After completing his studies at the gymnasium in Prague, he studied the history of art and archeology at the universities of Prague and Vienna (Ph.D.), and in 1902 became privatdozent in archeology at the German university at Prague.
Arthur Mahler was married to Sophie Mahlerová. Their son, Willy Mahler, died in 1945 in Dachau concentration camp.
He has contributed a number of articles to:
- "Jahreshefte des Österreichischen Archäologischen Institutes"
(of which institute he is a corresponding member)
- "Revue Archäologique"
- "Journal d'Archäologie Numismatique"
He is the author of Polyklet und Seine Schule: ein Beitrag zur Gesch. der Griechischen Plastik (Leipzig, 1902).