Battle of Aesernia
The Battle of Aesernia took place in the year 90 BC during the Social War. A force under Caius Ilius Caesar, father of the triumvir, was engaged while moving to relieve the siege of Aesernia and defeated by a rebel force under Titus Vettius Scato. Orosius wrote that Caesar had to entirely rebuild his army with Gallic and African troops after the battle while Appian admits only 2,000 Roman dead. As a result of their victory the rebels had enough spare forces to reinforce the army besieging Aesernia while another army took Venafrum. It is also possible Venafrum joined the rebels.
- Sampson, Gareth C. (2013). The collapse of Rome : Marius, Sulla and the first Civil War, 91-70 BC. Barnsley, South Yorkshire. ISBN 9781473826854. OCLC 893910287.
- Beesly, Augustus Henry (1889). The Gracchi, Marius, and Sulla. Epochs of Ancient History. London: Longmans, Green, and Co.