia, in 1952. In 1953, they began wearing gold colored flight suits for the first show of the season and or to commemorate milestones for the flight demonstration squadron.[29][30][31][32]

The Navy Flight Exhibition Team was reorganized and commissioned the United States Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron on 10 December 1973.[33]


The Blue Angels were established as a Navy flight exhibition team on 24 April 1946 by order of Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Chester Nimitz to generate greater public support of naval aviation. To boost Navy morale, demonstrate naval air power, and maintain public interest in naval aviation, an underlying mission was to help the Navy generate public and political support for a larger allocation of the shrinking defense budget. Rear Admiral Ralph Davison personally selected Lieutenant Commander Roy Marlin "Butch" Voris, a World War II fighter ace, to assemble and train a flight demonstration team, naming him Officer-in-Charge and Flight Leader. Voris selected three fellow instructors to join him (Lt. Maurice "Wick" Wickendoll, Lt. Mel Cassidy, and Lt. Cmdr. Lloyd Barnard, veterans of the War in the Pacific), and they spent countless hours developing the show. The group perfected its initial maneuvers in secret over the Florida Everglades so that, in Voris' words, "if anything happened, just the alligators would know". The first four pilots and those after them, were and are some of the best and most experienced aviators in the Navy.[34]

The team's first demonstration with Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat aircraft took place before Navy officials on 10 May 1946, and was met with enthusiastic approval. The Blue Angels performed their first public flight demonstration from their first training base and team headquarters at Naval Air Station (NAS) Jacksonville, Florida, on 15 and 16 June 1946,[35] with three F6F-5 Hellcats (a fourth F6F-5 was held in reserve). On 15 June, Voris led the three Hellcats (numbered 1–3), specially modified to reduce weight and painted sea blue with gold leaf trim, through their inaugural 15-minute-long performance.[1] The team employed a North American SNJ Texan, painted and configured to simulate a Japanese Zero, to simulate aerial combat. This aircraft was later painted yellow and dubbed the "Beetle Bomb". This aircraft is said to have been inspired by one of the Spike Jones' Murdering the Classics series of musical satires, set to the tune (in part) of the William Tell Overture as a thoroughbred horse race scene, with "Beetle Bomb" being the "trailing horse" in the lyrics.

The team thrilled spectators with low-flying maneuvers performed in tight formations, and (according to Voris) by "keeping something in front of the crowds at all times. My objective was to beat the Army Air Corps. If we did that, we'd get all the other side issues. I felt that if we weren't the best, it would be my naval career." The Blue Angels' first public demonstration also netted the team its first trophy, which sits on display at the team's current home at NAS Pensacola. During an air show at Omaha, Nebraska on 19–21 July 1946, the Navy Flight Exhibition Team was introduced as the Blue Angels.[36] The name had originated through a suggestion by Right Wing Pilot Lt. Maurice "Wick" Wickendoll, after he had read about the Blue Angel nightclub in The New Yorker magazine. After ten appearances with the Hellcats, the Hellcats were replaced by the lighter, faster, and more powerful F8F-1 Bearcats on 25 August.[36] By the end of the year the team consisted of four Bearcats numbered 1–4 on the tail sections.

In May 1947, flight leader Lt. Cmdr. Bob Clarke replaced Butch Voris as the leader of the team. The team with an additional fifth pilot, relocated to Naval Air Station (NAS) Corpus Christ, Texas. On 7 June at Birmingham, Alabama, four F8F-1 Bearcats (numbered 1–4) flew in diamond formation for the first time which is now considered the Blue Angels' trademark. A fifth Bearcat was also added that year. A SNJ was used as a Japanese Zero for dogfights with the Bearcats in air shows.

In January 1948, Lt. Cmdr. Raleigh " Dusty" Rhodes took command of the Blue Angels team which was flying four Bearcats and a yellow painted SNJ with USN markings dubbed "Beetle Bomb"; the SNJ represented a Japanese Zero for the air show dogfights with the Bearcats. The name "Blue Angels" also was painted on the Bearcats.[37]

In 1949, the team acquired a Douglas R4D Skytrain for logistics to and from show sites. The team's SNJ was also replaced by another Bearcat, painted yellow for the air combat routine, inheriting the "Beetle Bomb" nickname. In May, the team went to the west coast on temporary duty so the pilots and rest of the team could become familiar with jet aircraft.[38] On 13 July, the team acquired, and began flying the straight-wing Grumman F9F-2B Panther between demonstration shows.[39] On 20 August, the team debuted the panther jets under Team Leader Lt. Commander Raleigh "Dusty" Rhodes[36] during an air show at Beaumont, Texas and added a 6th pilot.[40][41] The F8F-1 "Beetle Bomb" was relegated to solo aerobatics before the main show, until it crashed on takeoff at a training show in Pensacola on 24 April 1950, killing "Blues" pilot Lt. Robert Longworth. Team headquarters shifted from NAS Corpus Christi, Texas, to NAAS Whiting Field, Florida, on 10 September 1949, announced 14 July 1949.[42]


The Blues Angels pilots continued to perform nationwide in 1950. On 25 June, the Korean War started, and all Blue Angels pilots[43] volunteered for combat duty. The squadron (due to a shortage of pilots, and no available planes) and its members were ordered to "combat ready status" after an exhibition at Naval Air Station, Dallas, Texas on 30 July.[44] The Blue Angels were disbanded,[36] and its pilots were reassigned to a carrier. Once aboard the aircraft carrier USS Princeton on 9 November, the group formed the core of Fighter Squadron 191 (VF-19), "Satan's Kittens", under the command of World War II fighter ace and 1950 Blue Angels Commander/Flight Leader, Lt. Commander John Magda; he was killed in action on 8 March 1951.[45]

On 25 October 1951, the Blues were ordered to re-activate as a flight demonstration team, and reported to NAS Corpus Christi, Texas. Lt. Cdr. Voris was again tasked with assembling the team (he was the first of only two commanding officers to lead them twice). In May 1952, the Blue Angels began performing again with F9F-5 Panthers[46] at an airshow in Memphis, Tennessee.[47] In 1953, the team[48] traded its Sky Train for a Curtiss R5C Commando. In August, "Blues" leader LCDR Ray Hawkins became the first naval aviator to survive an ejection at supersonic speeds when a new F9F-6 he was piloting became uncontrollable on a cross-country flight.[49][50][51] After summer, the team began demonstrating with F9F-6 Panthers.

In 1954, the first Marine Corps pilot, Captain Chuck Hiett, joined the Navy's flight demonstration team.[52] The Blue Angels also received special colored flight suits.[36] In May, the Blue Angels performed at Bolling Air Force Base in Washington, D.C. with the Air Force Thunderbirds (activated 25 May 1953).[53] The Blue Angels began relocating to their current home at Naval Air Station (NAS) Pensacola, Florida that winter,[54] and it was here they progressed to the swept-wing Grumman F9F-8 Cougar. In December, the team left its home base for its first winter training facility at Naval Air Facility El Centro, California[55]

In September 1956, the team added a sixth aircraft to the flight demonstration in the Opposing Solo position,[56] and gave its first performance outside the United States at the International Air Exposition in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It also upgraded its logistics aircraft to the Douglas R5D Skymaster.

In 1957, the Blue Angels transitioned from the F9F-8 Cougar to the supersonic Grumman F11F-1 Tiger.[57] The first demonstration was flying the short-nosed version on 23 March, at Barin Field, Pensacola, and then the long-nosed versions. The demonstration team (with added Angel 6) wore gold flight suits during the first air show that season.

In 1958, the first Six-Plane Delta Maneuvers were added that season.


In July 1964, the Blue Angels participated in the Aeronaves de Mexico Anniversary Air Show over Mexico City, Mexico, before an estimated crowd of 1.5 million people.

In 1965, the Blue Angels conducted a Caribbean island tour, flying at five sites. Later that year, they embarked on a European tour to a dozen sites, including the Paris Air Show, where they were the only team to receive a standing ovation.

In 1967, the Blues toured Europe again, at six sites.

In 1968, the C-54 Skymaster transport aircraft was replaced with a Lockheed VC-121J Constellation. The Blues transitioned to the two-seat McDonnell Douglas F-4J Phantom II in 1969, nearly always keeping the back seat empty for flight demonstrations. The Phantom was the only plane to be flown by both the "Blues" and the United States Air Force Thunderbirds (the "Birds"). That year they also upgraded to the Lockheed C-121 Super Constellation for logistics.


In 1970, the Blues received their first U.S. Marine Corps Lockheed KC-130F Hercules, manned by an all-Marine crew. That year, they went on their first South American tour.

In 1971, the team which wore the gold flight suits for the first show,[58] conducted its first Far East Tour, performing at a dozen locations in Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Guam, and the Philippines.

In 1972, the Blue Angels were awarded the Navy's Meritorious Unit Commendation for the two-year period from 1 March 1970 to 31 December 1971. Another European tour followed in 1973, including air shows in Tehran, Iran, England, France, Spain, Turkey, Greece, and Italy.

On 10 December 1973, the Navy Flight Exhibition Team was reorganized and commissioned the United States Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron.[59][60] The Blues mission was more on Navy recruiting.

In 1974, the Blue Angels transitioned to the new Douglas A-4F Skyhawk II. Navy Commander Anthony Less became the squadron's first "commanding officer" and "flight leader". A permanent flight surgeon position and administration officer was added to the team.[61][62] The squadron's mission was redefined by Less to further improve the recruiting effort.


In 1986, LCDR Donnie Cochran, joined the Blue Angels as the first African-American Naval Aviator to be selected.[63][64] He served for two more years with the squadron flying the left wingman position in the No. 3 A-4F fighter, and returned to command the Blue Angels in 1995 and 1996.[65]

On 8 November 1986, the Blue Angels completed their 40th anniversary year during ceremonies unveiling their present aircraft, the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet. The power and aerodynamics of the Hornet allows them to perform a slow, high angle of attack "tail sitting" maneuver, and to fly a "dirty" (landing gear down) formation loop.[66][67]


In 1992, the Blue Angels deployed for a month-long European tour, their first in 19 years, conducting shows in Sweden, Finland, Russia (first foreign flight demonstration team to perform there), Romania, Bulgaria, Italy, the United Kingdom, and Spain.

In 1998, CDR Patrick Driscoll made the first "Blue Jet" landing on a "haze gray and underway" aircraft carrier, USS Harry S. Truman (CVN-75).

On 8 October 1999, the Blue Angels lost two pilots. LCDR Kieron O'Connor and LT Kevin Colling were returning from a practice flight before an air show when their F/A-18B crashed in a wooded area of south Georgia.[68]


In 2000, the Navy was conducting investigations in regard and connected to the loss of two Blue Angels pilots in October 1999. The pilots of the F/A-18 Hornet were not required to wear and do not wear g-suits.

In 2006, the Blue Angels marked their 60th year of performing.[69] On 30 October 2008, a spokesman for the team announced that the team would complete its last three performances of the year with five jets instead of six. The change was because one pilot and another officer in the organization had been removed from duty for engaging in an "inappropriate relationship". The Navy said one of the individuals was a man and the other a woman, one a Marine and the other from the Navy, and that Rear Admiral Mark Guadagnini, chief of Naval air training, was reviewing the situation.[70] At the next performance at Lackland Air Force Base following the announcement the No. 4 or slot pilot, was absent from the formation. A spokesman for the team would not confirm the identity of the pilot removed from the team.[71] On 6 November 2008 both officers were found guilty at an admiral's mast on unspecified charges but the resulting punishment was not disclosed.[72] The names of the two members involved were later released on the Pensacola News Journal website/forum as pilot No. 4 USMC Maj. Clint Harris and the administrative officer, Navy Lt. Gretchen Doane.[73]

On 21 April 2007, pilot Kevin "Kojak" Davis was killed and eight people on the ground were injured when Davis lost control of the No. 6 jet and crashed due to G-force-induced Loss Of Consciousness (G-LOC) during an air show at the Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort in Beaufort, South Carolina.

The Fat Albert performed its final JATO demonstration at the 2009 Pensacola Homecoming show, expending their eight remaining JATO bottles. This demonstration not only was the last JATO performance of the squadron, but also the final JATO use of the U.S. Marine Corps.[74]

In 2009, the Blue Angels were inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame at the San Diego Air & Space Museum.[75]


On 22 May 2011, the Blue Angels were performing at the Lynchburg Regional Airshow in Lynchburg, Virginia, when the Diamond formation flew the Barrel Roll Break maneuver at an altitude lower than the required minimum.[76] The maneuver was aborted, the remainder of the demonstration canceled and all aircraft landed safely. The next day, the Blue Angels announced that they were initiating a safety stand-down, canceling their upcoming Naval Academy Airshow and returning to their home base in Pensacola, Florida, for additional training and airshow practice.[77] On 26 May, the Blue Angels announced they would not be flying their traditional fly-over of the Naval Academy Graduation Ceremony and that they were canceling their 28–29 May 2011 performances at the Millville Wings and Wheels Airshow in Millville, New Jersey.

On 27 May 2011, the Blue Angels announced that Commander Dave Koss, the squadron's Commanding Officer, would be stepping down. He was replaced by Captain Greg McWherter, the team's previous Commanding Officer.[78] The squadron canceled performances at the Rockford, Illinois Airfest 4–5 June and the Evansville, Indiana Freedom Festival Air Show 11–12 June to allow additional practice and demonstration training under McWherter's leadership.[78]

On 29 July 2011, a new Blue Angels Mustang GT was auctioned off for $400,000 at the Experimental Aircraft Association AirVenture Oshkosh (Oshkosh Air Show) annual summer gathering of aviation enthusiasts from 25 to 31 July in Oshkosh, Wisconsin which had an attendance of 541,000 persons and 2,522 show planes.[79][80]

Between 2 and 4 September 2011 on Labor Day weekend, the Blue Angels flew for the first time with a fifty-fifty blend of conventional JP-5 jet fuel and a camelina-based biofuel at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland.[81][82] McWherter flew an F/A-18 test flight on 17 August and stated there were no noticeable differences in performance from inside the cockpit.[83][84]

On 1 March 2013, the U.S. Navy announced that it was cancelling remaining 2013 performances after 1 April 2013 due to sequestration budget constraints.[85][86][87] In October 2013, Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel, stating that "community and public outreach is a crucial Departmental activity", announced that the Blue Angels (along with the U.S. Air Force's Thunderbirds) would resume appearing at air shows starting in 2014, although the number of flyovers will continue to be severely reduced.[88]

On 15 March 2014, the demonstration pilots numbered 1–7 wore gold flight suits to celebrate the team's "return to the skies" during their first air show of the season;[89] there were only three air shows in 2013.

In June 2014, Captain Greg McWherter, flight leader of the Blue Angels for 2008-2010 and 2011-2012, received letter of reprimand from Adm. Harry Harris after an admiral's mast for "failing to stop obvious and repeated instances of sexual harassment, condoning widespread lewd practices within the squadron and engaging in inappropriate and unprofessional discussions with his junior officers" during his second tour with the team.[90]

In July 2014, Marine Corps Capt. Katie Higgins, 27, became the first female pilot to join the Blue Angels.[91][92] In July 2015, Cmdr Bob Flynn became the Blue Angels' first Executive Officer.

In July 2016, Boeing was awarded a $12 million contract to begin an engineering proposal for converting the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet for Blue Angels use, with the proposal to be completed by September 2017.[93]

In 2019, there are 61 air shows scheduled, from 16 March at the annual air show in Naval Air Facility (NAF) El Centro, California, through 8–9 November at two Homecoming air shows in Naval Air Station (NAS), Pensacola, Florida.[94]

Aircraft timeline

The "Blues" have flown eight different demonstration aircraft and six support aircraft models:[95][96]

Demonstration aircraft
  1. Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat: June – August 1946
  2. Grumman F8F-1 Bearcat: August 1946 – 1949
  3. Grumman F9F-2 Panther: 1949 – June 1950 (first jet); F9F-5 Panther: 1951 – Winter 1954/55
  4. Grumman F9F-8 Cougar: Winter 1954/55 – mid-season 1957 (swept-wing)
  5. Grumman F11F-1 (F-11) Tiger: mid-season 1957 – 1968 (first supersonic jet)
  6. McDonnell Douglas F-4J Phantom II: 1969 – December 1974
  7. Douglas A-4F Skyhawk: December 1974 – November 1986
  8. McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B/C/D Hornet (F/A-18B/D are #7 aircraft): November 1986 – present; Transition to F/A-18E/F planned for 2021
Support aircraft
  1. JRB Expeditor (Beech 18): 1949–?
  2. Douglas R4D-6 Skytrain: 1949–1955
  3. Curtiss R5C Commando: 1953
  4. Douglas R5D Skymaster: 1956–1968
  5. Lockheed C-121 Super Constellation: 1969–1973
  6. Lockheed C-130 Hercules "Fat Albert": 1970–2019
Miscellaneous aircraft
  1. North American SNJ Texan "Beetle Bomb" (used to simulate a Japanese A6M Zero aircraft in demonstrations during the late 1940s)
  2. Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star (Used during the 1950s as a VIP transport aircraft for the team)
  3. Vought F7U Cutlass (two of the unusual F7Us were received in late 1952 and flown as a side demonstration during the 1953 season but they were not a part of their regular formations which at the time used the F9F Panther. Pilots and ground crew found it unsatisfactory and plans to use it as the team's primary aircraft were cancelled).

Air show routine

This Blue Angels show routine was used in 2017.

  • Fat Albert (C-130)—high-performance takeoff (Low Transition)
  • Fat Albert—Parade Pass (The plane banks around the front of the crowd.)
  • Fat Albert—Flat Pass
  • Fat Albert—Head on Pass
  • Fat Albert—Short-Field Assault Landing
  • FA-18 Engine Start-Up and Taxi Out
  • Diamond Takeoff—either a low transition with turn, a loop on takeoff, a Half Cuban Eight takeoff, or a Half Squirrel Cage
  • Solos Take Off—No. 5 Dirty Roll on Takeoff; No. 6 Low Transition to High Performance Climb
  • Diamond 360—Aircraft 1, 2, 3 and 4 in their signature 18-inch wingtip-to-canopy diamond formation
  • Opposing Knife Edge Pass
  • Diamond Roll—entire diamond formation rolls as a single entity
  • Opposing Inverted to Inverted Rolls
  • Diamond Aileron Roll—all four diamond jets perform simultaneous aileron rolls
  • Fortus—Solos flying in carrier landing configuration with No. 5 inverted, establishing a "mirror image" effect
  • Diamond Dirty Loop—the diamond flies a loop with all four jets in carrier landing configuration
  • Minimum Radius Turn—highest G maneuver (No. 5 flies a "horizontal loop" pulling seven Gs to maintain a tight radius.)
  • Double Farvel—diamond formation flat pass with No. 1 and No. 4 inverted
  • Opposing Minimum Radius Turn
  • Echelon Parade
  • Opposing Horizontal Rolls
  • Left Echelon Roll—a roll into the Echelon, which is somewhat difficult for the outside aircraft
  • Sneak Pass—the fastest speed of the show, just under Mach 1 (about 700 mph at sea level) Video
  • Line-Abreast Loop—the most difficult formation maneuver to do well (No. 5 joins the diamond as the five jets fly a loop in a straight line.)
  • Opposing Four Point Hesitation Roll
  • Vertical Break
  • Opposing Vertical Pitch
  • Barrel Roll Break
  • Tuck Over Roll
  • Low Break Cross
  • Section High-Alpha Pass: (tail sitting), the show's slowest maneuver[97][98]
  • Diamond Burner 270
  • Delta Roll
  • Fleur de Lis
  • Solos Pass to Rejoin, Diamond flies a loop
  • Loop Break Cross—Delta Break (After the break the aircraft separate in six different directions, perform half Cuban Eights then cross in the center of the performance area.)
  • Delta Breakout
  • Delta Pitch Up Carrier Break to Land

Team accidents, deaths

A total of 26 Blue Angels pilots and one crew member have died in Blue Angels history.[99][100]


1946–2016 (20 pilots, one crew member)
  • Lt. Ross "Robby" Robinson—29 September 1946: killed during a performance when a wingtip broke off his F8F-1 Bearcat, sending him into an unrecoverable spin.
  • Lt. Bud Wood—7 July 1952: killed when his F9F-5 Panther collided with another panther jet during a demonstration in Corpus Christi, Texas.[101] The team resumed performances two weeks later.
  • Cmdr. Robert Nicholls Glasgow—14 October 1958: died during an orientation flight just days after reporting for duty as the new Blue Angels leader.[102]
  • Lt. Anton M. Campanella (#3 Left Wing)—14 June 1960: killed flying an Grumman F-11A Tiger that crashed into the water near Fort Morgan, Alabama during a test flight.[103]
  • Lt. George L. Neale—15 March 1964: killed during an attempted emergency landing at Apalach Airport near Apalachicola, Florida. Lt. Neale's F-11A Tiger had experienced mechanical difficulties during a flight from West Palm Beach, to Naval Air Station Pensacola, causing him to attempt the emergency landing. Failing to reach the airport, he ejected from the aircraft on final approach, but his parachute did not have sufficient time to fully deploy.[104]
  • Lt. Cmdr. Dick Oliver—2 September 1966: crashed his F-11A Tiger and was killed at the Canadian International Air Show in Toronto.
  • Lt Frank Gallagher—1 February 1967: killed when his F-11A Tiger stalled during a practice Half Cuban Eight maneuver and spun into the ground.
  • Capt. Ronald Thompson—18 February 1967: killed when his F-11A Tiger struck the ground during a practice formation loop.
  • Lt. Bill Worley (Opposing Solo)—14 January 1968: killed when his Tiger crashed during a practice double Immelmann.
  • Lt. Larry Watters—14 February 1972: killed when his F-4J Phantom II struck the ground, upright, while practicing inverted flight, during winter training at NAF El Centro.
  • Lt. Cmdr. Skip Umstead (Team Leader), Capt. Mike Murphy, and ADJ1 Ron Thomas (Crew Chief)—26 July 1973: all three were killed in a mid-air collision between two Phantoms over Lakehurst, New Jersey, during an arrival practice. The rest of the season was cancelled after this incident.
  • Lt. Nile Kraft (Opposing Solo)—22 February 1977: killed when his Skyhawk struck the ground during practice.
  • Lt. Michael Curtin—8 November 1978: one of the solo Skyhawks struck the ground after low roll during arrival maneuvers at Naval Air Station Miramar, and Curtin was killed.
  • Lt. Cmdr Stu Powrie (Lead Solo)—22 February 1982: killed when his Skyhawk struck the ground during winter training at Naval Air Facility El Centro, California, just after a dirty loop.
  • Lt. Cmdr. Mike Gershon (Lead Solo)—13 July 1985: his Skyhawk collided with Lt. Andy Caputi (Opposing Solo) during a show at Niagara Falls, Gershon was killed and Caputi ejected and parachuted to safety.[105]
  • Lt. Cmdr. Kieron O'Connor and Lt. Kevin Colling—28 October 1999: flying in the back seat and front seat of a Hornet, both were killed after striking the ground during circle and arrival maneuvers in Valdosta, Georgia.[106]
  • Lt. Cmdr. Kevin J. Davis—21 April 2007: crashed his Hornet near the end of the Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort airshow in Beaufort, South Carolina, and was killed.[107]
  • Capt. Jeff "Kooch" Kuss (Opposing Solo, #6)—2 June 2016: died just after takeoff while performing the Split-S maneuver in his F/A-18 Hornet during a practice run for The Great Tennessee Air Show in Smyrna, Tennessee. The Navy investigation found that Capt. Kuss had performed the maneuver too low while failing to retard the throttle out of afterburner, causing him to fall too fast and recover too low above the ground. Capt. Kuss ejected, but his parachute was immediately engulfed in flames, causing him to fall to his death. Kuss' body was recovered multiple yards away from the crash site. The cause of death was blunt force trauma to the head. The investigation also cited weather and pilot fatigue as additional causes to the crash.[108] In a strange twist, Captain Kuss' fatal crash happened hours after the Blue Angels' fellow pilots in the United States Air Force Thunderbirds suffered a crash of their own, following the United States Air Force Academy graduation ceremony earlier that day.[109]

Other incidents

  • Lt. John R. Dewenter—2 August 1958: landed wheels up at Buffalo Niagara International Airport after experiencing engine troubles during a show in Clarence, New York. The Grumman F-11 Tiger landed on Runway 23, but exited airport property, coming to rest in the intersection of Genesee Street and Dick Road, nearly hitting a filling station. Lt. Dewenter was uninjured, but the plane was a total loss.
  • Lt. Ernie Christensen—30 August 1970: belly-landed his F-4J Phantom at The Eastern Iowa Airport in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, after he inadvertently left the landing gear in the up position.[110] He ejected safely, while the aircraft slid off the runway.
  • Cmdr. Harley Hall—4 June 1971: safely ejected after his F-4J Phantom jet caught fire during practice over NAS Quonset Point in North Kingstown, Rhode Island, and crashed in Narragansett Bay.[111]
  • Capt. John Fogg, Lt. Marlin Wiita, and Lt. Cmdr. Don Bentley—8 March 1973: all three survived a multi-aircraft mid-air collision during practice over Superstition Mountain, near El Centro, California.
  • Lt. Jim Ross (Lead Solo)—April 1980: unhurt when his Skyhawk suffered a fuel line fire during a show at Roosevelt Roads Naval Station, Puerto Rico. Lt. Ross stayed with the plane and landed, leaving the end of the runway and rollng into the woods after a total hydraulic failure upon landing.
  • Lt. Dave Anderson (Lead solo)—12 February 1987: ejected from his Hornet after a dual engine flame-out during practice near El Centro, California.
  • Marine Corps Maj. Charles Moseley and Cmdr. Pat Moneymaker—23 January 1990: their Blue Angel Hornets suffered a mid-air collision during a practice at El Centro. Moseley ejected safely and Moneymaker was able to land his airplane, which then required a complete right wing replacement.[112]
  • Lt. Ted Steelman—1 December 2004: ejected from his F/A-18 approximately one mile off Perdido Key after his aircraft struck the water, suffering catastrophic engine and structural damage. He suffered minor injuries.[113]

Combat casualties

Four former Blue Angels pilots have been killed in action or died in a war. All four were Blue Angels during the war they later died in.[114]

Korean War

  • Commander John Magda—8 March 1951: Blue Angels (1949, 1950; Commander/Flight Leader 1950): Magda was killed after his F9F-2B Panther was hit by antiaircraft fire while leading a low-level strike mission against North Korean and Chinese communist positions at Tanchon which earned him the Navy Cross during the Korean War.[115] He also was a fighter ace in World War II.

Vietnam War

  • Commander Herbert P. Hunter—19 July 1967: Blue Angels (1957–1959; Lead Solo pilot): Hunter was hit by antiaircraft fire in North Vietnam and crashed died in his F-8E Crusader during the Vietnam war.[116][117][118] He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross posthumously for actions on 16 July 1967. He also was a Korean War veteran.
  • Captain Clarence O. Tolbert—6 November 1972: Blue Angels (1968): Tolbert was flying a Corsair II (A-7B) during a mission in North Vietnam and was hit by antiaircraft fire, crashed, and died during his second tour in the Vietnam war. He was awarded the Silver Star and Distinguished Flying Cross for his service.[119][120]
  • Captain Harley H. Hall—27 January 1973: Blue Angels (1970–1971; Commander/Team Leader 1971): Hall and his co-pilot were shot down by antiaircraft fire in South Vietnam flying their F-4J Phantom II on the last day of the Vietnam War, and they both were officially listed as prisoners of war. In 1980, Hall was presumed to have died while captured.[121][122][123][124]

In the media

  • The Blue Angels was a dramatic television series, starring Dennis Cross and Don Gordon, inspired by the team's exploits and filmed with the cooperation of the Navy. It aired in syndication from 26 September 1960 to 3 July 1961.[125]
  • The Blue Angels were the subject of "Flying Blue Angels", a pop song recorded by George, Johnny and the Pilots (Coed Co 555), that debuted on Billboard Magazine's "Bubbling Under the Hot 100" chart on 11 September 1961.
  • Threshold: The Blue Angels Experience is a 1975 documentary film, written by Dune author Frank Herbert, featuring the team in practice and performance during their F-4J Phantom era; many of the aerial photography techniques pioneered in Threshold were later used in the film Top Gun.[126]
  • To Fly!, a short IMAX film featured at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum since its 1976 opening features footage from a camera on a Blue Angels A4 Skyhawk tail as the pilot performs in a show.
  • In 2005, the Discovery Channel aired a documentary miniseries, Blue Angels: A Year in the Life, focusing on the intricate day-to-day details of that year's training and performance schedule.[127][128]
  • The video for the American rock band Van Halen's 1986 release "Dreams" consists of Blue Angels performance footage. The video was originally shot featuring the Blues in the A-4 Skyhawk. A later video features the F/A-18 Hornet.
  • The Blue Angels appeared in the episodes "Death Begins at Forty" and "Insult to Injury" of Tim Allen's television sitcom Home Improvement as themselves.
  • The Blue Angels made a brief appearance on I Love Toy Trains part 3.
  • The Blue Angels were featured in the IMAX film Magic of Flight.
  • In 2009, the MythBusters enlisted the aid of Blue Angels to help test the myth that a sonic boom could shatter glass.[129]
  • The Blue Angels are a major part of the novel Shadows of Power by James W. Huston.[130]
  • Blue Angels and the Thunderbirds is a four-disc SkyTrax DVD set © 2012 TOPICS Entertainment, Inc. It features highlights from airshows performed in the United States shot from inside and outside the cockpit including interviews of squadron aviators, plus aerial combat footage taken during Desert Storm, histories of the two flying squadrons from 1947 through 2008 including on-screen notes on changes in Congressional budgeting and research program funding, photo gallery slide shows, and two "forward-looking" sequences Into the 21st Century detailing developments of the F/A-18 Hornet's C and E and F models (10 min.) and footage of the F-22 with commentary (20 min.).
  • In the television micro-series Star Wars: Clone Wars, Anakin Skywalker's starfighter is named Azure Angel, after the Blue Angels team.[131]
  • In My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic, the Wonderbolts are based on the Blue Angels.[132]
Today is a very special and memorable day in your military career that will remain with you throughout your lifetime. You have survived the ultimate test of your peers and have proven to be completely deserving to wear the crest of the U.S. Navy Blue Angels. The prestige of wearing the Blue Angels uniform carries with it an extraordinary honor—one that reflects not only on you as an individual, but on your teammates and the entire squadron. To the crowds at the air shows and to the public at hospitals and schools nationwide, you are a symbol of the Navy and Marine Corps' finest. You bring pride, hope and a promise for tomorrow's Navy and Marine Corps in the smiles and handshakes of today's youth. Remember today as the day you became a Blue Angel; look around at your teammates and commit this special bond to memory. "Once a Blue Angel, always a Blue Angel," rings true for all those who wear the crest of the U.S. Navy Blue Angels. Welcome to the team.

The Blue Angels Creed, written by JO1 Cathy Konn 1991–1993[133]

Notable Blue Angels

See also


  1. "History of the Blue Angels". Blue Angels official site.
  2. "Show Information And Schedules, 2019 Show Schedule". Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  3. "Blue Angels: Frequently Asked Questions". Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  4. Atkeison, Charles (2018). "Navy's Blue Angels Announce New Pilots, Officers for 2019". AVGEEKERY.COM. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  5. "Blue Angels fly into age of budget woes". USA Today. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
  6. "Blue Angels FAQ". Archived from the original on 4 April 2012.
  7. "Show Information And Schedules, 2019 Show Schedule". Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  8. "US Navy Blue Angels 2018 Airshow Schedule Released". AirshowStuff. 4 December 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  9. "US Navy Blue Angels 2018 Airshow Schedule Released". AirshowStuff. 4 December 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  10. "What determines high show vs. low show for Blue Angels? | Seattle". 6 August 2010. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2012.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  11. "U.S. Navy's Blue Angels to receive newer and larger F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet". Aviation, News. 14 August 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  12. "Flights with the Blue Angels". 7 October 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  13. McCullough, Amy (9 November 2009). "Abort Launch: Air shows to do without Fat Albert's famed JATO". Marine Corps Times. Gannett Company. p. 6.
  14. Melissa Nelson Gabriel (24 June 2019). "Navy buys new Fat Albert for Blue Angels from British Royal Air Force". Pensacola News Journal.
  15. Garrett Reim (15 August 2018). "Boeing to convert F/A-18 E/Fs into Blue Angels".
  16. U.S. Navy Blue Angels | Frequently Asked Questions, #9, last updated 17 March 2019.
  17. "Official Blue AngelsWebpage". Archived from the original on 23 November 2016.
  18. "Gosport article, March 02, 2012, "Blue Angels Seek Officer Applicants", page 2" (PDF). Gosport NAS Pensacola Base Newspaper.
  19. "Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron Pilots, 2000 Season". Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  20. "Blue Angels Alumni 2001". Archived from the original on 4 October 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  21. "Frequently Asked Questions, #9". U.S. Navy Blue Angels. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  22. "Blue Angels webpage, Officers". Archived from the original on 23 November 2016.
  23. Gabriel, Melissa Nelson (12 November 2017). "Cmdr. Eric Doyle takes command of U.S. Navy Blue Angels from Capt. Ryan Bernacchi". pensacola news journal. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  24. "Blue Angels Frequently Asked Questions". Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  25. "Flight Teams, 1946". Blue Angels Association. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  26. "Blue Angels History". Aerobatic Teams. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  27. Campbell, War Paint, p. 171.
  28. "Flight Teams, 1949". Blue Angels Association. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  29. "Flight Teams, yearly photos". Blue Angels Association. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  30. "Wearing Gold: The Blue Angels Return To The Skies. March 16, 2014". Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  31. "US Navy Blue Angels 1st Air Show in 2014 on March 15 at El Centro California". YouTube. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  32. "Harley Hall:Vietnam POW (wearing BA gold flight suit-1971)". OPB TV/Radio. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  33. "History Of The Blue Angels/Significant Events in Blue Angels History, 1970s". United States Navy Blue Angels. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  34. "Blue Angels Article, August 1955". Naval Aviation News. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  35. "Blue Angels Article, August 1955". Naval Aviation News. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  36. "Blue Angels History". Aerobatic Teams. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  37. Kula, Ken (24 March 2019). "Seventy Years Strong: The U.S. Navy's Blue Angels". PHOTORECON, online Magazine. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  38. "Blue Angels Article, August 1955". Naval Aviation News. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  39. "Blue Angels". Military in Pensacola. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  40. "Raleigh Dusty Rhodes". gettyimages. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  41. "Flight Teams, 1949". Blue Angels Association. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  42. Fort Walton, Florida, "'Blue Angels' To Pensacola—Navy Flight Exhibition Team Is Transferred", Playground News, Thursday 14 July 1949, Volume 4, Number 24, page 2.
  43. "Flight Teams, 1950 (Flight Leader John Magda, 2nd from right)". Blue Angels Association. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  44. "Blue Angels Article, August 1955". Naval Aviation News. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  45. Johnny Magda
  46. "Flight Teams, 1952". Blue Angels Association. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  47. "Blue Angels Article, August 1955". Naval Aviation News. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  48. "Flight Teams, 1953". Blue Angels Association. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  49. "2005". Archived from the original on 27 May 2006. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  50. Wilcox, R.K. (2004). First Blue: The Story of World War II Ace Butch Voris and the Creation of the Blue Angels. St. Martin's Press. pp. 2–237. ISBN 9780312322496. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  51. "Blue Angel Ejects at High Speed", Naval Aviation News October 1952, republished at
  52. "Flight Teams, 1954, 1955". Blue Angels Association. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  53. Dorr, Robert F. (11 October 2011). "The Blue Angels: A 65 Year History". DefenseMediaNetwork. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  54. Gall, Sandy. "How well do you know the Blue Angels?". CHIPS: the Department of the Navy's Information Technology Magazine. Department of the Navy. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  55. "History Of The Blue Angels, 1950s". United States Navy Blue Angels. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  56. "Flight Teams, 1956". Blue Angels Association. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  57. "Flight Teams, 1957". Blue Angels Association. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  58. "Flight Teams, 1971". Blue Angels Association. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  59. "History Of The Blue Angels". United States Navy Blue Angels. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  60. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2012. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  61. "History Of The Blue Angels/Significant Eveents in Blue Angels History, 1970s". United States Navy Blue Angels. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  62. "Blue Angels Flight Demonstration Team". 11 November 2016. Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  63. Gosa, Jon. "Former Blue Angels pilot tells what inspired him to fly". Albany Herald. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  64. "Flight Teams, 1986–1888". Blue Angels Association. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  65. "Flight Teams, 1995, 1996". Blue Angels Association. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  66. Kelly, Orr (24 June 2014). Hornet: The Inside Story of the F/A-18. Open Road Media. ISBN 9781497645677.
  67. Chakraborty, Abhijit; Seiler, Peter; Balas, Gary (10 August 2009). "Applications of Linear and Nonlinear Robustness Analysis Techniques to the F/A-18 Flight Control Laws". AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference. Reston, Virigina: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi:10.2514/6.2009-5675. ISBN 9781600869785.
  68. McIntyre, Jamie. "Blue Angel crash victims identified". CNN. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  69. "Blue Angels Monumental Moments". Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  70. Moon, Troy (31 October 2008). "Blues Angels Pilot, Other Grounded". Pensacola News Journal. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 4 November 2008.
  71. Griggs, Travis (2 November 2008). "No. 4 jet missing from Blue Angels". Pensacola News Journal. Archived from the original on 27 April 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2008.
  72. Scutro, Andrew, "2 Blue Angels found guilty, await punishment Archived 21 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine", Military Times, 8 November 2008.
  73. "A (Potentially) Disgraced Angel (updated)",
  74. "End of JATO for Blue Angels!",, November 2009
  75. International Air & Space Hall of Fame San Diego Air & Space Museum
  76. horsemoney (25 May 2011). "Blue Angels Lynchburg Va. 2011 was this the problem formation?" via YouTube.
  77. Blue Angels Cancel Naval Academy Airshow Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  78. "Blue Angels commander steps down after subpar performance". CNN. 27 May 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
  79. "EAA Airventure Oshkosh 2011 Facts and Figures". AVIATIONPROS. 2 August 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  80. "One-Off "Blue Angels" Ford Mustang Auctioned at Air Show". Carscoops. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  81. "Blue Angels Use Biofuel At Patuxent Air Show—Aero-News Network". 6 September 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  82. John Pike (9 January 2011). "Blue Angels to Soar on Biofuel During Labor Day Weekend Air Show". Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  83. Austell, Jason (1 September 2011). "Blue Angels Go Green". NBC San Diego. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  84. "Blue Angels Use Biofuel at Patuxent Air Show". 7 September 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  85. Military spending cuts ground Blue Angels, Thunderbirds 1 March 2013 NBC News
  86. U.S. Navy Cancels Blue Angels 2013 Performances 10 April 2013, U.S. Navy
  87. "U.S. Navy Cancels Blue Angels 2013 Performances" (PDF). 9 April 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 April 2013.
  88. "Thunderbirds, Blue Angels to Resume Air Shows". ABC News.
  89. "Wearing Gold: The Blue Angels Return To The Skies (March 16, 2014)". Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  90. "Former Blue Angels CO reprimanded for 'toxic' climate". Navy Times. 3 June 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
  91. Pope, Stephen (24 July 2014). "First Female Pilot Joins Blue Angels". Flying. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2015 via
  92. Prudente, Tim (6 May 2015). "Breaking a gender barrier at 370 mph: Severna Park pilot becomes first woman to fly with elite Blue Angels". Baltim. Sun. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  93. "Contracts for July 25, 2016". U.S. Department of Defense. 25 July 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  94. "Show Information And Schedules, 2019 Show Schedule". Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  95. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  96. Dorr, Robert F. (31 October 2011). "The Blue Angels: 1965 Year History". DefenseMediaNetwork. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  97. Blue Angels FAQ Archived 4 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  98. Video
  99. "History OF The Blue Angels". Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  100. Smyrna Blue Angels fatal crash one of few in history; last in '07, Tennessean, 2 June 2016
  101. "History of the Blue Angels". Aerobatic Teams. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  102. Blue Angels crash artifacts found 50 years later, Associated Press, 3 March 2009 Archived 10 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  103. "History of the Blue Angels". Aerobatic Teams. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  104. Basham, Dusty, "Blue Angel Pilot Killed—Jet Fighter Falls Near Apalachicola", Playground Daily News, Fort Walton Beach, Florida, Monday Morning, 16 March 1964, Volume 18, Number 27, pages 1, 2.
  105. ""Navy Blue Angel Aviators Die in Crash", 28 October 1999, accessed 23 April 2007". Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  106. ""Blue Angel crash victims identified", CNN, 28 October 1999, accessed 23 April 2007". CNN. 28 October 1999. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  107. U.S. Navy "Blue Angels" jet crashes. Reuters
  108. "Botched Maneuver Caused Blue Angels Pilot's Death: Investigation". Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  109. "Blue Angels pilot killed in Tennessee crash". CNN. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  111. "Narragansett Bay—June 4, 1971 (May 30, 2015)". New England Aviation History. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  112. Clausen, Christopher (13 June 1990). "Pilot Blamed In Blue Angel Crash". Pensacola News Journal. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  113. ""Blue Angels Pilot Ejects Before Plane Crashes", Fox News, 2 December 2004, accessed 23 April 2007". Fox News. 1 December 2011. Archived from the original on 11 December 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  114. "Flight Teams, 1949–1973 photos". Blue Angels Association. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  115. D'Costa, Ian (11 April 2015). "When the Blue Angels Went to War". TACAIRNET. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  116. Herbert Hunter
  117. Moon, Troy (3 July 2017). "Pensacola son remembers father—a Navy pilot and Blue Angel—50 year after tragic death". pensacola news journal. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  118. "Herbert Perry Hunter". Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, The Wall Of Faces. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  119. Clarence Tolbert
  120. "Clarence O. Tolbert". Veterans Tribute. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  121. Harley Hall
  122. "Harley Hubert Hall". The Virtual Wall, Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  123. "Harley Hall:Vietnam POW (wearing gold flight suit-1971)". OPB TV/Radio. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  124. "Hall, Harley Hubert". POW Network. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  125. "The Blue Angels". 26 September 1960 via IMDb.
  126. "Threshold: The Blue Angels Experience". 1 September 1975 via IMDb.
  127. Blue Angels: A Year in the Life Archived 11 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  128. ""Blue Angels: A Year in the Life" (2005)". Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  129. "Mythbusters Episode Features Blue Angels, June 10th—Aero-News Network".
  130. "Shadows of Power". Archived from the original on 24 August 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
  131. "Star Wars: Blogs—Keeper of the Holocron's Blog—The Blue Angels/Star Wars connection". 1 March 2009. Archived from the original on 1 March 2009.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  132. "Jayson Thiessen (@goldenrusset)". Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  133. Beare, Scott (2007). The power of teamwork : inspired by the Blue Angels. Naperville, IL: Simple Truths. ISBN 978-1-60810-037-8.
  134. "Combat pilot in two wars led Blue Angels". Los Angeles Times. 7 December 2007. Archived from the original on 6 February 2008. Retrieved 13 December 2007.

Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.