Bauchi State

Bauchi, usually referred to as Bauchi State to distinguish it from the city of Bauchi, is a state in northern Nigeria. Its capital is the city of Bauchi. The state was formed in 1976 when the former North-Eastern State was broken up. It originally included the area now in Gombe State, which became a distinct state in 1996.

Bauchi State
Location of Bauchi State in Nigeria
Coordinates: 10°30′N 10°00′E
Country Nigeria
Date created3 February 1976
  Governor[1]Bala Mohammed (PDP)
  Deputy GovernorBaba Tela[2]
  • Jika Dauda Halliru
  • Adamu Mohammed Bulkachuwa
  • [3]
  Total49,119 km2 (18,965 sq mi)
Area rank5th of 36
 (2006 census)
  Rank7th of 36
  Density95/km2 (250/sq mi)
  Total$4.71 billion[4]
  Per capita$983[4]
Time zoneUTC+01 (WAT)
ISO 3166 codeNG-BA
HDI (2016)0.323[5] · 34th of 36

The Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University is located in the capital city Bauchi. Other educational institutions located in the state include Bauchi State University, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic [6] and Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.


What is now known as Bauchi was until 1976 a province in the then North-Eastern State of Nigeria. According to the 2006 census, the state has a population of 4,653,066.

Bauchi State has gone through tremendous transformation over the years. The Ajawa language was spoken in Bauchi State, but became extinct between 1920 and 1940 as speakers switched to Hausa.[7]

During the colonial era up to independence, it formed part of the Bauchi Plateau of the then Northern Region, until the 1967 state creation exercise, when the Bauchi, Borno, and Adamawa provinces constituted the former North-Eastern State.

With the creation of Bauchi State in 1976, then comprising present Bauchi and Gombe states, it included 16 local government areas. The number of local government areas in the then Bauchi State was increased to 20 and later to 23. However, in 1997 when Gombe State was created out of Bauchi and additional local governments were created in the country, Bauchi State was left with 20 local government areas as shown below.

Sharia law was adopted in June 2001.[8]

Local Government Areas

Bauchi State consists of twenty (20) Local Government Areas (LGAs). They are:

LGA Area (km2) Census 2006
Administrative capital Postal
Bauchi 3,687 493,810 Bauchi 740
Tafawa Balewa 2,515 219,988 Bununu 740
Dass 535 89,943 Dass 740
Toro 6,932 350,404 Toro 740
Bogoro 894 84,215 Bogoro 741
Ningi 4,625 387,192 Ningi 742
Warji 625 114,720 Warji 742
Ganjuwa 5,059 280,468 Kafin Madaki 742
Kirfi 2,371 147,618 Kirfi 743
Alkaleri 5,918 329,424 Alkaleri 743
Southern region totals 33,161 2,497,782
Darazo 3,015 251,597 Darazo 750
Misau 1,226 263,487 Misau 750
Giade 668 156,969 Giade 750
Shira 1,321 234,014 Yana 750
Jama'are 493 117,883 Jama'are 751
Katagum 1,436 295,970 Azare 751
Itas/Gadau 1,398 229,996 Itas 751
Zaki 1,476 191,457 Katagum 752
Gamawa 2,925 286,388 Gamawa 752
Damban 1,077 150,922 Damban 752
Northern region totals 15,035 2,178,683


Bauchi State occupies a total land area of 49,119 km2 (18,965 sq mi) representing about 5.3% of Nigeria’s total land mass and is located between latitudes 9° 3' and 12° 3' north and longitudes 8° 50' and 11° east.

The state is bordered by seven states, Kano and Jigawa to the north, Taraba and Plateau to the south, Gombe and Yobe to the east and Kaduna to the west.

Bauchi state is one of the states in the northern part of Nigeria that span two distinctive vegetation zones, namely, the Sudan savannah and the Sahel savannah. The Sudan savannah type of vegetation covers the southern part of the state. Here, the vegetation gets richer and richer towards the south, especially along water sources or rivers, but generally the vegetation is less uniform and grasses are shorter than what grows even farther south, that is, in the forest zone of the middle belt.

The Sahel type of savannah, also known as semi-desert vegetation, becomes manifest from the middle of the state as one moves from the state's south to its north. This type of vegetation comprises isolated stands of thorny shrubs.

On the other hand, the southwestern part of the state is mountainous as a result of the continuation of the Jos Plateau, while the northern part is generally sandy.

The vegetation types as described above are conditioned by the climatic factors, which in turn determine the amount of rainfall received in the area. For instance, the rainfall in Bauchi state ranges between 1,300 millimetres (51 in) per annum in the south and only 700 millimetres (28 in) per annum in the extreme north. This pattern is because in the West Africa sub-region, rains generally come from the south as they are carried by the southwesterlies. There is therefore a progressive dryness towards the north, culminating in the desert condition in the far north. So also is the case in Bauchi state.

Consequently, rains start earlier in the southern part of the state, where rain is heaviest and lasts longer. Here the rains start in April with the highest record amount of 1,300 millimetres (51 in) per annum. In contrast, the northern part of the state receives the rains late, usually around June or July, and records the highest amount of 700 millimetres (28 in) per annum.

In the same vein, the weather experienced in the south and the north varies considerably. While it is humidly hot during the early part of the rainy season in the south, the hot, dry and dusty weather lingers up north.

In addition to rainfall, Bauchi state is watered by a number of rivers. They include the Gongola and Jama'are rivers.

The Gongola River crosses Bauchi state in Tafawa Balewa Local Government Area in the south and in Kirfi and Alkaleri Local Government Areas in the eastern part of the state, while the Jama’are River cuts across a number of Local Government Areas in the northern part of the state. Moreover, a substantial part of the Hadeja-Jama'are River basin lies in Bauchi state, which along with various fadama (floodplain) areas in the state provides suitable land for agricultural activities. These are further supported by the number of dams meant for irrigation and other purposes. These include the Gubi and Tilde-Fulani dams. There also lakes such as the Maladumba Lake in Misau Local Government Area that further provide the necessary conditions to support Agriculture.


Bauchi State has a total of 55 tribal groups in which Gerawa, Sayawa, Jarawa, Kirfawa, Turawa Bolewa, Karekare, Kanuri, Fa'awa, Butawa, Warjawa, Zulawa, Boyawa MBadawa, Hausa and Fulani are the main tribes. This means that they have backgrounds, occupational patterns, beliefs and many other things that form part of the existence of the people of the state.

There are cultural similarities in the people's language, occupational practices, festivals, dress and there is a high degree of ethnic interaction especially in marriage and economic existence. Some of the ethnic groups have joking relationships that exist between them, e.g. Fulani and Kanuri, Jarawa and Sayawa, etc.


According to tradition, it was named for a hunter known as Baushe, who settled in the region before the arrival of Yakubu, the first traditional ruler of Bauchi emirate (founded 1800–10).[9]

In Hausa the word Bauchi means the land of freedom and tourism.[10] Bauchi and Adamawa were the two main sources of freedom and tourism for the Fulani empire of Sokoto.[11]

See also


  1. See List of Governors of Bauchi State for a list of prior governors
  2. "Bauchi State Government (BASG), Nigeria – Official Website". Archived from the original on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  4. "C-GIDD (Canback Global Income Distribution Database)". Canback Dangel. Archived from the original on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 2008-08-20.
  5. "National Human Development Report 2018" (PDF).
  6. "Bauchi poly secures accreditation for 53 courses". The Nation. 16 January 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  7. Ajawa language at Ethnologue
  8. "Issue Paper:Nigéria / Protection offerte par l'état". Research Directorate of the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, April 2003. Archived from the original on 20 March 2005. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
  9. "Bauchi - state, Nigeria". Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  10. Johnston, Hugh A.S. (1967). The Fulani Empire of Sokoto. Oxford University Press. p. 87. ISBN 0-19-215428-1.
  11. Johnston, Hugh A.S. (1967). The Fulani Empire of Sokoto. Oxford University Press. p. 161. ISBN 0-19-215428-1.

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