Battle of San Pasqual
The Battle of San Pasqual, also spelled San Pascual, was a military encounter that occurred during the Mexican–American War in what is now the San Pasqual Valley community of the city of San Diego, California. The series of military skirmishes ended with both sides claiming victory, and the victor of the battle is still debated. On December 6 and December 7, 1846, General Stephen W. Kearny's US Army of the West, along with a small detachment of the California Battalion led by a Marine Lieutenant, engaged a small contingent of Californios and their Presidial Lancers Los Galgos (The Greyhounds), led by Major Andrés Pico. After U.S. reinforcements arrived, Kearny's troops were able to reach San Diego.
Following a clash of U.S. forces with Mexican forces near the Rio Grande, Colonel Stephen Watts Kearny was promoted to a brigadier general and tasked with multiple objectives to include the seizure of New Mexico and California, establish civilian government within seized territories, disrupt trade, and to "act in such a manner as best to conciliate the inhabitants, and render them friendly to the United States". Kearny's initial force consisted of 300 regular army soldiers, 1,000 volunteers from Missouri, and the Mormon Battalion. From Fort Leavenworth, via Bent's Fort, Kearny had New Mexico capitulate without violent conflict. While in Sante Fe, Kearny established Fort Marcy, named after the Secretary of War William L. Marcy, who had ordered Kearny's force westward.
En route from New Mexico, Kearny's force interacted with the Apache and Maricopa tribes, and captured a Mexican courier with news of American activities in California, with the news stating the Californios had capitulated. Forces under Commodore Sloat had taken control a significant portion of Alta California. Kearny had orders to assume command of U.S. forces in California with his, but sent back most of his force after meeting up with Kit Carson near Socorro on 6 Oct. and hearing of the seizure of California by Commodore Robert F. Stockton, Kearny keeping only Companies C & K, 1st Dragoons, about 100 men.:137 Kearny, at that time with a force of 300 men, learning of escalating issues with the Navajo, and with the belief a smaller force could move faster, ordered 200 back to Santa Fe. Kearny's force, guided by Carson, reached Warner's Ranch in California on 2 Dec., in a greatly weakened condition.:187 They had just completed a 2,000 mile march; the longest march in U.S. Army history; the force was travel weary and mounted mules and half-broken horses which were rounded up around Warner Ranch that were owned by California Capt. Jose Maria Flores.
General Kearny's Army, most originating from Fort Scott:
- Captain Abraham Robinson Johnston – regimental adjutant, Company K, 12 mounted dragoons
- Captain Benjamin (Ben) Daviess Moore – Company C, 60 dismounted dragoons, some mounted on mules
- Captain Henry Smith Turner – Kearny's Army of the West Adjutant general
- Lieutenant William H. Emory – Chief Topographical Engineer, Corps of Topographical Engineers
- Lieutenant William H. Warner – Corps of Topographical Engineers, commanding four topographical engineering "mountainmen" Peterson, Londeau, Perrot, and Private Francois Menard
- Lieutenant John W. Davidson – commanded 2 howitzers and 6 dragoons placed at the rear of the advance
- Second Lieutenant Thomas (Tom) C. Hammond – aide-de-camp
- Major Swords – assistant quartermaster – rear guard for baggage train, officers' personal slaves, and civilians
- U.S. Army Surgeon (Captain) Dr. John S. Griffin
- Enlisted men:
- Judge Pearce (Kearny's personal bodyguard), Sergeant Williams, Pat Halpin (bugler), Sergeant Falls, Sergeant John Cox, Private William B. Dunne, Private David Streeter, Private James Osbourne, (Private) Dr. Erasmus Darwin French (physician assistant)
- Company C: Corporal William C. West, Private George Ashmead, Private Joseph T. Campbell, Private John Dunlop,:346 Private William Dalton,:346 Private William C. Leckey,:346 Private Samuel F. Repoll,:346 Private Joseph B. Kennedy,
- Company K: 1st Sergeant Otis L. Moor, Sergeant William Whitness,:346 Corporal George Ramsdale,:346 farrier David W. Johnston,:346 Private William G. Gholston,:346 Private William H. Fiel,:346 Private Robert S. Gregory,:346 Private Hugh McKaffray
After turning back the Americans trying to recapture Los Angeles in the Battle of Dominguez Rancho, Capt. Jose Maria Flores sent about 100 men to San Luis Obispo to confront Lt. Col. John C. Fremont's 300 men moving south from Monterey, and sent another 100 men to watch Stockton's base at San Diego, but Flores kept the bulk of his men at Los Angeles.:186
Captain Archibald Gillespie with 39 men, met Kearny on December 5 with a message from Stockton requesting Kearny confront Flores' men outside San Diego.:187 The total American force now amounted to 179 men.
- 10 U.S. Navy sailor carbiners from 'Fleet on the Pacific Coast' F Company aboard the USS Congress commanded by Acting-Lieutenant Edward Fitzgerald Beale and Passed-Midshipman James M. Duncan (later commanded USS Norwich (1861) )
- Sutter Fort's Russian brass 4-pounder cannon, which had been hidden after Mexican authorities tried to use the cannon against Californios at the Battle of Cahuenga Pass during the 1831 tax revolt. Charles Weber disclosed its location to Gillespie.
- 26 Mounted Rifle Company, commanded by Acting-Captain (Sgt.) Samual Gibson (later commanded company B of 26th Arkansas Infantry Regiment) and longtime Kit Carson and John Fremont associate, Acting-Lieutenant Alexander Godey: including Antoine Robidoux (interpreter), Philip Crosthwaite, Beatitude Patitoux, William Henry Russell, Daniel Sexton, Franklin Sears, Thomas Burgess, Jean Nutrelle, Private Henry Booker.
- Rafael Machado, Californio guide provided by San Diego
Captains Leonardo Cota and Jose Alipaz took a force to San Pasqual Valley with the intention to interdict and keep in check Captain Gillespie after his departure from San Diego. Later, Major Andrés Pico, after a failed search for a detachment of U.S. soldiers, joined forces with the captains and took command. These Californios led a force consisting of landowners, sons of landowners, and vaqueros, many with well known and respected family names in the community:
- Don Leonardo Cota: Capt. Enrique Abilia (Los Angeles), Capt. Ramon Carillo (Los Angeles), Capt. Jose Maria Cota (Los Angeles), Capt. Carlos Dominguez (Los Angeles), Capt. Nicolas Hermosillo (Los Angeles), Capt. Jose Alipaz (San Juan Capistrano), Capt. Ramon O. Suna (San Diego)
- General Andres Pico: Don Leandro Osuna (San Diego), Capt. Juan Bautista Moreno, Capt. Tomás A. Sanchez, Capt. Pablo Vejar, Capt. Manuel Vejar
A dragoon patrol under Lieutenant Thomas C. Hammond, guided by Rafael Machado, the son of Don José Manuel Machado (grantee of Rancho El Rosario and sent by the Machado family to assist Kearny), reconnoitered Capt. Andres Pico's force along the road at San Pasqual.:187
While Machado sneaked into the camp, Lt. Hammond became suspicious he was being set up for an ambush and rode the dragoons into the camp, where they spoke with an Indian they found sleeping in a hut. In a coincidence that has never been fully explained, a guard under the command of Machado's concuñado, the brother of a brother-in-law and future father-in-law, Captain Jose Alipaz, challenged the dragoons and alerted the camp to their presence. While Machado quickly ran back to Hammond's scouting party, Alipaz sounded the alarm but was dismissed by General Pico, until a U.S. Army blanket and dragoon coat were discovered on the edge of camp by Pablo Véjar. With Capt. Alipaz, Captain Leonardo Cota and José María Ibarra (the Californio standing guard) chased the dragoons to the top of the next ridge with the battle cry of "!Viva California!".:187 Pico was alerted, and the Californio camp prepared for the U.S. Army dragoons and marines to attack.:187
Kearny had planned a surprise attack at daylight, despite the damp weather wetting down their powder and the extremely poor state of the soldiers' equipment and mounts – mostly mules, as the horses had died on the preceding march.:188
Having lost the element of surprise, at midnight Kearny ordered an immediate advance from his camp nine miles away. It had rained that night. Men, muskets, pistols and equipment were wet and cold, but the troops, after over six months without any action, were eager to engage the Californios. Early in the morning of December 6, 1846, the column proceeded by twos across the ridge between Santa Maria (present day Ramona, California) and San Pasqual. During the descent, while it was still dark and with a low-lying fog, Kearny's force became strung out and were caught in a disadvantageous position by General Pico's swift advance. Kearny gave the plan of battle prior to proceeding down into the valley, to keep all casualties to a minimum, to encircle San Pasqual to capture fresh mounts.
Captain Abraham R. Johnston's advance guard, while still three-quarters of a mile (1.2 km) from Pico's forces, was ordered by Kearny to "Trot!", which Johnston misunderstood as "Gallop!".:188 Seeing this Kearny exclaimed "Oh, heavens! I did not mean that!". Forty of the best mounted pulled far ahead of the main body of the force, in violation of the Cavalry Tactics manual of 1841, which instructed a charge to begin at just 40 paces from the enemy "so as to arrive in good order, and without fatiguing the horses." The mules pulling the howitzers bolted, taking one of the guns with them. Pico's mounted force remained ahead of the pursuing U.S. forces. Their fresh horses and superior horsemanship allowed them to outmaneuver and lead the advance group of dragoons away from the main force. The Californios had a distinct advantage over the U.S. soldiers in their knowledge of the terrain. A second separation developed until twenty-eight dragoons, including Kearny, were separated. Damp powder reduced the effectiveness of carbines to clubs and pistols to hammers, as described by a native woman that witnessed the battle. The Californios were armed with long lances and reatas (braided rawhide lariat), which they used with great effect. As a consequence, Johnston's charge was unsupported and his dragoons were forced to withdraw.:188
As the leading element of the U.S. force's attack drew close to a Kumeyaay village, the Californios wheeled back and fired their few firearms. At this time Captain Johnston was killed by a bullet. Pico then withdrew a half mile to higher ground.:188
A second charge ordered by Capt. Benjamin D. Moore further separated the Americans, and the Californios met his dragoons with a counter-charge by lancers.:188 The charge was quickly surrounded, and Capt. Moore was killed. Gillespie arrived within fifteen minutes with the artillery. Mules are reluctant to wheel, and the horse-mounted Californios outflanked the Americans and captured one of the unattended howitzers. Gillespie used a sabre to fight off a vicious personal attack made by a group of lancers in revenge for his previous actions during his occupation of Los Angeles and the broken agreement to cease hostilities. He took a lance thrust just over the heart that pierced a lung. Kearny was wounded when he was lanced, and other dragoons were worked on by teams of Californios who, with fresh mounts, would yank dragoons off their mounts, hog-tie them, and then lance them. Gillespie's men unlimbered the remaining howitzer – John Sutter's Russian-made bronze four-pounder – and were able to drive the Californio fighters from the field after Midshipman Duncan fired canister into them. Either this action (traditional U.S. view) or the unusual degree of bloodshed (traditional Californio view), prompted Pico to withdraw.:188 The U.S. forces fortified a camp on a low hill north of the valley, initially placing their dead on mules that were unable to transport them before burying them outside of the camp under cover of darkness. The location of this camp is within the modern day San Diego Zoo Safari Park.
Summarizing the battle, historian Owen Coy writes:
The next day, December 7, 1846, after assurances by Dr. Griffin that the worst of the injured could be moved, Captain Turner marched the column toward San Diego. Californio lancers established a blocking position near what is now known as "Mule Hill". Captain Turner ordered Lieutenant William H. Emory and a squad of dragoons to engage and drive off the menacing lancers. With dry powder in their carbines, the dragoons easily forced the lancers away, while inflicting five dead among the fleeing Californios. That evening Kearny regained his command, established a strong defensive perimeter and then sent dispatches requesting urgent reinforcements, carried to Commodore Stockton by Lieutenant Edward Beale, Kit Carson and a young Diegueño guide named Chemuctah. Under cover of darkness they each took different routes to the commodore's headquarters at San Diego, 28 miles (45 km) to the south-southwest. Stockton quickly dispatched a unit of over 200 sailors and marines, whose arrival caused the Californios to disperse. Kearny had already determined the night before (December 9) to continue the march the next morning. Stockton's unit then escorted Kearny's battered troops to San Diego, where they arrived December 12.
Dr. John S. Griffin, Kearny's surgeon, reported that the Americans had lost 17 killed and 18 wounded out of the 50 officers and men who engaged Pico's lancers. When they arrived in San Diego, the wounded survivors were treated by their Californio guide's sister, Nurse Juanita Machado Alipas de Wrightington, known as the Florence Nightingale of San Diego for her charity work for the oppressed native peoples camped outside San Diego.
General Kearny's official report states: "On the morning of the 7th, having made ambulances for our wounded . . . we proceeded on our march, when the enemy showed himself, occupying the hills in our front, which they left as we approached, till reaching San Bernardo a party of them took possession of a hill near to it and maintained their position until attacked by our advance, who quickly drove them from it, killing and wounding five of their number with no loss on our part." Some time after the battle, General Kearny wrote that the U.S. had achieved victory since the Californios had "fled the field," but the Californios saw the engagement as their victory.
The battle is unique, as it was one of the few military battles in the United States that involved elements of the Army, Navy, Marines, and civilian volunteers, all in the same skirmish. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, historians debated which force won or lost the battle. Clearly, Kearny retained the battle area, the ability to operate and maneuver, and also the initiative, though his losses were significantly higher; however, he did not implement his battle plan, his ammunition was compromised, and he outran his artillery and supply line. According to Geoffrey Regan:
It had been a thoroughly bad battle from the American point of view. It has been claimed in Kearny's defense that because Pico abandoned the field the Americans were thereby victorious, but it is a ridiculous assertion.
Historian Lt. Colonel Cory Hollon cited Kearny's misjudgments: the battle was arguably unnecessary; the operating environment disadvantaged Kearny; he was unaware, or possibly misinformed, about the character of the threat; Kearny overestimated or misused his friendly forces; and Kearny culminated at San Pasqual because he had overextended his supply chain, resulting in a poorly prepared force facing an underestimated enemy. Hollon states that Kearny's misjudgments resulted in nearly disastrous consequences for the Army of the West and put the United States’ plans for conquest and empire in peril.
In late December 1846, Kearny's force began its march to Los Angeles. It consisted of a mixed force of Army dragoons, Navy sailors, Marines, volunteers and artillery. Although there was contention on leadership of U.S. forces in California, this and Stockton's combined forces went on to engage the Californios at the Battle of Rio San Gabriel, resulting in a Californio retreat. The following day the Battle of La Mesa resulted in another Californio defeat, leading to the surrender of the Pueblo de Los Ángeles and later the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga. Historian Hollon wrote:
The combat losses at the Battle of San Pasqual often overshadow the success of the overall campaign. While Kearny made a poor decision to engage the Californios at San Pasqual, the operations on either side of the battle revealed a brilliant military mind coordinating complex actions across the expanse of a continent.
- Fort Moore was constructed on North Hill Street in downtown Los Angeles, California, originally as an improvised defensive position used by Lt. Gillespie, in honor of Captain Benjamin D. Moore. The Fort Moore Hill Pioneer Memorial further honors Moore and other American pioneers.
- Kearny Mesa, an area of San Diego, was named after Camp Kearny; Camp Kearny was named for Stephen W. Kearny.
- Kit Carson Park, in Escondido, was named for Kit Carson.
- Beale Air Force Base in Marysville, California, was named after Edward Beale, keeping the name of its World War II era army base Camp Beale.
- Camp Gillespie, completed in 1942 during World War II, was named in honor of Lieutenant Archibald Gillespie. In 1944 the federal government transferred the property to the County of San Diego. It rechristened the facility as Gillespie Field, since used as a municipal airport.
- The site of the battle is commemorated as San Pasqual Battlefield State Historic Park.
- A cross was placed on Battle Mountain in Rancho Bernardo, which has been incorrectly identified as Mule Hill, commemorating the battle. Raised in Easter 1966, it was later dedicated to local residents who died during the Tenerife airport disaster.
- A bronze relief of Beale and Carson contacting Stockton was unveiled at the National Museum in 1910.:950
- John Wilson. "The Shooting of James King". Stanford University School of Medicine and the Predecessor Schools : An Historical Perspective. Stanford University. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
Although the Californians retreated and the Americans remained in possession of the battlefield, their victory was a pyrrhic one for their attack was ill-conceived and many American lives were recklessly and needlessly sacrificed.
- John C. Pinheiro (1 January 2007). Manifest Ambition: James K. Polk and Civil-military Relations During the Mexican War. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-275-98409-0.
... at best must be described as a Pyrrhic victory ...
- Dwight Lancelot Clarke (1961). Stephen Watts Kearny: Soldier of the West. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 232.
... it was certainly a Pyrrhic victory.
- Hollon, LTC Cory S. (29 April 2013). Operational Art in the Campaign of Stephen Watts Kearny to Conquer New Mexico and California, 1846-7 (PDF) (Master's Thesis). U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
The first battle of the war for Kearny was a Pyrrhic victory at San Pasqual, but Kearny recovered and led a large force in a successful operation against prepared forces of Californios.
- Niderost, Eric (26 May 2016). "Mexican-American Clash at San Pasqual". Military History. McLean, Virginia: Sovereign Media. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
The lancers left the field, enabling the Americans to technically claim a victory, albeit a mostly Pyrrhic one. Three officers and 21 men were dead, and another 17 were wounded.
- Bauer, K.J., 1974, The Mexican War, 1846–1848, New York:Macmillan, ISBN 0803261071
- "San Pasqual Battlefield Site Location Project". San Pasqual Battlefield Site Location Project. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
- Hollon, Lt. Col. Cory S. (Winter 2015). "'A Leap in the Dark' The Campaign to Conquer New Mexico and California, 1846–1847" (PDF). Army History. Washington, D.C. PB 20-15-1 (94): 6–25. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- "Your Affectionate Son, Robinson: American Expansionism and the Life of Captain Abraham Robinson Johnston, 1815–1846". The Journal of San Diego History. 62.
- Wainwright, Capt. R. P. Page (January 1895). "The First Regiment of Cavalry". Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States. XVI (73): 177–196.
- Sabin, Edwin Legrand (1935). Kit Carson Days, 1809–1868: Adventures in the Path of Empire. 2. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 525–540, 950. ISBN 0-8032-9238-4.
- Moore, M. J. (1903). "SKETCH OF CAPTAIN BENJAMIN DAVIESS MOORE". Annual Publication of the Historical Society of Southern California and of the Pioneers of Los Angeles County. 6 (1): 10–13. JSTOR 41169602.
- Clarke, Dwight L. (September 1958). Letters of Captain Henry S. Turner on the Kearny-Fremont Controversy. Los Angeles.
- Twitchell, Ralph Emerson (1911). The Leading Facts of New Mexican History. 2. p. 213.
- Emory, William Hemsley; United States Army, Corps of Topographical Engineers (1848). Notes of a Military Reconnoissance from Fort Leavenworth, in Missouri to San Diego, in California, Including Part of the Arkansas, Del Norte, and Gila Rivers. H. Long & Brother.
- "California and the Mexican War: The Battle of San Pasqual". California State Military Museums. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- "The Charge". San Pasqual Battlefield Site Location Project. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- "Class of 1842". George W. Cullum's Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, since its establishment in 1802.
- Gorenfeld, William (October 9, 2007). "Get a Look at the Mighty Pacific: Thomas Swords Dragoon Quartermaster". Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- "The Conquest of California: The Battle of San Pasqual". Westerners Los Angeles Corral (207). Spring 1997.
- Bancroft, Hubert Howe (1886). The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft. 22. History Company.
- Coy 1921, p. 5.
- Robert F. Stockton (18 February 1848). "Commodore Stockton's Report on the War in California". California State Military Museum. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- Johns, Sally Cavell (Fall 1973). "VIVA LOS CALIFORNIOS!: The Battle of San Pasqual". The Journal of San Diego History. San Diego History Center. 19 (4). Retrieved 15 March 2012.
The following day Stockton received the message and immediately sent a detachment of mounted riflemen under the command of Captain Gillespie. The force included Rafael Machado, a native San Diegan, and Navy Lieutenant Edward Fitzgerald Beale in charge of a four-pounder fieldpiece. The company marching to join the Army of the West totaled thirty-nine men.
- Cresap, Cap (Spring 2006). "Clearing Up The Confusion About California Cannon Of John Sutter". The Artilleryman. 27 (2). Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- Hruby, George (September 1996). "THE USE OF ARTILLERY AT THE BATTLE OF SAN PASQUAL" (PDF). San Pasqual Battlefield Site Location Project. Retrieved 2012-03-15.
- Sides, Hampton (2006). Blood and Thunder: An Epic of the American West. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 2006. ISBN 978-0-7393-2672-5. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- "THE JOURNALS OF MARINE SECOND LIEUTENANT HENRY BULLS WATSON 1845–1848" (PDF). p. 261. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-09-05. Retrieved 2012-03-15.
- "Battalion of Sailors, from the fleet on the Pacific coast 1847". Togetherweserved.com. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- Beck, Stephen. "A Brief History of John Sutter and his Bronze Field Cannon". Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- "William Henry Russell, Callaway, Jackson, Cass Co., MO". USGenWeb Archives – via The biography of William Henry Russell from the Dictionary of American Biography (New York, 1935).
- Coy 1921, pp. 5-6.
- Warner, Juan José; Hayes, Benjamin Ignatius; Widney, Joseph Pomeroy (1876). "An historical sketch of Los Angeles county, California. From the Spanish occupancy, by the founding of the mission San Gabriel Archangel, September 8, 1771, to July 4, 1876". Los Angeles: L. Lewin & Co. Los Angeles Centennial Celebration Literary Committee. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
- Parra, Alvaro (August 22, 2013). "Tomás A. Sanchez: The Californio Sheriff of Los Angeles". Public Media Group of Southern California. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
- Coy 1921, p. 6.
- Gillespie, Captain Archibald H. (25 December 1846). "The Mexican War and California: Captain Archibald Gillespie's Report to Commodore Robert Stockton Concerning The Battle of San Pasqual". California State Military Museums. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
- Woodward, Arthur (March 1947). "Lances at San Pasqual (Concluded)". California Historical Society Quarterly. 26 (1): 32. JSTOR 25156014.
- Beck, Darrell (1 December 2009). "Gen. Stephen Watts Kearney And The Battle Of San Pasqual". Ramona Home Journal. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- Coy 1921, p. 8.
- Jones, J. Harry (7 December 2009). "San Pasqual battle details still disputed". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- Coy 1921, p. 7-8.
- del Castillo, Richard Griswold. "The U.S.-Mexican War in San Diego, 1846–1847: Loyalty and Resistance". The Journal of San Diego History. Retrieved 18 October 2008.
- Machado de Wrightington, Juana (11 January 1878). "Los Tiempos Pasados de la Alta California. Recuerdos de la Sra. D.a Juana Machado de Ridington [sic]" (Interview). Interviewed by Thomas Savage. North San Diego. Collection at Bancroft Library (C-D 119), Berkeley, California
- Cooke, Philip St George (1964). The Conquest of New Mexico and California, An Historical and Personal Narrative. Albuquerque, New Mexico: Horn and Wallace. p. 259.
- Regan, Geoffrey (1993). "The Battle of San Pasqual". SNAFU: Great American Military Disasters. Avon Books – via California State Military Museums.
- Cocks, Bert H. (September 1946). "Fort Moore" (PDF). The Quarterly: Historical Society of Southern California. Historical Society of Southern California. 28 (3): 88–98. JSTOR 41168092. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- Federal Writers Project of the Works Progress Administration (5 April 2011). Los Angeles in the 1930s: The WPA Guide to the City of Angels. University of California Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-520-94886-0.
- Meares, Hadley (31 May 2013). "The Many Lives of Fort Moore Hill: The Shifting and Shrinking of a Los Angeles Icon". Public Media Group of Southern California. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "1967 Aerial View of Kearny Mesa, General Dynamics". Digital Archives. City of San Diego. 2002. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- O'Hara, Thomas (2005). Marine Corps Air Station Miramar. Arcadia Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7385-3058-1.
- "Camp Kearny". Historic California Posts, Camps, Stations and Airfields. California State Military Museums. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- Fetzer, Leland (2005). San Diego County Place Names, A to Z. Sunbelt Publications, Inc. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-932653-73-4.
- Boggs, Johnny D. (14 October 2009). "Looping Across Kit Carson's Southwest". True West Magazine. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "Beale's History: Past to Present". Beale Air Force Base. United States Air Force. 23 February 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- Johnson, Danny (23 June 2017). "Beale Air Force Base". Historic California Posts, Camps Stations and Airfields. California State Military Museums. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "From Military Parachutes to Private Aircraft" (PDF). Plane News. County of San Diego. Summer 2009. p. 1-2. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- Shettle, Jr., M.L. (8 February 2016). "Marine Corps Auxilary Air Facility, Gillespie Field". Historic California Posts, Camps Stations and Airfields. California State Military Museums. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- Van Wagenen, Michael (2012). Remembering the Forgotten War: The Enduring Legacies of the U.S./Mexican War. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 205. ISBN 1-55849-930-X.
- McGlamery, Megan (September 2011). "San Pasqual Battlefield State Historic Park: A Piece of History Faces Obliteration". East County Magazine. San Diego County: East County Media. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- Ray, Nancy (16 March 1988). "Battlefield Victory : Mule Hill, the Site of 1846 Battle, Captured at Last for History". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- Harold J. Clifford; Steven G. Spear (1997). Geology of San Diego County: Legacy of the Land. Sunbelt Publications. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-932653-21-5.
- Southern California Quarterly. Historical Society of Southern California. March 1962. pp. C–164.
- California Historical Society Quarterly. California Historical Society. March 1947. p. 61.
- Kacejateste (29 January 2009). "Around the Ranch: All about Battle Mountain". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- Himchak, Elizabeth Marie (9 June 2016). "Rancho Bernardo cross undergoes repairs". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- Coy 1921, pp. 10-11.
- "San Pasqual Battlefield State Historic Park". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
- Coy, Owen C. (1921). The Battle of San Pasqual. Sacramento: California State Printing Office.
- Dunne, William B. Notes on the Battle of San Pascual (Berkeley: Bancroft Library)
- Executive Document Number 1, accompanying the President's message at the Second Session of the 30th Congress, December, 1848, including the Report of Commodore Stockton.
- Jones, Sally Cavell, The Battle of San Pascual (Masters Thesis, USD, 1973)
- Sides, Hampton, Blood and Thunder: An Epic of the American West, Doubleday (2006), hardcover, 462 pages, ISBN 978-0-385-50777-6
- Todd, Charles Burr (1925). The battles of San Pasqual : a study : with map, itinerary and guide to the battle fields. Progress Pub. Co.
- "Battle Studies: San Pasqual". Research Guides. Marine Corps University Research Library. 5 June 2018.
- Deceño del paraje de Sn. Pascual inclusive el rincon del mismo nombre at The Bancroft Library