Bar Harbor, Maine
Bar Harbor is a town on Mount Desert Island in Hancock County, Maine, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population is 5,235. Bar Harbor is a popular tourist destination in the Down East region of Maine and home to the College of the Atlantic, Jackson Laboratory, and MDI Biological Laboratory (Salisbury Cove village). Until a catastrophic fire in 1947, the town was a noted summer colony for the wealthy. Bar Harbor is home to the largest parts of Acadia National Park, including Cadillac Mountain, the highest point within twenty-five miles (40 km) of the coastline of the Eastern United States. The town is served by the Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport, which provides year-round direct flights to Boston, Massachusetts.
Bar Harbor, Maine
Main Street in Bar Harbor (2010)
|Coordinates: 44°23′9″N 68°12′34″W|
|Incorporated||February 23, 1796|
Red Rock Corner
|• Type||Town Council|
|• Chair||Jeff Dobbs|
|• Vice-Chair||Matthew Hochman|
|• Total||63.11 sq mi (163.45 km2)|
|• Land||42.24 sq mi (109.40 km2)|
|• Water||20.87 sq mi (54.05 km2)|
|• Density||123.9/sq mi (47.8/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (Eastern (EST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
The town of Bar Harbor was founded on the northeast shore of Mount Desert Island, which the Wabanaki Indians knew as Pemetic, meaning "range of mountains" or "mountains seen at a distance." The Wabanaki seasonally fished, hunted and gathered berries, clams, and other shellfish in the area seasonally. They spoke of Bar Harbor as Man-es-ayd'ik ("clam-gathering place") or Ah-bays'auk ("clambake place"), leaving great piles of shells as evidence of this abundance. In early September 1604, French explorer Samuel de Champlain ran aground on a rock ledge believed to be Egg Rock, just off Otter Cliffs, and when he came ashore to repair his boat he met local natives. Champlain named the island Isles des Monts Deserts, meaning "island of barren mountains"—now called Mount Desert Island, the largest in Maine.
In 1761, Abraham Somes established the first European village on Mount Desert Island, naming it Somesville. Somes Sound was named after him, the only naturally occurring fjard on the East Coast of the United States. Bar Harbor itself was first settled by Europeans in 1763 by Israel Higgins and John Thomas and incorporated on February 23, 1796 as Eden, after Sir Richard Eden, an English statesman. Early industries included fishing, lumbering and shipbuilding. With the best soil on Mount Desert Island, it also developed agriculture, with a main focus on dairy. In the 1840s, its rugged maritime scenery attracted the Hudson River School and Luminism artists Thomas Cole, Frederic Edwin Church, William Hart and Fitz Henry Lane. Inspired by their paintings, journalists, sportsmen and "rusticators" followed. Agamont House, the first hotel in Eden, was established in 1855 by Tobias Roberts. Birch Point, the first summer estate, was built in 1868 by Alpheus Hardy.
By 1880, there were 30 hotels, including the Mira Monte Inn, a historic landmark that would later survive a massive fire in 1947. Tourists were arriving by train and ferry to the Gilded Age resort that would rival Newport, Rhode Island. The rich and famous tried to outdo each other with entertaining and estates, often hiring landscape gardener and landscape architect Beatrix Farrand, a resident at local Reef Point Estate, to design their gardens. A glimpse of their lifestyles was available from the Shore Path, a walkway skirting waterfront lawns. Yachting, garden parties at the Pot & Kettle Club, and carriage rides up Cadillac Mountain were popular diversions. Others enjoyed horse-racing at Robin Hood Park-Morrell Park. President William Howard Taft played golf in 1910 at the Kebo Valley Golf Club. On March 3, 1918, Eden was renamed Bar Harbor, after the sand and gravel bar, visible at low tide, which leads across to Bar Island and forms the rear of the harbor. The name would become synonymous with elite wealth. It was the birthplace of vice-president Nelson Rockefeller on July 8, 1908.
Bar Harbor was also used for naval practices during World War II. More specifically, Bald Porcupine Island was used to fire live torpedoes. In October 1944, the submarine USS Piper fired 12 live torpedoes at the island. Of the 12 fired, one failed to explode on the first attempt but was later detonated by the 12th torpedo. In 1996, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers surveyed all 30 acres of Bald Porcupine Island for unexploded ordnance. Nine were found.
Many influential people have called Bar Harbor home for at least part of the year. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., son of John D. Rockefeller of Standard Oil Co., donated about one-third of the land in Acadia National Park and built the carriage roads that are used for hiking and biking. J. P. Morgan owned a house that is adjacent to Bar Harbor. Cornelius Vanderbilt built cottages in Bar Harbor. The Astor family owned hotels and cottages in Bar Harbor and the surrounding areas. William Howard Taft used to enjoy games of golf in Bar Harbor. The co-founder and CEO of Burt's Bees, Roxanne Quimby, has a home near Bar Harbor. Martha Stewart has also been known to frequent Mount Desert Island and been seen in Bar Harbor.
Mount Desert Island fire
In mid-October 1947, Maine experienced a severe drought, experiencing only half of its usual rainfall. On October 17, sparks at a cranberry bog near Town Hill ignited a wildfire that would intensify over ten days, thanks to strong winds that began on October 21, and it was not declared out until mid-November. This was one of several wildfires in the state that year. Nearly half the eastern side of Mount Desert Island burned, including 67 "cottages" – around a third of the 222 cottages that stood at the time. (Many were empty or for sale; only 135 were occupied that summer.) Five historic grand hotels were also destroyed. These were Agamont House (Main Street), Hamor House (Main Street at Cottage Street), Belmont Hotel (Mount Desert and Kebo Streets), Malvern Hotel (Kebo Street) and the DeGregoire Hotel (Eden Street at West Street). The Building of Arts civic building, on Kebo Street at Cromwell Harbor Road, also perished.
Over 10,000 acres (4,000 ha) of Acadia National Park were destroyed. The town's business district was spared, including Mount Desert Street, where several former summer homes within a historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places operate as inns.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 63.11 square miles (163.45 km2), of which 42.24 square miles (109.40 km2) is land and 20.87 square miles (54.05 km2) is water. Bar Harbor is situated on Frenchman Bay.
This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Bar Harbor has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps. Bar Harbor and Mount Desert Island are located near the coastline and surrounded by the North American continent to the northeast and southwest. This location, combined with prevailing winds that are not from the Atlantic, gives Bar Harbor a continental climate with very cold winters for an island location at such a low latitude.
Climate change is affecting Bar Harbor and other Gulf of Maine localities faster than much of the rest of the United States. From 2012 to 2019, the Gulf of Maine has warmed faster than 99 percent of the rest of the world's oceans. Since 1895, average temperatures in Hancock County have climbed by 3.3 degrees Fahrenheit, almost double the average for the other Lower 48 states.
|Climate data for Bar Harbor, Maine|
|Record high °F (°C)||63
|Average high °F (°C)||31.4
|Daily mean °F (°C)||22.6
|Average low °F (°C)||13.7
|Record low °F (°C)||−20
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||4.9
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||16.7
|Average precipitation days||11||9||10||10||10||10||9||8||9||9||10||10||115|
As of the census of 2010, there were 5,235 people, 2,427 households, and 1,275 families residing in the town. The population density was 123.9 inhabitants per square mile (47.8/km2). There were 3,495 housing units at an average density of 82.7 per square mile (31.9/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 94.7% White, 0.8% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.8% Asian, 0.4% from other races, and 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population.
There were 2,427 households of which 22.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 47.5% were non-families. 36.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.08 and the average family size was 2.70.
The median age in the town was 45.3 years. 17.3% of residents were under the age of 18; 10% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 22.4% were from 25 to 44; 32.3% were from 45 to 64; and 18.1% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the town was 46.3% male and 53.7% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 4,820 people, 2,142 households, and 1,163 families residing in or near the town. The population density was 114.2 people per square mile (44.1/km²). There were 2,805 housing units at an average density of 66.5 per square mile (25.7/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 97.88% White, 0.15% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.89% Asian, 0.08% from other races, and 0.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.62% of the population.
There were 2,142 households out of which 24.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.5% were married couples living together, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.7% were non-families. 34.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.78.
In and near the town, the population was spread out with 19.8% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 26.6% from 45 to 64, and 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.7 males.
The median income for a household in or near the town was $37,481, and the median income for a family was $51,989. Males had a median income of $31,085 versus $25,417 for females. The per capita income for the area was $24,103. About 4.9% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.7% of those under age 18 and 8.3% of those age 65 or over.
Conners Emerson School is located in Bar Harbor, serving students of grades K through 8. It was founded in 1962.
Mount Desert Island High School (MDIHS) serves the four towns of Mount Desert Island, plus the outlying islands of Swans Island and the town of Cranberry Isles. The school also serves students from towns such as Trenton, Hancock, Lamoine, and Mariaville on the mainland.
The College of the Atlantic is located in Bar Harbor.
Recreational activities abound in Bar Harbor. The downtown is particularly alive in the summer and autumn months because Bar Harbor is home to many outdoor enthusiasts. Acadia National Park is a couple of miles from the downtown area. Outdoor activities in Acadia include hiking along trails or carriage roads, biking along the carriage roads, bird watching, and mountain climbing, in view of Cadillac Mountain, the highest point on the Atlantic seaboard.
Those interested in the marine life surrounding Mount Desert Island can go to the marina at the end of Main Street and sign up for tours that feature puffins, whales, lobster, seals, pelagic seabirds, and island lighthouses, or for an overall nature cruise.
At low tide a sand bar from town to Bar Island is exposed.
The American Planning Association in 2012 named the Village Green as one of their top ten Great Places in America for Public Spaces.
Cruise ships arrive in the harbor from May through October (most often in September), with 31 ships expected to make 180 visits with as many as 250,000 passengers in 2018. Bar Harbor also hosts many long-distance cyclists, as it is the eastern terminus of the Adventure Cycling Association's Northern Tier Bicycle Route (which ends in Anacortes, Washington), and the northern terminus of its Atlantic Coast Bicycle Route (which ends in Key West, Florida).
In popular culture
- Charles Bolster, judge
- Les Brewer, co-founder of College of the Atlantic
- Dennis Damon, state senator (2002–2010)
- Henry F. Dimock, lawyer
- William E. Dodge, Jr., businessperson
- Matthew Dunlap, Maine Secretary of State
- Joseph T. Edgar, Secretary of State of Maine and Speaker of the Maine House of Representatives
- Jill Goldthwait, state senator (1994–2002)
- Carrie Jones, novelist
- David E. Kelley, television producer
- Shirley Povich, sports columnist and reporter for The Washington Post
- Esther Ralston, actress
- David Rockefeller, banker.
- Nelson Rockefeller, businessman, governor of New York (1959–1973), Vice President of the United States (1974–1977)
- Jennifer Skiff, author, journalist, television producer
- "Town Council". barharbormaine.gov. June 13, 2019.
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 11, 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "Cadillac Mountain". U.S. National Park Service. 2004-10-28. Archived from the original on 2006-02-07. Retrieved 2008-03-22.
- For a freely accessible digital text on Wabanaki culture and history, see Asticou's Island Domain: Wabanaki Peoples at Mount Desert Island 1500-2000 Archived August 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, by Harald E. L. Prins and Bunny McBride (National Park Service, 2007)
- "Town History". Bar Harbor Historical Society. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- "Fire of 1947 - Acadia National Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- "Piper (SS-409) (AGSS-409)". NavSource History.
- "Conclusions and Recommendations for the Former Naval Ordnance Facility Bald Porcupine Island, Bar Harbor, Maine" (PDF). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. December 1996. Archived from the original on 2003-08-27.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "The Influential, The Famous & The Celebrities of Downeast Maine - Bar Harbor Maine and the Acadia National Park Regions". downeastmaineonline. Archived from the original on 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2012-12-01.
- "Fire of 1947" - U.S. National Park Service
- Lost Bar Harbor, G.W. Helfrich and Gladys O'Neil (Down East Books, 1982)
- Climate Summary for Bar Harbor, Maine
- "How one small island is going zero-everything". Experience Magazine. 2019-04-22. Retrieved 2019-08-19.
- "2°C: BEYOND THE LIMIT". Washington Post. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
- "Bar Harbor - Maine United States climate normals". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2016-08-03.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Archived from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "Hancock and town Bar Harbor". www.library.umaine.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2016-05-10., accessed March, 2010.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- APA: Great Public Spaces
- "Bar Harbor, Maine -- Tourism". www.barharbormaine.gov. Retrieved 2018-07-15.
- Dave Thier (Forbes, May 12, 2016). The Real Bar Harbor Couldn't Be Happier About Fallout 4's 'Far Harbor'
- "David Rockefeller's Maine summer home sells for $19 million". February 8, 2018. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
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