Baby of the House

Baby of the House is the unofficial title given to the youngest member of a parliamentary house. The term is most often applied to members of the British parliament from which the term originated.[1] The title is named after the Father of the House, which is given to the longest serving member of the British and other parliaments.


In Australia the term is rarely used. Most MPs and Senators are elected usually only in their thirties and later but some prominent MPs have been elected rather early in life including Prime Ministers Malcolm Fraser and Paul Keating who were both elected at age 25 in 1955 and 1969 respectively. The youngest Baby of the House was Wyatt Roy. He was elected at age 20 in 2010, being the youngest person ever to be elected to an Australian parliament.[2]

The current Baby of the House is the Member for Herbert Phillip Thompson (age 31). The current Baby of the Senate is Senator Jordon Steele-John (age 25).[3]


The youngest-ever elected member of the House of Commons of Canada is Pierre-Luc Dusseault, who was elected at the age of 19 years and 11 months in 2011. Dusseault is the youngest MP in Canadian history. [4] In the past, MPs such as Sean O'Sullivan, Pierre Poilievre, Andrew Scheer, Claude-André Lachance and Lorne Nystrom have also held the distinction.

Eric Melillo is the youngest MP, representing the riding of Kenora (electoral district), Ontario, a member of the Conservative Party of Canada; born in 1998, elected at 21 years of age.


1970Paavo Väyrynen1946Centre Party
1972Erkki Liikanen1950Social Democratic Party of Finland
1979Pekka Starast1956Social Democratic Party of Finlanddead in 2011
1983Sirpa Pietikäinen1959National Coalition Party
1991Minna Karhunen1967National Coalition Party
1994Kirsi Piha1967National Coalition Party
1995Säde Tahvanainen1972Social Democratic Party of Finland
1999Petri Neittaanmäki1975Centre Party
2003Satu Taiveaho1976Social Democratic Party of Finland
2004Oras Tynkkynen1977Green League
2007Tuomo Puumala1982Centre Party
2011Olli Immonen1986Finns Party
2015Ilmari Nurminen1991Social Democratic Party of Finland
2019Iiris Suomela1994Green League


The youngest member of the French national assembly ever is Marion Maréchal-Le Pen (National Rally), elected in 2012 aged 22.

List of youngest members of the French Parliament

This is a list of youngest members of the French parliament.

1789Mathieu de Montmorency-LavalYvelines 22
1791Edme-Louis BonnerotYonne 24
1815Claude-René Bacot de RomandIndre-et-Loire 22
2012Marion Maréchal-Le PenVaucluse 22
2017Ludovic PajotPas-de-Calais 23

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong the term is rarely used. The current baby of the Legislative Council is Ho Kai-ming whose record was interrupted by Au Nok-hin until Au was disqualified in December 2019. Au was elected in the 2018 Hong Kong Island by-election after three younger members of the Legislative Council, the youngest-ever elected member Nathan Law, as well as Yau Wai-ching and Sixtus Leung were all disqualified over the oath-taking controversy.

1991James ToKowloon Southwest GC United Democrats28
1998Bernard ChanInsurance FC Nonpartisan33
2008Chan Hak-kanNew Territories East GC DAB32
2012Steven HoAgriculture and Fisheries FC DAB32
2016Nathan LawHong Kong Island GC Demosistō23
2016Ho Kai-mingLabour FC FTU31
2018 (b)Au Nok-hinHong Kong Island GC Independent30
2016Ho Kai-mingLabour FC FTU34


The youngest-ever elected member of the National Assembly is Ilona Burka, who became MP at the age of 19 years, 5 months and 13 days on 12 May 1971, following the 1971 parliamentary election.

Member Party Date
Károly Wirth NYKP 1939–1944
András Kis MKP 1944–1945
András Hegedüs MKP 1945
István B. Rácz FKGP 1945–1947
János Gosztonyi NPP 1947–1949
Etel Kurlik MDP 1949–1953
Mária Inklovics MDP
Margit Kaptur MSZMP 1957–1958
Jusztina Csarnai MSZMP 1958–1963
István Ollári MSZMP 1963–1967
István Bartha MSZMP 1967–1971
Ilona Burka MSZMP 1971–1975
Valéria Czégai MSZMP 1975–1980
Ibolya Kovács MSZMP 1980–1985
Márta Danka MSZMP 1985–1989
Edit Bödő-Rózsa Ind. 1989–1990
Béla Glattfelder Fidesz 1990–1993
Róbert Répássy Fidesz 1993–1994
László Botka MSZP 1994–1998
János Zuschlag MSZP 1998–2002
Péter Szijjártó Fidesz 2002–2006
László Nagy MSZP 2006–2010
Dóra Dúró Jobbik 2010–2018
Péter Ungár LMP 2018–present


Elected Member Affiliation Age when elected
2012 Mohammad Hassannejad Independent 31
2016 Fatemeh Hosseini List of Hope 30


In the Republic of Ireland the term is rarely used, as TDs normally enter the Dáil after a political career in local government, usually only in their thirties and later. The current baby of the Dáil is the Fianna Fáil deputy Jack Chambers (Dublin West), who was 25 years old when elected in February 2016.

The youngest TD of all time was William J. Murphy, elected age 21 years 29 days; the youngest female TD was Kathleen O'Connor, 21 years 7 months.

List of Babies of the Dáil

1943Oliver J. FlanaganLaois–Offaly Fine Gael 23
1948Neil BlaneyDonegal East Fianna Fáil 26
1949William J. MurphyCork West Labour Party 21
1951Declan CostelloDublin North-West Fine Gael 24
1956Kathleen O'ConnorKerry North Clann na Poblachta 21
1957Brigid HoganGalway South Fine Gael 24
1958Anthony MillarGalway South Fianna Fáil 23
1961Lorcan AllenWexford Fianna Fáil 21
1965Desmond FoleyDublin County Fianna Fáil 24
1969John BrutonMeath Fine Gael 22
1975Máire Geoghegan-QuinnGalway West Fianna Fáil 24
1975Enda KennyMayo West Fine Gael 24
1977Síle de ValeraDublin County Mid Fianna Fáil 23
1979Myra BarryCork North-East Fine Gael 22
1981Ivan YatesWexford Fine Gael 21
1984Brian CowenLaois–Offaly Fianna Fáil 24
1987Mary CoughlanDonegal South-West Fianna Fáil 21
1995Mildred FoxWicklow Independent 24
1997Denis NaughtenLongford–Roscommon Fine Gael 24
2002Damien EnglishMeath Fine Gael 24
2007Lucinda CreightonDublin South-East Fine Gael 27
2011Simon HarrisWicklow Fine Gael 24
2016Jack ChambersDublin West Fianna Fáil 25

Baby of Seanad Éireann

The youngest senator in Seanad Éireann is Fintan Warfield who was elected as a senator at the age of 24.


In Israel the term is rarely used. The youngest member of the Knesset ever is Moshe Nissim, elected in 1959 aged 24.


The youngest member of the Chamber of Deputies ever is Enzo Lattuca (PD), elected in 2013 aged 25.


The youngest MP in Malawi was Angela Zachepa who was voted in as MP at age 21.[6]


In Malaysia the term is rarely used. Most MPs and Senators are elected usually only in their thirties and later but some prominent MPs have been elected rather early in life including former Prime Minister Najib Razak who was elected at 22 years and 6 months in age in 1976. The youngest-ever elected member of the Dewan Rakyat is Prabakaran Parameswaran, who was elected at the age of 22 years and 3 months in 2018. Prabakaran is the youngest MP in Malaysian history and currently serving as well.[7]

In Malaysia, any citizen 21 years of age or older can become a candidate and be elected to the Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Undangan Negeri.[8] Minimum age for the Senator is 30 by constitution.

New Zealand

The term "Baby of the House" is rarely used in New Zealand. The current Baby of the House is Chlöe Swarbrick of the Green Party, who was elected on 24 September 2017 aged 23.[9] Swarbrick succeeded Todd Barclay of the National Party, who had been elected at the 2014 general election at age 24.[10][11]

Youngest MPs in the New Zealand House of Representatives
NameElectoratePartyDate of birthBecame babyAge
James Stuart-WortleyChristchurch Country Independent 16 January 18331 October 185320 years, 258 days
Augustus WhiteAkaroa Independent 183913 February 186122
Robert CampbellOamaru Independent 8 January 18436 April 186623 years, 88 days
Ralph RichardsonSuburbs of Nelson Independent 184823 January 187122
William PearsonAshley Independent 18549 December 188127
Arthur RhodesGladstone Independent 20 March 185926 September 188728 years, 190 days
Jackson PalmerWaitemata Independent Liberal 18675 December 189023
Patrick O'ReganInangahua Liberal 6 February 186920 December 189324 years, 317 days
Thomas WilfordWellington Suburbs Liberal 20 June 18704 December 189626 years, 167 days
Harry BedfordCity of Dunedin Liberal 31 August 187725 November 190225 years, 86 days
Francis FisherWellington Central Liberal 22 December 18776 December 190527 years, 349 days
Tom SeddonWestland Liberal 2 July 188413 July 190622 years, 11 days
John A. LeeAuckland East Labour 31 October 18917 December 192231 years, 37 days
George BlackMotueka United 21 November 190314 November 192824 years, 359 days
Keith HolyoakeMotueka Reform 11 February 19041 December 193228 years, 294 days
Terry McCombsLyttelton Labour 5 September 190524 July 193529 years, 322 days
Ormond WilsonRangitikei Labour 18 November 190727 November 193528 years, 9 days
Joseph CotterillWanganui Labour 26 September 190515 October 193833 years, 19 days
Tapihana Paraire PaikeaNorthern Maori Labour 26 January 192024 September 194323 years, 241 days
Warren FreerMt Albert Labour 27 December 192024 September 194726 years, 271 days
Jim EdwardsNapier Labour 192713 November 195427
Basil ArthurTimaru Labour 18 September 192821 July 196233 years, 306 days
Brian MacDonellDunedin Central Labour 19 May 193530 November 196328 years, 195 days
Jonathan HuntNew Lynn Labour 2 December 193826 November 196627 years, 359 days
Murray RoseOtago Central National 14 December 193929 November 196929 years, 350 days
Mike MooreEden Labour 28 January 194925 November 197223 years, 302 days
Marilyn WaringRaglan National 7 October 195229 November 197523 years, 53 days
Simon UptonWaikato National 7 February 195828 November 198123 years, 294 days
Nick SmithTasman National 24 December 196427 October 199025 years, 307 days
Nanaia MahutaList Labour 21 August 197012 October 199626 years, 52 days
Darren HughesŌtaki Labour 3 April 197827 July 200224 years, 115 days
Jacinda ArdernList Labour 26 July 19808 November 200828 years, 105 days
Gareth HughesList Green 31 October 198111 February 201028 years, 103 days
Jami-Lee RossBotany National 10 December 19855 March 201125 years, 85 days
Todd BarclayClutha-Southland National 8 June 199020 September 201424 years, 104 days
Chlöe SwarbrickList Green 26 June 199423 September 201723 years, 89 days


In the Congress of the Philippines, the term "Baby of the House" is rarely used, nor is being the youngest member of either chamber given special treatment. The minimum age for being a member of the House of Representatives is 25 years old, while for the Senate, it is 35, as stipulated in the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines. In 1933, Benigno Aquino, Sr. became senator at the age of 33;[12] the Jones Law, which created the Senate, had prescribed the minimum age of 30.

South Africa

The current titleholder is Hlomela Bucwa.


2002Gustav FridolinStockholm Municipality Green 19Minister for Education, 2014–present
2006Annie LööfJönköping County Centre 23Minister for Enterprise, 2011–2014
2010Anton AbeleStockholm Municipality Moderate 18
2014Dennis DioukarevJönköping County Sweden Democrats 21
2015Jesper Skalberg KarlssonGotland County Moderate 21Replaced Gustaf Hoffstedt on 19 January 2015
2018Ebba HermanssonSkåne County Sweden Democrats 22

The current Baby of the House is Ebba Hermansson (entered in September 2018 at the age of 22). The youngest person ever to be elected MP to a Swedish parliament is Anton Abele who was only aged 18 when elected in September 2010.[13] Current record holder for the world's youngest-ever elected MP is Anton Abele, who was at 18 years elected to the Swedish Parliament for his activism against street violence.[14]


At 19 years old, Proscovia Alengot Oromait was the world's youngest MP and youngest ever MP in Africa when elected in 2011. Oromait is a member of the National Resistance Movement (NRM) in Uganda and was a representative of Usuk County until 2016

United Kingdom

Becoming the Baby of the House is regarded as something of an achievement despite the lack of any special treatment that comes with the title. However, some MPs who have held the position for a considerable period – Matthew Taylor was the Baby of the House for over ten years – have found it somewhat embarrassing, as it may suggest that they have a lack of experience, although many holders of the title have gone on to enjoy long and distinguished parliamentary careers.

At the turn of the twenty-first century (August 1999 to September 2001), all three of the leaders of the main political parties had been the youngest MPs in their party when they began their political careers (William Hague, Tony Blair, Charles Kennedy).

Of those whose ages can be verified, the youngest MP since the Reform Act of 1832[15] is Mhairi Black, elected in 2015 aged 20 years 237 days.[16] The age of candidacy for Parliament was lowered from 21 to 18 by the Electoral Administration Act of 2006. William Pitt the Younger was elected at 21 and became Prime Minister two years later in 1783.

List of Babies of the House of Commons

ElectedNameConstituencyPartyAge when elected
1880 (b)James DicksonDungannon Liberal 21
1885Harry Levy-LawsonSt Pancras West Liberal 22
1888 (b)Lord Walter Gordon-LennoxChichester Conservative 22
1890 (b)Henry HarrisonMid Tipperary Irish Parliamentary 22
1891 (b)Victor CavendishWest Derbyshire Conservative 23
1891 (b)Frederick SmithStrand Conservative 23
1892Thomas Bartholomew CurranKilkenny City Irish National Federation 22
1895Viscount MiltonWakefield Liberal Unionist 22
1898 (b)Sir Samuel Scott, BtMarylebone West Conservative 24
1898 (b)Arthur HillWest Down Conservative 24
1900Richard RiggAppleby Liberal 23
1904 (b)Viscount TurnourHorsham Conservative 21
1906Lord WodehouseMid Norfolk Liberal 22
1910Charles Thomas MillsUxbridge Conservative 22
1910Viscount WolmerNewton Liberal 23
1912 (b)Sir Philip Sassoon, BtHythe Conservative 23
1915 (b)John EsmondeNorth Tipperary Irish Parliamentary 21
1916 (b)Patrick Joseph WhittyNorth Louth Irish Parliamentary 21
1917 (b)Lord StanleyLiverpool Abercromby Conservative 22
1918[17]Joseph Aloysius SweeneyWest Donegal Sinn Féin 21
1919 (b)Esmond HarmsworthIsle of Thanet Coalition Conservative 21
1922Arthur EvansLeicester East National Liberal 24
1923Charles RhysRomford Conservative 24
1924Hugh Lucas-ToothIsle of Ely Conservative 21
1929 (b)Jennie LeeNorth Lanarkshire Labour 24
1929Frank OwenHereford Liberal 23
1931Roland RobinsonWidnes Conservative 24
1933 (b)Lord Willoughby de EresbyRutland and Stamford Conservative 25
1935 (b)Charles TaylorEastbourne Conservative 24
1935Malcolm MacmillanWestern Isles Labour 22
1940 (b)John ProfumoKettering Conservative 25
1941 (b)George Charles GreyBerwick-upon-Tweed Liberal 22
1944[18]John ProfumoKettering Conservative 29
1945 (b)Ernest MillingtonChelmsford Common Wealth 29
1945Edward CarsonIsle of Thanet Conservative 25
1948 (b)Roy JenkinsSouthwark Central Labour 27
1950Peter BakerSouth Norfolk Conservative 28
1950 (b)[19]Tony BennBristol South East Labour 25
1950 (b)Thomas TeevanBelfast West UUP 23
1951[20]Tony BennBristol South East Labour 26
1954 (b)John EdenBournemouth West Conservative 28
1954 (b)John WoollamLiverpool West Derby Conservative 27
1955[21]Philip ClarkeFermanagh and South Tyrone Sinn Féin 21
1955[21]Peter KirkGravesend Conservative 27
1956 (b)Marcus KimballGainsborough Conservative 27
1957 (b)Robert CookeBristol West Conservative 26
1958 (b)[22]Basil de FerrantiMorecambe and Lonsdale Conservative 28
1958 (b)Patrick Wolrige-GordonEast Aberdeenshire Conservative 23
1959 (b)Paul ChannonSouthend West Conservative 23
1964Teddy TaylorGlasgow Cathcart Conservative 27
1965 (b)David SteelRoxburgh, Selkirk and Peebles Liberal 26
1966John RyanUxbridge Labour 25
1967 (b)Les HuckfieldNuneaton Labour 24
1969 (b)Bernadette DevlinMid Ulster Unity 21
Feb 1974Dafydd Elis-ThomasMerioneth Plaid Cymru 27
Oct 1974Hélène HaymanWelwyn and Hatfield Labour 25
1977 (b)Andrew MacKayBirmingham Stechford Conservative 27
1979 (b)David AltonLiverpool Edge Hill Liberal 28
1979Stephen DorrellLoughborough Conservative 27
1981 (b)[23]Bobby SandsFermanagh and South Tyrone Anti H-Block 27
1981[18]Stephen DorrellLoughborough Conservative 29
1981 (b)[23]Owen CarronFermanagh and South Tyrone Anti H-Block 28
1983Charles KennedyRoss, Cromarty and Skye Social Democratic 23
1987 (b)Matthew TaylorTruro Liberal 24
1997[24]Chris LeslieShipley Labour 24
2000 (b)David LammyTottenham Labour 27
2003 (b)Sarah TeatherBrent East Liberal Democrats 29
2005Jo SwinsonEast Dunbartonshire Liberal Democrats 25
2009 (b)Chloe SmithNorwich North Conservative 27
2010Pamela NashAirdrie and Shotts Labour 25
2015Mhairi BlackPaisley and Renfrewshire South SNP 20
2019Nadia Whittome Nottingham East Labour 23

[ (b) – by-election]

Youngest member of the House of Lords

The title 'Baby of the House' is not used in the House of Lords, though the youngest member is recorded on the House website.[25] The youngest life peer and youngest woman in the House is Baroness Penn (born 1985) who was created a life peer in October 2019. The youngest man in the House of Lords is Lord Parkinson of Whitley Bay (born 1983) who was created a life peer in October 2019.

Standing Orders state that "No Lord under the age of one and twenty years shall be permitted to sit in the House". When most members of the Lords were hereditary peers, a peer who had inherited his or her peerage(s) while under age was entitled to take a seat on the day before his or her 21st birthday. In theory, such a hereditary peer could still be elected to sit in the House at that age; in practice, the youngest hereditary peer to have been elected was Lord Freyberg (born 15 December 1970), who was elected in October 1999 at the age of 28. Hereditary peer Lord Redesdale (born 18 July 1967) was created a life peer on 18 April 2000 at the age of 32, becoming the youngest ever life peer, to enable him to continue to sit after the removal of the majority of hereditary peers.

List of youngest members of the Scottish Parliament

This is a list of youngest members of the Scottish Parliament created in 1999.

ElectedNameConstituency/regionPartyAge when elected
1999Duncan HamiltonHighlands and Islands region SNP 25[26]
2003Richard BakerNorth East Scotland region Labour 28
2007John LamontEttrick, Roxburgh and Berwickshire constituency Conservative 31
2011Humza YousafGlasgow region SNP 26
2016Ross GreerWest Scotland region Scottish Green 21

List of youngest members of the National Assembly for Wales

This is a list of youngest members of the National Assembly for Wales created in 1999.

ElectedNameConstituency/regionPartyDOBAge when elected
1999Jonathan MorganSouth Wales Central Conservative19 March 197425
2003Laura Ann JonesSouth Wales East Conservative21 February 197924
2007Bethan JenkinsSouth Wales West Plaid Cymru9 December 198125
2016Steffan LewisSouth Wales East Plaid Cymru30 May 198431
2018 (b)Jack SargeantAlyn and Deeside Labour199424/25

United States

While the term is used in the Commonwealth Parliaments, Baby of the House or Senate is not in general contemporary use in the United States, nor does being the youngest member confer special treatment in either house of Congress.

Members of the US Congress tend to be older than parliamentarians elsewhere in the English-speaking world, a main factor being that the minimum ages for members of Congress is written into Article One of the United States Constitution, which forbids those under the age of 25 from serving in the House, and those under the age of 30 from serving in the Senate. Moreover, election to the federal Congress is expensive and requires extensive contacts and recognition across a very wide area. Individuals aiming to serve in the federal legislature generally seek election to the state legislature (which generally have lower minimum ages for entry) or other state office before seeking to serve in Washington.

In the 116th Congress, which began on 3 January 2019, the youngest member of the United States House of Representatives is Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, who was born on (1989-10-03) 3 October 1989, and was first elected in 2018. She is also the youngest woman elected to the House in U.S. history.[27]

Currently the youngest US Senator is Josh Hawley, born on (1979-12-31) 31 December 1979, and first elected in 2018.

See also


  1. of the House: House of Commons Background Paper – Commons Library Standard Note from UK Parliament, accessed on 1 January 2015.
  2. "Australia's youngest MP says future PM suggestion is 'ridiculous'". 4 October 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  3. "Jordon Steele-John, the 'political nerd' who is ringing the changes". The Guardian. 11 November 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  4. Banerjee, Sidhartha (4 May 2011). "19-year-old sets record as youngest MP; NDPer planned summer job at golf course". The Canadian Press.
  5. Nasrin Vaziri. "اعضای هیات رئیسه سنی در 10 مجلس شورای اسلامی/چهار رئیس سنی تا کنون درگذشته‌اند" (in Persian). Khabar Online. Archived from the original on 26 May 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 2 November 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. "Malaysia's youngest MP Prabakaran joins PKR". Malay Mail. 13 May 2018. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
  8. "Penjalanan Pilihan Raya: Calon". Election Commission of Malaysia. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
  9. "Chloe Swarbrick, 23, set to become NZ's youngest MP in 42 years". The New Zealand Herald. 23 September 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  10. Rutherford, Hamish (29 April 2014). "Who is National's Todd Barclay?". Retrieved 21 September 2014.
  11. "Election 2014: Southland decides". The Southland Times. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  12. "FAST FACTS: Trivia on the Philippine Senate". Rappler. 16 October 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  13. Anton, 18, to be youngest ever Swedish MP – The Local Archived 15 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  14. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 June 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. Prior to 1832 minors could be elected; precise information on those MPs is often unclear.
  16. MacAskill, Ewen; Ratcliffe, Rebecca (8 May 2015). "Mhairi Black: the 20-year-old who beat a Labour heavyweight". Retrieved 6 January 2018 via
  17. Joseph Aloysius Sweeney did not take his seat; the youngest MP actually sitting in the House of Commons was Oswald Mosley (Conservative, aged 22).
  18. Became the youngest MP for a second time, on the death of the previous youngest MP.
  19. Tony Benn was first elected at the Bristol South East by-election, 1950, aged 25, the day after Thomas Teevan, who was aged 23, but Benn took the oath the day before Teevan, and so was Baby of the House for a single day.
  20. Tony Benn became the youngest MP again after the 1951 general election, on the defeat of Teevan.
  21. Elected on an abstentionist ticket, Philip Clarke did not take his seat. Peter Kirk was first elected at the 1955 general election, when he became the youngest MP to take his seat, but only became the youngest MP with the disqualification of Philip Clarke later in the year.
  22. Basil de Ferranti was the youngest MP for 15 days between his taking his seat after the 1958 Morecambe and Lonsdale by-election and Patrick Wolrige-Gordon taking his seat after the East Aberdeenshire by-election, 1958.
  23. Elected on an abstentionist ticket, Bobby Sands and Owen Carron did not take their seats; Stephen Dorrell remained the youngest MP actually sitting in the House of Commons.
  24. Although several sources claim Claire Ward was the youngest MP during this period, she was 50 days older than Chris Leslie.
  25. Parliament.UK – House of Lords FAQS – Membership and principal office holders at
  26. McColm, Euan (8 March 2017). "This time the SNP will get real". The Scotsman. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  27. Hess, Abigail (7 November 2018). "29-year-old Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez makes history as the youngest woman ever elected to Congress". Retrieved 27 November 2018.


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