# Bell polynomials

In combinatorial mathematics, the **Bell polynomials**, named in honor of Eric Temple Bell, are used in the study of set partitions. They are related to Stirling and Bell numbers. They also occur in many applications, such as in the Faà di Bruno's formula.

## Bell polynomials

### Exponential Bell polynomials

The *partial* or *incomplete* exponential Bell polynomials are a triangular array of polynomials given by

where the sum is taken over all sequences *j*_{1}, *j*_{2}, *j*_{3}, ..., *j*_{n−k+1} of non-negative integers such that these two conditions are satisfied:

The sum

is called the *n*th **complete exponential Bell polynomial**.

### Ordinary Bell polynomials

Likewise, the partial *ordinary* Bell polynomial, in contrast to the usual exponential Bell polynomial defined above, is given by

where the sum runs over all sequences *j*_{1}, *j*_{2}, *j*_{3}, ..., *j*_{n−k+1} of non-negative integers such that

The ordinary Bell polynomials can be expressed in the terms of exponential Bell polynomials:

In general, Bell polynomial refers to the exponential Bell polynomial, unless otherwise explicitly stated.

## Combinatorial meaning

The exponential Bell polynomial encodes the information related to the ways a set can be partitioned. For example, if we consider a set {A, B, C}, it can be partitioned into two non-empty, non-overlapping subsets, which is also referred to as parts or blocks, in 3 different ways:

- {{A}, {B, C}}
- {{B}, {A, C}}
- {{C}, {B, A}}

Thus, we can encode the information regarding these partitions as

Here, the subscripts of *B*_{3,2} tells us that we are considering the partitioning of set with 3 elements into 2 blocks. The subscript of each *x*_{i} indicates the presence of block with *i* elements (or block of size *i*) in a given partition. So here, *x*_{2} indicates the presence of a block with two elements. Similarly, *x*_{1} indicates the presence of a block with a single element. The exponent of *x*_{i}^{j} indicates that there are *j* such blocks of size *i* in a single partition. Here, since both *x*_{1} and *x*_{2} has exponent 1, it indicates that there is only one such block in a given partition. The coefficient of the monomial indicates how many such partitions there are. For our case, there are 3 partitions of a set with 3 elements into 2 blocks, where in each partition the elements are divided into two blocks of sizes 1 and 2.

Since any set can be divided into a single block in only one way, the above interpretation would mean that *B*_{n,1} = *x*_{n}. Similarly, since there is only one way that a set with *n* elements be divided into *n* singletons, *B*_{n,n} = *x*_{1}^{n}.

As a more complicated example, consider

This tells us that if a set with 6 elements is divided into 2 blocks, then we can have 6 partitions with blocks of size 1 and 5, 15 partitions with blocks of size 4 and 2, and 10 partitions with 2 blocks of size 3.

The sum of the subscripts in a monomials is equal to the total number of elements. Thus, the number of monomials that appear in the partial Bell polynomial is equal to the number of ways the integer *n* can be expressed as a summation of *k* positive integers. This is the same as the integer partition of *n* into *k* parts. For instance, in the above examples, the integer 3 can be partitioned into two parts as 2+1 only. Thus, there is only one monomial in *B*_{3,2}. However, the integer 6 can be partitioned into two parts as 5+1, 4+2, and 3+3. Thus, there are three monomials in *B*_{6,2}. Indeed, the subscripts of the variables in a monomial are the same as those given by the integer partition, indicating the sizes of the different blocks. The total number of monomials appearing in a complete Bell polynomial *B _{n}* is thus equal to the total number of integer partitions of

*n*.

Also the degree of each monomial, which is the sum of the exponents of each variable in the monomial, is equal to the number of blocks the set is divided into. That is, *j*_{1} + *j*_{2} + ... = *k* . Thus, given a complete Bell polynomial *B _{n}*, we can separate the partial Bell polynomial

*B*by collecting all those monomials with degree

_{n,k}*k*.

Finally, if we disregard the sizes of the blocks and put all *x*_{i} = *x*, then the summation of the coefficients of the partial Bell polynomial *B*_{n,k} will give the total number of ways that a set with *n* elements can be partitioned into *k* blocks, which is the same as the Stirling numbers of the second kind. Also, the summation of all the coefficients of the complete Bell polynomial *B _{n}* will give us the total number of ways a set with

*n*elements can be partitioned into non-overlapping subsets, which is the same as the Bell number.

In general, if the integer *n* is partitioned into a sum in which "1" appears *j*_{1} times, "2" appears *j*_{2} times, and so on, then the number of partitions of a set of size *n* that collapse to that partition of the integer *n* when the members of the set become indistinguishable is the corresponding coefficient in the polynomial.

### Examples

For example, we have

because there are

- 6 ways to partition a set of 6 as 5 + 1,
- 15 ways to partition a set of 6 as 4 + 2, and
- 10 ways to partition a set of 6 as 3 + 3.

Similarly,

because there are

- 15 ways to partition a set of 6 as 4 + 1 + 1,
- 60 ways to partition a set of 6 as 3 + 2 + 1, and
- 15 ways to partition a set of 6 as 2 + 2 + 2.

## Properties

### Generating function

The exponential partial Bell polynomials can be defined by the double series expansion of its generating function:

In other words, by what amounts to the same, by the series expansion of the *k*-th power:

The complete exponential Bell polynomial is defined by , or in other words:

Thus, the *n*-th complete Bell polynomial is given by

Likewise, the *ordinary* partial Bell polynomial can be defined by the generating function

Or, equivalently, by series expansion of the *k*-th power:

See also generating function transformations for Bell polynomial generating function expansions of compositions of sequence generating functions and powers, logarithms, and exponentials of a sequence generating function. Each of these formulas is cited in the respective sections of Comtet.[1]

### Recurrence relations

The complete Bell polynomials can be recurrently defined as

with the initial value .

The partial Bell polynomials can also be computed efficiently by a recurrence relation:

where

The complete Bell polynomials also satisfy the following recurrence differential formula:[2]

### Stirling numbers and Bell numbers

The value of the Bell polynomial *B*_{n,k}(*x*_{1},*x*_{2},...) on the sequence of factorials equals an unsigned Stirling number of the first kind:

The value of the Bell polynomial *B*_{n,k}(*x*_{1},*x*_{2},...) on the sequence of ones equals a Stirling number of the second kind:

The sum of these values gives the value of the complete Bell polynomial on the sequence of ones:

which is the *n*th Bell number.

### Inverse relations

If we define

then we have the inverse relationship

### Touchard polynomials

Touchard polynomial can be expressed as the value of the complete Bell polynomial on all arguments being *x*:

### Convolution identity

For sequences *x*_{n}, *y*_{n}, *n* = 1, 2, ..., define a sort of convolution by:

The bounds of summation are 1 and *n* − 1, not 0 and *n* .

Let be the *n*th term of the sequence

Then[3]

For example, let us compute . We have

and thus,

## Other identities

- which gives the Lah number.
- which gives the idempotent number.
- The complete Bell polynomials satisfy the binomial type relation:

This corrects the omission of the factor in Comtet's book.[4]

- When ,

- Special cases of partial Bell polynomials:

## Examples

The first few complete Bell polynomials are:

## Applications

### Faà di Bruno's formula

Faà di Bruno's formula may be stated in terms of Bell polynomials as follows:

Similarly, a power-series version of Faà di Bruno's formula may be stated using Bell polynomials as follows. Suppose

Then

In particular, the complete Bell polynomials appear in the exponential of a formal power series:

which also represents the exponential generating function of the complete Bell polynomials on a fixed sequence of arguments .

### Reversion of series

Let two functions *f* and *g* be expressed in formal power series as

such that *g* is the compositional inverse of *f* defined by *g*(*f*(*w*)) = *w* or *f*(*g*(*z*)) = *z*. If *f*_{0} = 0 and *f*_{1} ≠ 0, then an explicit form of the coefficients of the inverse can be given in term of Bell polynomials as[5]

with and is the rising factorial, and

### Asymptotic expansion of Laplace-type integrals

Consider the integral of the form

where (*a*,*b*) is a real (finite or infinite) interval, λ is a large positive parameter and the functions *f* and *g* are continuous. Let *f* have a single minimum in [*a*,*b*] which occurs at *x* = *a*. Assume that as *x* → *a*^{+},

with *α* > 0, Re(*β*) > 0; and that the expansion of *f* can be term wise differentiated. Then, Laplace–Erdelyi theorem states that the asymptotic expansion of the integral *I*(*λ*) is given by

where the coefficients *c _{n}* are expressible in terms of

*a*and

_{n}*b*using partial

_{n}*ordinary*Bell polynomials, as given by Campbell–Froman–Walles–Wojdylo formula:

### Symmetric polynomials

The elementary symmetric polynomial and the power sum symmetric polynomial can be related to each other using Bell polynomials as:

These formulae allow one to express the coefficients of monic polynomials in terms of the Bell polynomials of its zeroes. For instance, together with Cayley–Hamilton theorem they lead to expression of the determinant of a *n* × *n* square matrix *A* in terms of the traces of its powers:

### Cycle index of symmetric groups

The cycle index of the symmetric group can be expressed in terms of complete Bell polynomials as follows:

### Moments and cumulants

The sum

is the *n*th raw moment of a probability distribution whose first *n* cumulants are *κ*_{1}, ..., *κ*_{n}. In other words, the *n*th moment is the *n*th complete Bell polynomial evaluated at the first *n* cumulants. Likewise, the *n*th cumulant can be given in terms of the moments as

### Hermite polynomials

The probabilists' Hermite polynomials can be expressed in terms of Bell polynomials as

where *x*_{i} = 0 for all *i* > 2; thus allowing for a combinatorial interpretation of the coefficients of the Hermite polynomials. This can be seen by comparing the generating function of the Hermite polynomials

with that of Bell polynomials.

### Representation of polynomial sequences of binomial type

For any sequence *a*_{1}, *a*_{2}, …, *a*_{n} of scalars, let

Then this polynomial sequence is of binomial type, i.e. it satisfies the binomial identity

**Example:**For*a*_{1}= … =*a*_{n}= 1, the polynomials represent Touchard polynomials.

More generally, we have this result:

**Theorem:**All polynomial sequences of binomial type are of this form.

If we define a formal power series

then for all *n*,

## Software

Bell polynomials are implemented in:

## See also

## Notes

- Comtet 1974.
- Alexeev, Pologova & Alekseyev 2017, sect. 4.2.
- Cvijović, Djurdje (September 2011). "New identities for the partial Bell polynomials".
*Applied Mathematics Letters*.**24**(9): 1544–1547. doi:10.1016/j.aml.2011.03.043. - Comtet 1974, identity [3l"] on p. 136.
- Charalambides 2002, p. 437, Eqn (11.43).

## References

- Abbas, M.; Bouroubi, S. (2005). "On new identities for Bell's polynomial".
*Discrete Math*.**293**(1–3): 5–10. doi:10.1016/j.disc.2004.08.023. MR 2136048. - Alexeev, N.; Pologova, A.; Alekseyev, M. A. (2017). "Generalized Hultman Numbers and Cycle Structures of Breakpoint Graphs".
*Journal of Computational Biology*.**24**(2): 93–105. arXiv:1503.05285. doi:10.1089/cmb.2016.0190. PMID 28045556. - Andrews, G. E. (1998).
*The Theory of Partitions*. Cambridge Mathematical Library (1st pbk ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 204–211. ISBN 0-521-63766-X. - Bell, E. T. (1927–1928). "Partition Polynomials".
*Annals of Mathematics*.**29**(1/4): 38–46. doi:10.2307/1967979. JSTOR 1967979. MR 1502817. - Boyadzhiev, K. N. (2009). "Exponential Polynomials, Stirling Numbers, and Evaluation of Some Gamma Integrals".
*Abstract and Applied Analysis*.**2009**: 1–18. arXiv:0909.0979. Bibcode:2009AbApA2009....1B. doi:10.1155/2009/168672. (contains also elementary review of the concept Bell-polynomials) - Charalambides, C. A. (2002).
*Enumerative Combinatorics*. Chapman & Hall / CRC. p. 632. ISBN 9781584882909. - Comtet, L. (1974).
*Advanced Combinatorics: The Art of Finite and Infinite Expansions*. Dordrecht, Holland / Boston, U.S.: Reidel Publishing Company. - Griffiths, M. (2012). "Families of sequences from a class of multinomial sums".
*Journal of Integer Sequences*.**15**: Article 12.1.8. MR 2872465. - Kruchinin, V. V. (2011). "Derivation of Bell Polynomials of the Second Kind". arXiv:1104.5065 [math.CO].
- Noschese, S.; Ricci, P. E. (2003). "Differentiation of Multivariable Composite Functions and Bell Polynomials".
*Journal of Computational Analysis and Applications*.**5**(3): 333–340. doi:10.1023/A:1023227705558. - Roman, S. (2013).
*The Umbral Calculus*. Dover Publications. p. 208. ISBN 9780486153421. - Voinov, V. G.; Nikulin, M. S. (1994). "On power series, Bell polynomials, Hardy–Ramanujan–Rademacher problem and its statistical applications".
*Kybernetika*.**30**(3): 343–358. ISSN 0023-5954.