Atlanta compromise

The Atlanta compromise was an agreement struck in 1895 between Booker T. Washington, president of the Tuskegee Institute, other African-American leaders, and Southern white leaders.[1][2] It was first supported, and later opposed by W. E. B. Du Bois and other African-American leaders.

The agreement was that Southern blacks would work and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic education and due process in law.[3][4] Blacks would not focus their demands on equality, integration, or justice, and Northern whites would fund black educational charities.[5][6]

Social impact

The compromise was announced on September 18, 1895 at the Atlanta Exposition Speech. The primary architect of the compromise, on behalf of the African-Americans, was Booker T. Washington, president of the Tuskegee Institute. Supporters of Washington and the Atlanta compromise were termed the "Tuskegee Machine".

The agreement was never written down. Essential elements of the agreement were that blacks would not ask for the right to vote, they would not retaliate against racist behavior, they would tolerate segregation and discrimination, that they would receive free basic education, education would be limited to vocational or industrial training (for instance as teachers or nurses), liberal arts education would be prohibited (for instance, college education in the classics, humanities, art, or literature).[7][8]

After the turn of the 20th century, other black leaders, most notably W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter  (a group Du Bois would call The Talented Tenth), took issue with the compromise, instead believing that African-Americans should engage in a struggle for civil rights. W. E. B. Du Bois coined the term "Atlanta Compromise" to denote the agreement. The term "accommodationism" is also used to denote the essence of the Atlanta compromise.

After Washington's death in 1915, supporters of the Atlanta compromise gradually shifted their support to civil rights activism, until the Civil Rights Movement commenced in the 1950s.

Du Bois believed that the Atlanta race riot of 1906 was a consequence of the Atlanta Compromise.[9]

See also


  1. (Lewis 2009, pp. 180–181)
  2. (Croce 2001, pp. 1–3)
  3. (Lewis 2009, pp. 180–181))
  4. (Croce 2001, pp. 1–3)
  5. (Lewis 2009, pp. 180–181)
  6. (Croce 2001, pp. 1–3)
  7. (Lewis 2009, pp. 180–181))
  8. (Croce 2001, pp. 1–3)
  9. (Croce 2001, p. 178)


  • Croce, Paul (2001). W. E. B. Du Bois: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-29665-9.
  • Harlan, Louis R. (1986), Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915, Oxford University Press, pp. 71120.
  • Harlan, Louis R. (2006), "A Black Leader in the Age of Jim Crow", in The Racial Politics of Booker T. Washington, Donald Cunnigen, Rutledge M. Dennis, Myrtle Gonza Glascoe (eds), Emerald Group Publishing, p. 26.
  • Lewis, David (2009). W.E.B. Du Bois: A Biography 1868-1963. Holt Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0805088052.
  • Logan, Rayford Whittingham, The Betrayal of the Negro, from Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson, Da Capo Press, 1997, pp. 275–313.
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