Banbury (UK Parliament constituency)
Banbury, also informally known as Banbury and North Oxfordshire or simply North Oxfordshire, is a constituency in Oxfordshire created in 1553 and represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2015 by Victoria Prentis of the Conservative Party.
for the House of Commons
Boundary of Banbury in Oxfordshire
Location of Oxfordshire within England
|Population||117,928 (2011 census)|
|Electorate||90,113 (December 2019)|
|Major settlements||Banbury and Bicester|
|Member of Parliament||Victoria Prentis (Conservative)|
|Number of members||One|
|European Parliament constituency||South East England|
The constituency has relatively high economic dependence on agriculture, as well as modern industry (particularly motor sport), research and development, public services and, to a lesser extent, defence. It contains two large market towns, Banbury and Bicester, where the majority of the electorate live. It is a partly rural seat, with the north west of the constituency on the edge of the Cotswolds. The area has experienced significant urban growth and is popular with commuters who favour its fast transport links to Birmingham, Oxford and London by rail, or the M40. More than one in 10 of the population is employed in higher managerial, administrative and professional work, according to ONS 2011 Census figures for England and Wales. In 2015 the seat was home to 4.3% of EU residents and unemployment was 2.9%. There are some Labour voting wards in Banbury itself, but the remainder of the constituency including Bicester and the smaller rural towns and villages are safely Conservative. However the 2017 election saw a particularly strong swing for Labour like many towns in southern England.
Content and regional context
The constituency was created as a parliamentary borough, consisting of the town of Banbury, on 26 January 1554 through the efforts of Henry Stafford and Thomas Denton. It was one of the few in England in the unreformed House of Commons to elect only one Member of Parliament (MP). It as such used the first past the post system. It was the seat represented by Lord North, the Prime Minister during the American War of Independence.
Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, the Parliamentary Borough was abolished and was reconstituted as the Northern or Banbury Division of Oxfordshire when the three-member Parliamentary County of Oxfordshire was divided into the three single-member seats: Banbury, Woodstock and Henley. It comprised the north-western part of Oxfordshire, including Chipping Norton as well as the abolished borough. Banbury has remained as such since then with varying boundaries (see below).
- Majority views
Banbury has post-World War I unbroken Conservative representation and significant local support for the party. Its MPs since 1922 have all served long terms in office and each since 1922 has been knighted. The seat saw a very close election in 1923. The largest vote since 1922 has at each election been for a Conservative. In 2010 Tony Baldry (Conservative) almost doubled his majority. The 2015 result made the seat the 125th safest of the Conservative Party's 331 seats by percentage of majority.
In June 2016, an estimated 50.35% of local adults voting in the EU membership referendum chose to leave the European Union instead of to remain. This was matched in two January 2018 votes in Parliament by its MP.
- Other parties
Four of the six parties' candidates achieved more than the deposit-retaining threshold of 5% of the vote in 2015. In 2001, the Labour Party candidate Lesley Silbey won the largest opposing-party share of the vote since 1974 — 35% of the vote. Prior to 1974, the highest percentage of votes for the second-placed candidate was in 1945 — 48% of the vote.
Boundaries and boundary changes
The constituency was expanded to include the western half of the abolished Woodstock Division, including Witney and Woodstock.
1950–1974: The Boroughs of Banbury, Chipping Norton, and Woodstock, the Urban District of Witney, the Rural Districts of Banbury, Chipping Norton, and Witney, and in the Rural District of Ploughley the parishes of Begbroke, Gosford and Water Eaton, Hampton Gay and Poyle, Kidlington, Shipton on Cherwell, Thrupp, and Yarnton.
Change to contents due to reorganisation of rural districts. Marginal loss to the Oxford constituency as a result of the expansion of County Borough of Oxford.
1974–1983: The Boroughs of Banbury, Chipping Norton, and Woodstock, the Urban District of Bicester, the Rural Districts of Banbury and Chipping Norton, and in the Rural District of Ploughley the parishes of Ardley, Bucknell, Caversfield, Chesterton, Cottisford, Finmere, Fringford, Fritwell, Godington, Hardwick with Tusmore, Hethe, Kirtlington, Launton, Lower Heyford, Middleton Stoney, Mixbury, Newton Purcell with Shelswell, Somerton, Souldern, Stoke Lyne, Stratton Audley, and Upper Heyford.
The Urban and Rural Districts of Witney and the parts of the Rural District of Ploughley, including Kidlington, formed the basis of the new County Constituency of Mid-Oxon. Bicester and northern parts of the Rural District of Ploughley transferred from Henley.
1983–1997: The District of Cherwell wards of Adderbury, Ambrosden, Ardley, Bicester East, Bicester South, Bicester West, Bloxham, Bodicote, Calthorpe, Chesterton, Cropredy, Deddington, Easington, Fringford, Grimsbury, Hardwick, Heyford, Hook Norton, Hornton, Kirtlington, Launton, Neithrop, Otmoor, Ruscote, Sibford, Steeple Aston, and Wroxton, and the District of West Oxfordshire wards of Bartons and Tackley, and Wootton.
Gained a small part of the abolished County Constituency of Mid-Oxon, to the south of Bicester. The bulk of the area comprising the former Urban and Rural Districts of Chipping Norton transferred to the new County Constituency of Witney.
1997–2010: The District of Cherwell wards of Adderbury, Ambrosden, Ardley, Bicester East, Bicester South, Bicester West, Bloxham, Bodicote, Calthorpe, Chesterton, Cropredy, Deddington, Easington, Fringford, Grimsbury, Hardwick, Heyford, Hook Norton, Hornton, Kirtlington, Launton, Neithrop, Otmoor, Ruscote, Sibford, Steeple Aston, and Wroxton.
Minor loss to Witney, comprising the two wards in the District of West Oxfordshire.
2010–present: The District of Cherwell wards of Adderbury, Ambrosden and Chesterton, Banbury Calthorpe, Banbury Easington, Banbury Grimsbury and Castle, Banbury Hardwick, Banbury Neithrop, Banbury Ruscote, Bicester East, Bicester North, Bicester South, Bicester Town, Bicester West, Bloxham and Bodicote, Caversfield, Cropredy, Deddington, Fringford, Hook Norton, Launton, Sibford, The Astons and Heyfords, and Wroxton.
The constituency currently covers the north-east of Oxfordshire, around Banbury and Bicester and largely corresponds to the Cherwell local government district, with the principal exception of the large village of Kidlington on the outskirts of Oxford which lies in the Oxford West and Abingdon constituency, and some smaller villages to the north-east of Oxford that lie in the Henley constituency.
Changes proposed by Boundary Commission
The Boundary Commission for England submitted their final proposals in respect of the Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster Constituencies (the 2018 review) in September 2018 which would reduce the total number of MPs from 650 to 600. Although the proposals were immediately laid before Parliament they were not brought forward by the Government for approval. Accordingly, they will not come into effect for the 2019 election due to take place on 12 December 2019, which will be contested using the constituency boundaries in place since 2010.
The Commission proposed that three further District of Cherwell wards (Ambrosden and Chesterton, Fringford and Launton) be transferred to Henley (which was renamed East Oxfordshire), thus leaving the town of Bicester surrounded by East Oxfordshire on three sides.
Members of Parliament
Banbury borough (until 1885)
Constituency created 1554. (Even before the Reform Act of 1832, Banbury only returned one member to Parliament)
|Parliament of 1554 (April)||Thomas Denton|
|Parliament of 1554 (November)||Edward Stafford, 3rd Baron Stafford|
|Parliament of 1555||Not known|
|Parliament of 1558||John Denton|
|Parliament of 1559||Thomas Lee|
|Parliament of 1563||Francis Walsingham (sat for Lyme Regis, replaced by Owen Brereton)|
|Parliament of 1571||Anthony Cope|
|Parliament of 1572|
|Parliament of 1584||Richard Fiennes|
|Parliament of 1586||Anthony Cope|
|Parliament of 1588|
|Parliament of 1593|
|Parliament of 1597|
|Parliament of 1601|
|Parliament of 1604–1611||Sir William Cope|
|Addled Parliament (1614)|
|Parliament of 1621–1622|
|Happy Parliament (1624–1625)||Sir Erasmus Dryden|
|Useless Parliament (1625)||Sir William Cope (Election declared void, replaced by James Fiennes)|
|Parliament of 1626||Calcot Chambre|
|Parliament of 1628–1629||John Crew|
|No Parliament summoned 1629–1640|
Banbury division of Oxfordshire/Banbury County Constituency (since 1885)
Elections in the 2010s
|Liberal Democrats||Tim Bearder||8,831||14.0|
|Liberal Democrats||John Howson||3,452||5.6||−0.3|
|Liberal Democrats||John Howson||3,440||5.9||-14.5|
|National Health Action||Roseanne Edwards||729||1.3||N/A|
|Liberal Democrats||David Rundle||11,476||20.4||+2.9|
Elections in the 2000s
|Liberal Democrats||Zoe Patrick||10,076||17.9||+2.0|
|National Front||James Starkey||918||1.6||N/A|
|Your Party||Chris Rowe||417||0.7||N/A|
|Liberal Democrats||Anthony Worgan||8,216||15.9||−0.8|
Elections in the 1990s
|Labour||Hazel Y. Peperell||20,339||34.8||+8.3|
|Liberal Democrats||Catherine Bearder||9,761||16.7||−1.4|
|Referendum||James W. Ager||2,245||3.8||N/A|
|Natural Law||Ian Pearson||131||0.22||−0.2|
|Liberal Democrats||Geoffrey J. Fisher||10,602||18.1||−5.3|
|Natural Law||Robin Ticciati||250||0.4||N/A|
Elections in the 1980s
|Social Democratic||David Rowland||12,386||23.4||−3.5|
|Social Democratic||Keith Fitchett||13,200||26.9|
|Monster Raving Loony||David N. Brough||383||0.8||N/A|
Elections in the 1970s
|National Front||I. Cherry||504||0.9||N/A|
|Labour||Anthony C. Booth||18,019||35.2||+2.2|
|Independent English Nationalist||J. Barbour||547||1.1||N/A|
|Labour||Anthony C. Booth||18,289||33.0||−3.4|
|Liberal||Geoffrey J. Fisher||11,947||21.6||+11.0|
|Labour||Anthony C. Booth||25,166||36.6||−3.7|
|Liberal||Geoffrey J. Fisher||6,859||10.0||−2.2|
Elections in the 1960s
|Liberal||Francis John Ware||7,851||13.6|
|Farmers' Candidate||James Hayward||534||0.9|
Elections in the 1950s
|Labour||David J Buckle||19,699||37.75|
|Labour||Norman Francis Stogdon||21,473||45.62|
|Labour||William J. Bird||19,672||39.64|
|Labour Co-op||Cyril Rawlett Fenton||19,408||39.48|
Election in the 1940s
|Labour||Richard Brian Roach||21,951||48.00|
Elections in the 1930s
|Labour||W E Wade||11,456||34.34||n/a|
Election in the 1920s
|Liberal||Ronald Wilberforce Allen||13,800||38.2||+7.4|
|Labour||Lawrence A Wingfield||5,894||16.3||-0.2|
|Labour||Arthur Ernest Monks||4,733||16.5|
|Liberal||C. B. Fry||12,271||45.0||+15.6|
|Liberal||James Harold Early||7,885||29.4|
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing|
|C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.|
Election in the 1910s
|C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.|
General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;
- Liberal: Eustace Fiennes
|Conservative||Robert Bingham Brassey||3,538||49.4||−2.7|
|Liberal gain from Conservative||Swing||+2.7|
|Conservative||Robert Bingham Brassey||3,831||52.1||+10.9|
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||+10.9|
Elections in the 1900s
|Liberal gain from Conservative||Swing||+15.1|
Elections in the 1890s
|Liberal||Charles W Thornton||3,074||43.1||−8.2|
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||+8.2|
|Conservative||Llewellyn Malcolm Wynne||3,453||48.7||+2.3|
Elections in the 1880s
|Conservative||Llewellyn Malcolm Wynne||3,184||46.4||+6.5|
|Conservative||Llewellyn Malcolm Wynne||2,944||39.9||+3.5|
|Conservative||Thomas Gibson Bowles||583||36.4||−10.7|
Elections in the 1870s
Elections in the 1860s
|Independent Liberal||Charles Eurwicke Douglas||160||30.1||−24.0|
|Liberal gain from Independent Liberal||Swing||+8.5|
Elections in the 1850s
|Independent Liberal||Charles Eurwicke Douglas||235||54.1||N/A|
|Independent Liberal gain from Liberal||Swing||N/A|
|Independent Liberal||Edward Miall||118||25.1||N/A|
- Caused by Tancred's resignation.
|Whig||Henry William Tancred||216||78.8||N/A|
|Whig||Henry William Tancred||Unopposed|
Elections in the 1840s
|Whig||Henry William Tancred||226||57.9||+12.8|
|Whig||Henry William Tancred||124||45.1||−25.6|
Elections in the 1830s
|Whig||Henry William Tancred||181||70.7||−11.3|
|Whig||Henry William Tancred||205||82.0||N/A|
|Radical||Edward Lloyd Williams||45||18.0||N/A|
|Whig||Henry William Tancred||Unopposed|
|Whig gain from Radical|
|Radical gain from Tory||Swing||N/A|
|Tory gain from Non-partisan|
Banbury is bordered to the north-east by Northamptonshire South, to the east by Buckingham, to the south by Witney and Henley constituencies, to the east by Stratford-upon-Avon and to the north-east by Kenilworth and Southam.
Notes and references
- "Usual Resident Population, 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- "Banbury - Election 2019". BBC News. 13 December 2019. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- Electoral Data – UK Parliament General Election 2015 Electoral Commission
- Banbury constituency profile 2015 (BBC News). Retrieved 12 May 2017.
- Bindoff, p. 30
- List of Conservative MPs elected in 2015 by % majority UK Political.info; Retrieved 29 January 2017
- The public general acts. Incorporated Council of Law Reporting for England and Wales. Proprietors of the Law Journal Reports, 1884.
- Craig, Fred WS (1972). Boundaries of parliamentary constituencies 1885-1972;. Chichester: Political Reference Publications. ISBN 0900178094. OCLC 539011.
- "Representation of the People Act, 1948". legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 1970". legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 1983". legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 1995". legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 2007". legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "Final recommendations report". 2018 Review, Associated consultation documents. Boundary Commission for England. September 2018. Archived from the original on 15 February 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- Banbury in 1835 Old Towns Books & Maps
- Succeeded as baronet, July 1615
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "B" (part 1)
- Created a baronet, June 1663
- Expelled from the House of Commons
- Knollys claimed and used the title Viscount Wallingford, but his claim was disallowed by the House of Lords
- Stooks Smith, Henry (1845). The Parliaments of England, from 1st George I, to the Present Time. Vol II: Oxfordshire to Wales Inclusive. London: Simpkin, Marshall, & Co. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 18 August 2018 – via Google Books.
- "Election News". Northern Star and Leeds General Advertiser. 10 July 1841. p. 23. Retrieved 15 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Churton, Edward (1838). The Assembled Commons or Parliamentary Biographer: 1838. pp. 74, 79. Retrieved 15 November 2018 – via Google Books.
- "Nottingham Review and General Advertiser for the Midland Counties". 25 August 1837. p. 4. Retrieved 15 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "General Election, 1841". Morning Post. 29 June 1841. pp. 2–4. Retrieved 15 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Churton, Edward (1838). The Assembled Commons or Parliamentary Biographer: 1838. p. 220. Retrieved 26 October 2018 – via Google Books.
- "Election Movements in England". Northern Standard. 19 June 1841. p. 1. Retrieved 26 October 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (subscription required)
- Tancred, Henry William (1969). Trinder, Barrie Stuart (ed.). A Victorian M.P. and his constituents: the correspondence of H. W. Tancred, 1841-1859 (Illustrated ed.). Banbury Historical Society. p. 105.
- Potts, A (1969). "The educational work of Sir Bernhard Samuelson (1820-1905) with special reference to technical education" (pdf). Durham E-Theses Online. Durham University. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- Created a baronet, June 1916
- "Banbury Parliamentary constituency". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
- "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "Cherwell District Council". Cherwell District Council. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Banbury Parliamentary Constituency". Election 2017. BBC News.
- "Victoria Prentis selected as Parliamentary Candidate". Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2017. North Oxfordshire Conservatives
- "Oxfordshire PPC Candidates: first in south east". UKIP South East. 12 September 2014. Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
- "Ian Middleton - Green Party Parliamentary Candidate for Banbury". Oxfordshire Green Party.
- Total electorate 88420 from Cherwell District Council elections office, 28 May 2015 and accepted by House of Commons Library, 18 June 2015
- "Politics Resources". Election 1992. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- "Sir Tony’s first victory", Banbury Guardian, 30 March 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2015
- The Times' Guide to the House of Commons. 1950.
- British Parliamentary Election Results 1918–49, FWS Craig
- British parliamentary election results, 1885–1918 (Craig)
- "Complimentary Banquet to L. M. Wynne, Esq". Oxford Journal. 24 September 1892. p. 8. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
- "Representation of Banbury". Derby Telegraph. 19 February 1880. p. 3. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
- "Banbury". Northampton Mercury. 28 March 1874. p. 8. Retrieved 27 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (subscription required)
- "Banbury". Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer. 16 November 1868. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 28 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (subscription required)
- "Banbury". Oxford Times. 22 July 1865. p. 7. Retrieved 28 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (subscription required)
- "The General Election". North Devon Gazette. 24 March 1857. p. 4. Retrieved 7 April 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (subscription required)
- "Election Intelligence". Liverpool Mail. 24 July 1847. p. 5. Retrieved 26 October 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (subscription required)
- "Banbury Election". Northampton Mercury. 3 July 1841. p. 3. Retrieved 26 October 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.(subscription required)
- "Banbury, June 17". Oxford Journal. 19 June 1841. p. 2. Retrieved 26 October 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (subscription required)
- "Tory Misrule!". Public Ledger and Daily Advertiser. 2 January 1835. p. 1. Retrieved 7 September 2019 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Iain Dale, ed. (2003). The Times House of Commons 1929, 1931, 1935. Politico's (reprint). ISBN 1-84275-033-X.
- The Times House of Commons 1945. The Times. 1945.
- The Times House of Commons 1950. The Times. 1950.
- The Times House of Commons 1955. The Times. 1955.
- Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament (London: Longman, Hurst, Res & Orme, 1807) A Chronological Register of Both Houses of the British Parliament, from the Union in 1708, to the Third Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, in 1807
- Stanley T. Bindoff et al. (1982). The House of Commons: 1509 – 1558 ; 1, Appendices, constituencies, members A – C, Volume 4. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 0-436-04282-7. pp. 30–31.
- D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
- F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832–1885 (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
- The Constitutional Year Book for 1913 (London: National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations, 1913)
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