Attorney General of Hawaii
The Attorney General of Hawaii (Hawaiian: Loio Kuhina) is the chief legal officer and chief law enforcement officer of Hawaii. In present-day statehood within the United States, the Attorney General is appointed by the elected governor with the approval of the state senate and is responsible for a state department charged with advising the various other departments and agencies of state government. The Attorney General is responsible for the prosecution of offenses under state law. The Attorney General can only be removed by an act of the state senate. In rare occasions, the Attorney General serves as acting governor in the absence of both the governor and lieutenant governor from the state for an extended period of time.
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The office has existed in several forms throughout the history of the Hawaiian Islands. It was created by Kamehameha III and was part of the administration of each successive monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii. The office was kept in the provisional government, after Liliuokalani and the monarchy was overthrown, and became a part of the succeeding administration of the Republic of Hawaii. A regular part of the American model of the executive branch of government, the office of attorney general was part of the Territory of Hawaii under Section 80 of the Hawaiian Organic Act and made an appointed office after statehood was achieved in 1959.
Though a non-partisan office, in territorial days the office of Attorney General has traditionally been appointed from the political party of the sitting President of the United States who appoints the territorial governor. Similarly in statehood, the office of Attorney General has traditionally been appointed from the incumbent governor's political party, usually Republican or Democrat.
The Attorney General leads a department of 180 attorneys and 500 professional and support personnel. The department oversees various public services. These include administering the Hawaii Criminal Justice Data Center, running the Missing Child Center, Child Support Enforcement Agency, Hawaii Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force, Hawaii Internet and Technology Crimes Unit, Office of Child Support Hearings, Tobacco Enforcement Unit, among others. In accordance with Chapter 846E of the Hawaii Revised Statutes, the Criminal Justice Data Center maintains a registry of sex offenders in the state. Likewise, the agency provides other criminal history information through the statewide criminal history record information system and Automated Fingerprint Identification System.
John Ricord served as the first Attorney General of Hawaii. He arrived in the Kingdom on February 27, 1844 on the Columbia. He was the first Western-trained lawyer in the islands. The previous year a land dispute by Richard Charlton led to a British occupation known as the Paulet Affair. A related case of Ladd & Co. required lengthy arbitration. These cases would consume his entire time on the islands. Within a few weeks he swore allegiance to Kamehameha III and on March 9, 1844, was appointed first Attorney General. In July 1845 he joined the Privy Council. On October 29, 1845, the executive branch of the government was formally organized through legislation he proposed. On May 17, 1847, he resigned all his offices, and on June 12 was released from his oath of allegiance, so he could resume his citizenship of the United States. He left August 19, 1847. The office of Attorney General was suspended until the 1860s. His work on organizing the courts was taken over by the second trained attorney to arrive in the islands, William Little Lee.
On August 26, 1862, Kamehameha IV revived the office and appointed Charles Coffin Harris as Attorney General. Having an attorney general proved useful on constitutional matters. Kamehameha V insisted on a new constitution that would restore some of the power to the monarchy that had been lost over time. Harris issued his legal opinion that the king had such a right and produced an early draft. A constitutional convention failed to reach agreement, so Harris got the cabinet to negotiate directly with Kamehameha V leading to the promulgation of the 1864 Constitution.
A more modern controversy happened with the failed 1998 confirmation by the state senate of popular sitting Attorney General Margery Bronster, as political payback for her actions to reform the corrupt Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate whose trustees were friends of various powerful legislators, many Hawaiʻi residents called for the right to elect the attorney general. Several attempts failed to create the constitutional amendment.
List of Attorneys General
Kingdom of Hawaii
|Name||Portrait||Term start||Term end|
|John Ricord||March 9, 1844||May 17, 1847|
|Charles Coffin Harris||August 26, 1862||December 21, 1865|
|Charles Coffin Harris (acting)||March 26, 1866||September 12, 1866|
|Stephen Henry Phillips||September 12, 1866||January 10, 1873|
|Albert Francis Judd||January 13, 1873||February 19, 1874|
|Alfred S. Hartwell||February 18, 1874||May 28, 1874|
|Richard H. Stanley||May 28, 1874||November 5, 1875|
|John Smith Walker||November 5, 1875||February 15, 1876|
|William Richards Castle||February 15, 1876||December 5, 1876|
|Alfred S. Hartwell||December 5, 1876||July 3, 1878|
|Edward Preston||July 13, 1878||August 14, 1880|
|W. Claude Jones||August 14, 1880||September 27, 1880|
|John Smith Walker||September 27, 1880||November 29, 1880|
|William Nevins Armstrong||November 29, 1880||January 17, 1881|
|Henry A. P. Carter||January 17, 1881||November 5, 1881|
|William Nevins Armstrong||November 5, 1881||May 19, 1882|
|Edward Preston||May 19, 1882||May 14, 1883|
|Walter M. Gibson (acting)||May 14, 1883||December 14, 1883|
|Paul Neumann||December 14, 1883||June 30, 1886|
|Walter M. Gibson (ad interim)||September 18, 1884||August 3, 1885|
|John T. Dare||July 1, 1886||October 13, 1886|
|John Lot Kaulukou||October 13, 1886||October 23, 1886|
|Antone Rosa||November 15, 1886||June 28, 1887|
|Clarence W. Ashford||July 1, 1887||June 14, 1890|
|Arthur P. Peterson||June 17, 1890||February 25, 1891|
|William A. Whiting||February 25, 1891||July 27, 1892|
|Paul Neumann||August 29, 1892||August 30, 1892|
|Paul Neumann||September 12, 1892||October 17, 1892|
|Charles F. Creighton||November 1, 1892||November 1, 1892|
|Cecil Brown||November 8, 1892||January 12, 1893|
|Arthur P. Peterson||January 13, 1893||January 17, 1893|
Republic of Hawaii
|Name||Portrait||Term start||Term end|
|William Owen Smith||January 17, 1893||October 25, 1895|
|Francis M. Hatch (interim)||October 25, 1895||November 6, 1895|
|Henry E. Cooper (interim)||November 6, 1895||December 13, 1895|
|William Owen Smith||December 13, 1895||February 10, 1897|
|Henry E. Cooper (interim)||February 10, 1897||April 11, 1897|
|William Owen Smith||April 11, 1897||March 20, 1899|
Territory of Hawaii
- Henry Ernest Cooper, 1899–1900
- Edmund Pearson Dole, 1900–1903
- Lorrin Andrews, 1903–1905 (grandson of missionary Lorrin Andrews)
- Emil C. Peters, 1905–1907
- Charles R. Hemenway, 1907–1910
- Alexander Lindsay Jr., 1910–1912
- Wade Warren Thayer, 1913–1914
- Ingram M. Stainback, 1914–1918
- Arthur G. Smith, 1918
- Harry Irwin, 1918–1922
- John A. Matthewman, 1922–1925
- William B. Lymer, 1925–1928
- Harry P. Hewitt, 1928–1934
- William B. Pittman, 1934–1936
- S. B. Kemp, 1937–1938
- Joseph V. Hodgson, 1938–1942
- Ernest K. Kai, 1942
- J. Garner Anthony, 1942–1943
- Cyrus Nils Tavares, 1944–1947
- Walter D. Ackerman Jr., 1947–1952
- Michiro Watanabe, 1952–1953
- Edward N. Sylva, 1953–1956
- Richard K. Sharpless, 1956–1957
- Shiro Kashiwa, 1957
- Herbert Young Cho Choy, 1957–1958
- Jack H. Mizuha, 1958–1959
State of Hawaii
- Jack H. Mizuha, 1959
- Shiro Kashiwa, 1959–1963
- George T. H. Pai
- Wayne Minami
- Tany S. Hong
- Michael A. Lilly, 1984–1985
- Corinne K. A. Watanabe
- Warren Price, III 1986–1992
- Robert A. Marks 1992–95
- Margery Bronster, 1995–1998
- Earl I. Anzai, 1999–2002
- Mark J. Bennett, 2003–2010
- David M. Louie, 2011–2014
- Russell Suzuki (Acting), 2014–2015
- Doug Chin, 2015–2018
- Russell Suzuki, 2018–2019
- Clare E. Connors, 2019-present
- Lovell, Blaze. "Ige Selects Trial Lawyer To Be Hawaii's New Attorney General". Honolulu Civil Beat. Honolulu Civil Beat Inc.
- Attorney General's Office
- Hawaii Criminal Justice Data Center Sex Offender Search
- Hawaii Criminal Justice Data Center
- Jon M. Van Dyke (2008). Who owns the Crown lands of Hawaii?. University of Hawaii Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-8248-3211-7.
- Frear, Walter F. (1894). "Evolution of the Hawaiian Judiciary". Papers of the Hawaiian Historical Society. Honolulu: Hawaiian Historical Society (7). hdl:10524/966.
- John Ricord; Stephen H. Williams; James F. B. Marshall (1846). Report of the proceedings and evidence in the arbitration between the King and Government of the Hawaiian Islands and Messrs. Ladd & Co., before Messrs. Stephen H. Williams & James F. B. Marshall, arbitrators under compact. C.E. Hitchcock, printer, Hawaiian Government press.
- "Ricord, John office record". state archives digital collections. state of Hawaii. Archived from the original on 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2010-03-12.
- "Passport records". state archives digital collections. state of Hawaii. Retrieved 2010-03-12.
- "Attorney General's Department - Organization of" (PDF). state archives digital collections. state of Hawaii. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2010-03-12.
- "Attorney General, office record" (PDF). state archives digital collections. state of Hawaii. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 July 2010. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- Phillip H. Harris (1993). "Charles Coffin Harris: An Uncommon Life in the Law". Hawaiian Journal of History. Hawaiian Historical Society. hdl:10524/224.
- Newbury, Colin (2001). "Patronage and Bureaucracy in the Hawaiian Kingdom, 1840–1893". Pacific Studies. Laie, HI: Brigham Young University, Hawaii Campus. 24 (1–2): 1–38. OCLC 607265842. Archived from the original on 2012-04-15.
- Hawaii Attorney General official website