Autonomous administrative divisions of India
The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India allows for the formation of Autonomous District Councils to administer areas which have been given autonomy within their respective states. Most of these autonomous district councils are located in North East India but two are in the Ladakh region of Northern India. Presently, 10 Autonomous district Councils under Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura are under Sixth Schedule.
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In Assam there are 9 Autonomous Councils, 3 of which fall under the Sixth-Schedule of the Indian Constitution.
The Autonomous Councils under Sixth schedule are:
Bodoland Territorial Council
The Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) has legislative, administrative, executive and financial powers over 40 policy areas in the Bodoland Territorial Areas Districts comprising 4 Administrative Districts as- Udalguri, Baksa, Chirang, Kokrajhar comprising various protected tribal belts and blocks in Assam and 40 Elected Representatives to the BTC Legislative Assembly and provisions for 6 Nominated Members to be nominated by the Governor of Assam from the unrepresented communities in the BTCLA through direct election in the districts of Assam. It was established in 2003 following a peace agreement between the Government of India and Bodo Liberation Tigers and is functioning since 2003 under the provision of the Amended Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India. The first Chief Executive Member of the BTC was Hagrama Mohilary. Its predecessor body Bodoland Autonomous Council was functional with lesser power.
North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council
The North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council (NCHAC) is an autonomous council constituted under the provisions of the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India to administer the district and to develop the hill people.
Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council
The Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council (KAAC), is an autonomous district council in Karbi Anglong district constituted under the provision of Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India for the development of Karbi people.
Its headquarter is at Diphu in Karbi Anglong district.
Sadar Hills Autonomous District Council
The Sadar Hills Autonomous District Council (SHADC) covers Saikul Subdivision, Saitu Subdivision and Sadar Hills West Subdivision in Kangpokpi District of Manipur. It is one of the six autonomous district councils in Manipur.
- Chandel Autonomous District Council
- Churachandpur Autonomous District Council
- Senapati Autonomous District Council
- Tamenglong Autonomous District Council
- Ukhrul Autonomous District Council
Following demands of Ladakhi people for the area to become a new union territory, due to perceived religious and cultural differences with the rest of Jammu and Kashmir, the government of India formed two autonomous hill development councils to administer the Kargil and Leh districts.
Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Kargil
Meghalaya has 3 autonomous district councils under Sixth Schedule, which are:
Garo Hills Autonomous District Council
The Garo Hills Autonomous District Council (GHADC) is constituted for the development of Garo people and covers East Garo Hills district, West Garo Hills district, South Garo Hills, North Garo Hills district and South West Garo Hills district. It has headquarter in Tura.
Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council
The Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council (JHADC) is constituted for the development of Jaintia people. It has headquarter in Jowai and covers the West Jaintia Hills district and East Jaintia Hills district.
Chakma Autonomous District Council
Lai Autonomous District Council
Mara Autonomous District Council
Mara Autonomous District Council (MADC) is an autonomous council for the Mara people living in the Southern part of Mizoram.It covers Siaha subdivision and Tipa subdivision of Siaha district.
Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council
The Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council (TTAADC) is an independent council administering the tribal areas of the state of Tripura. Its council and assembly are situated in Khumulwng, a town 20 km outside Agartala, the state capital. The TTAADC is governed by a council which has 30 members. Out of 30 members, 28 members are elected through adult suffrage while 2 members are nominated by the Governor of Tripura. Out of 28 elected seats, 25 are reserved for Scheduled Tribes. The total area of the TTAADC is 7,132.56 km².(4431.97 sq miles), which covers about 68% of the total area (10,491 km²) of the state.
Total population of the state is 3,673,917(as per 2011 census) the total population of Scheduled Tribes is 853,920 (30.95%), out of which about 679,720 (79.59%) population are within the TTAADC area.
In West Bengal
Gorkhaland Territorial Administration
Gorkhaland Territorial Administration (GTA) is a semi-autonomous administrative body for the Darjeeling hills in West Bengal, India. The GTA replaced the Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council, which was formed in 1988 and administered the Darjeeling hills for 23 years. GTA presently has three hill subdivisions Darjeeling, Kalimpong, and Kurseong and some areas of Siliguri subdivision under its authority. It has headquarter in Darjeeling.
De facto autonomous
North Sentinel Island
North Sentinel Island is situated in the island chain of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands which is a union territory of India. It is home to the Sentinelese people, who are some of the world's last uncontacted peoples. They reject any contact with other people and are among the last people to remain virtually untouched by modern civilization. There has never been any treaty with the people of the island nor any record of a physical occupation.
The local government (Andaman and Nicobar Islands) has stated that they have no intention to interfere with the Sentinelese's lifestyle or habitat. Although the island is likely to have suffered seriously from the effects of the December 2004 tsunami, the survival of the Sentinelese was confirmed when, some days after the event, an Indian government helicopter observed several of them, who shot arrows at the hovering aircraft to repel it.
Although this has not been done with any formal treaty, the official policy of minimal interference has ensured that they have de facto autonomy and sovereignty over their island under the framework of the Indian and local governments.
- "About TTAADC". Total area of the TTAADC. 23 March 1979.
- "Gorkhaland Territorial Administration Agreement signed". Outlook. July 18, 2011. Archived from the original on 3 June 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
- "Pact signed for Gorkhaland Territorial Administration". The Hindu. July 18, 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
- The Sentineli Archived March 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Administration in India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands has finally decided upon a policy of minimal interference". Archived from the original on 2012-09-14. Retrieved 2008-08-21.