Australian non-residential architectural styles

Australian non-residential architectural styles are a set of Australian architectural styles that apply to buildings used for purposes other than residence and have been around only since the first colonial government buildings of early European settlement of Australia in 1788.

Their distribution follows closely the establishment and growth of the different colonies of Australia, in that the earliest colonial buildings can be found in New South Wales and Tasmania.

The classifications set out below are derived from a leading Australian text.[1]

Old Colonial Period (1788c.1840)

  • Old Colonial Georgian; Old Colonial Regency; Old Colonial Grecian; Old Colonial Gothic Picturesque

Georgian

Regency

Grecian

Gothic Picturesque

Victorian period (c.1840c.1890)

The Victorian period, generally aligned with the reign of Queen Victoria, covers the period from c.1840 to c.1890 and comprises fifteen styles, all prefaced by the word "Victorian", and are namely, in loose chronological order, Georgian, Regency, Egyptian, Academic Classical, Free Classical, Filigree, Mannerist, Second Empire, Italianate, Romanesque, Byzantine, Academic Gothic, Free Gothic, Tudor, Rustic Gothic, and Carpenter Gothic.

Victorian Georgian

Victorian Regency

Victorian Egyptian

Victorian Academic Classical

Victorian Free Classical

Victorian Filigree

Victorian Mannerist

Notable examples in Australia include: Culwulla Chambers (Sydney); Old Police Station, The Rocks Block Arcade (Melbourne); Stalbridge Chambers (Melbourne), National Bank Pall Mall (Bendigo); RESI Chambers (Melbourne); Lygon Buildings, Medley Hall (Carlton, Victoria); Former Money Order Post Office and Savings Bank (Melbourne); Mutual Store (Melbourne);

Victorian Second Empire

Notable examples include: Sydney Town Hall (Sydney); Hotel Windsor (Melbourne); Princess Theatre (Melbourne); Former Records Office (Melbourne); Melbourne General Post Office (Melbourne); Melbourne Town Hall (Melbourne); East Melbourne Synagogue (East Melbourne, Victoria); Royal Exhibition Building (Carlton, Victoria); Collingwood Town Hall (Collingwood, Victoria); South Melbourne Town Hall (South Melbourne, Victoria); Malvern Town Hall (Malvern, Victoria); Former Rechabite Hall (Prahran, Victoria); Brunswick Town Hall (Brunswick, Victoria); Camberwell Town Hall (Camberwell, Victoria); Bendigo Town Hall (Bendigo, Victoria); Shamrock Hotel (Bendigo Victoria); Bendigo Courthouse (Bendigo, Victoria); Bendigo Post Office (Bendigo, Victoria); Institute of Technology (Bendigo, Victoria); Queensland Parliament House (Brisbane)

Victorian Italianate

Victorian Romanesque

Victorian Renaissance Revival

Victorian Byzantine

Victorian Academic Gothic

Victorian Ecclesiastical Gothic

Victorian Free Gothic

Victorian Tudor (Jacobethan)

Victorian Rustic Gothic

Victorian Carpenter Gothic

Edwardian period (c.1890s1910)

Edwardian architecture is generally less ornate than high or late Victorian architecture,[21] apart from a subset - used for major buildings - known as Edwardian Baroque architecture.

Edwardian Baroque

Notable examples include the Lands Administration Building in Brisbane, the Queen Victoria Hospital, Melbourne (main pavilion, now Queen Victoria Women's Centre), the Commonwealth Offices, Treasury Place, Melbourne, the Department of Education building in Sydney (1912)[22] and the General Post Office in Hobart.

Federation period (c.1890c.1915)

12 styles, each style name prefaced by "Federation":

Academic Classical, Free Classical, Filigree, Anglo-Dutch, Romanesque, Gothic, Carpenter Gothic, Warehouse, Queen Anne, Free Style, Arts and Crafts, Bungalow

Federation Academic Classical

Federation Free Classical

Notable examples include: Sydney Hospital (Sydney), Taronga Zoo Pavilion (Sydney), the main terminus building of the Central railway station in Sydney,[23] Flinders Street station (Melbourne), Sacred Heart Church (St Kilda, Victoria), Read's Emporium (Prahran, Victoria), Old Royal Hotel (Williamstown, Victoria), the former Queensland Lands Administration Building (Brisbane).

Federation Second Empire

Federation Filigree

Federation Anglo-Dutch

Federation Romanesque

Federation Gothic

Federation Carpenter Gothic

Federation Warehouse

Federation Queen Anne

Federation Free Style

Federation Arts and Crafts

Federation Bungalow

Inter-War period (c.1915'c.1940)

16 styles, each style name prefaced by "Inter-War":

Georgian Revival, Academic Classical, Free Classical, Beaux-Arts, Stripped Classical, Commercial Palazzo, Mediterranean, Spanish Mission, Chicagoesque, Functionalist & Modern, Art-Deco, Skyscraper Gothic, Romanesque, Interwar Gothic, Old English, California Bungalow

Inter-war Georgian Revival

Inter-war Academic Classical

Inter-war Free Classical

Inter-war Beaux Arts

Inter-war Stripped Classical

Inter-war Commercial Palazzo

Inter-war Mediterranean

Inter-war Art Deco

Federation Skyscraper Gothic

Inter-war Chicagoesque

Inter-war Functionalist & Moderne

Interwar Gothic

Inter-war Old English (20th Century Tudorbethan)

Federation Functionalist & Moderne

The functionist and moderne style often used combinations of blonde and brown bricks in linear vertical or horizontal patterns. Notable examples include: Museum of Contemporary Art (Sydney); Captain's Flat Hotel (NSW); Russell Street Police Headquarters (Melbourne); Astor Theatre (St Kilda, Victoria); Ballarat Law Courts (Ballarat);

Post-War Period (c. 19401960)

5 styles, each style name prefaced by "Post-War":

Ecclesiastical, International, Modern

Ecclesiastical

International

Modern

Late Twentieth-Century Period 19602000

14 styles, each style name prefaced by "Late Twentieth Century":

Stripped Classical, Ecclesiastical, International, Organic, Brutalist, Structuralist, Late Modern, Post Modern, Immigrants' Nostalgic

Stripped Classical

International

Organic

Brutalist

Notable examples include: Sydney Masonic Centre/Civic Tower (Sydney); AAPT Centre (Sydney); Sydney Law School (Sydney); Cameron Offices (Canberra); High Court of Australia (Canberra); State Library of Queensland (Brisbane); Queensland Performing Arts Centre (Brisbane); Law Courts (Brisbane); Suncorp Metway Plaza (Brisbane); National Gallery of Victoria (Melbourne); Total carpark (Melbourne); World Trade Center (Melbourne); Harold Holt Memorial Swimming Pool (Malvern, Victoria); St Kilda Public Library (St Kilda, Victoria); Plumbing Trades Employees Union of Australia Building (Melbourne); University of Melbourne Faculty of Engineering (Melbourne); Metropolitan Fire Brigade (East Melbourne, Victoria); R.A.W. Woodgate Centre (Kew, Victoria); UTS Tower (University of Technology, Sydney); St Anthony's Church (Marsfield, Sydney). See Category:Brutalist architecture in Australia.

Structuralist

Late Modern

Post Modern

A subset of postmodernism is mock-historicism tries to imitate historic styles using modern materials to the point where it is difficult to tell them apart from historic buildings. The most imitated styles are those that are easiest to clone (including the Georgian style).

Deconstructivist

Notable examples include Green Building RMIT; Deakin University main building; Australian Centre for Contemporary Art; Gottlieb House (Melbourne)

Immigrant's Nostalgic

21st-century architecture

Several new and continued 20th-century styles, all prefaced with "21st-century" - Deconstructivist, Post modern, Structuralist, Sustainable, Modern

Deconstructivist

Notable examples include Fed Square; Shrine of Remembrance crypt; Sofo House (Melbourne) Swan Bells (Perth)

Post Modern

Structuralist

Advanced structuralism facilitated by Computer Aided Design

Sustainable

Notable examples in Australia include: 60L (Melbourne); CH2 (Melbourne); K2 Apartments (Windsor, Victoria); Dunc Gray Velodrome (Sydney); Forest EcoCentre (Tasmania); Rozak House (Noonamah, Northern Territory).

Green building

Modern

See also

References

  1. Apperly, Richard; Irving, Robert; Reynolds, Peter (1989). A pictorial guide to identifying Australian architecture (Paperback, 1994 ed.). Sydney, Australia: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-207-18562-5.
  2. "Ballarat Railway Complex". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Council of Victoria. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  3. "Brisbane Customs House (former) (entry 600156)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
  4. "Fitzroy Town Hall". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Council of Victoria. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  5. Hutchinson, David (1987). Fremantle Town Hall, 1887-1987. City of Fremantle. ISBN 0731602005.
  6. "Goulburn Court House and Residence". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  7. "Architects of South Australia - Architect Details - Frost, Thomas". Architects of South Australia. Architecture Museum, University of South Australia. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  8. "North Sydney Post Office". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H01417. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  9. "Paddington Post Office". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H01418. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  10. "Paddington Town Hall". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H00561. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  11. "General Post Office". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H00763. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  12. Thalis, Philip; Cantril, Peter John (2013). Public Sydney: Drawing the City. Sydney, Australia: Historic Houses Trust and Content, Faculty of Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Australia. pp. 112–117. ISBN 9781876991425.
  13. "Gresham Hotel". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H00291. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  14. "Sydney Trades Hall". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H00322. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  15. "Police Station (former) - Australian Craftworks Gallery". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H01571. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  16. "Glebe Town Hall Including Interior Fence and Grounds". New South Wales Heritage Database. Office of Environment and Heritage. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  17. Cummins, Audrey (25 September 2011). "St Andrew's Manly". The Sydney Organ Journal. Organ Historical Trust of Australia. 29 (3, Winter 1998).
  18. "Lands Department Building". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage.
  19. "Bank of NSW". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H00080. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  20. "Great Synagogue". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H01710. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  21. "Bricks & Brass: Edwardian Style". Bricksandbrass.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
  22. "Department of Education Building". NSW State Heritage Register. Office of Environment & Heritage, Government of New South Wales. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  23. "Central Railway Station and Sydney Terminal Group". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  24. "Sydney Architecture Images- Newtown Post Office". sydneyarchitecture.com. Retrieved 2019-10-13.
  25. "Sydney Architecture Images- Newtown Post Office". sydneyarchitecture.com. Retrieved 2019-10-13.
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  28. "Sydney Architecture Images- Newtown Post Office". sydneyarchitecture.com. Retrieved 2019-10-13.
  29. "Sydney Architecture Images- Newtown Post Office". sydneyarchitecture.com. Retrieved 2019-10-13.
  30. "Corn Exchange". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H01619. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
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