The Artemis program is an ongoing crewed spaceflight program carried out predominately by NASA, U.S. commercial spaceflight companies, and international partners such as the European Space Agency (ESA), JAXA, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) with the goal of landing "the first woman and the next man" on the Moon, specifically at the lunar south pole region by 2024. NASA sees Artemis as the next step towards the long-term goal of establishing a sustainable presence on the Moon, laying the foundation for private companies to build a lunar economy, and eventually sending humans to Mars.
|Organization||NASA and partners|
|Purpose||Crewed lunar exploration|
|Maiden flight||Artemis 1|
|First crewed flight||Artemis 2|
|Part of a series on the|
In 2017, the lunar campaign was authorized by Space Policy Directive 1, utilizing various ongoing spacecraft programs such as Orion, the Lunar Gateway, Commercial Lunar Payload Services, and adding an undeveloped crewed lander. The Space Launch System will serve as the primary launch vehicle for Orion, while commercial launch vehicles are planned for use to launch various other elements of the campaign. NASA requested $1.6 billion in additional funding for Artemis for fiscal year 2020, while the Senate Appropriations Committee requested from NASA a five-year budget profile which is needed for evaluation and approval by Congress.
The current Artemis program incorporates several major components of other cancelled NASA programs and missions, such as the Constellation program and the Asteroid Redirect Mission. Originally legislated by the NASA Authorization Act of 2005, Constellation included the development of Ares I, Ares V, and the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. The program ran from the early 2000s until 2010.
In 2009, newly elected President Barack Obama established the Augustine Committee to determine how viable a Moon landing was by 2020 with the then-current budget. The committee concluded that the program was massively underfunded and that a 2020 Moon landing was impossible. Constellation was subsequently put on hold. On 15 April 2010, President Obama spoke at the Kennedy Space Center, announcing the administration's plans for NASA and cancelling the non-Orion elements of Constellation on the premise that the plan had become unviable. He instead promised $6 billion in additional funding and called for development of a new heavy lift rocket program to be ready for construction by 2015 with crewed missions to Mars orbit by the mid-2030s.
On 30 June 2017, President Donald Trump signed an executive order to re-establish the National Space Council, chaired by Vice-President Mike Pence. The Trump administration's first budget request kept Obama-era human spaceflight programs in place: Commercial Crew Development, the Space Launch System, and the Orion crew capsule for deep space missions, while reducing Earth science research and calling for the elimination of NASA's education office.
On 11 December 2017, President Trump signed Space Policy Directive 1, a change in national space policy that provides for a U.S.-led, integrated program with private sector partners for a human return to the Moon, followed by missions to Mars and beyond. The policy calls for the NASA administrator to "lead an innovative and sustainable program of exploration with commercial and international partners to enable human expansion across the solar system and to bring back to Earth new knowledge and opportunities." The effort intends to more effectively organize government, private industry, and international efforts toward returning humans on the Moon and laying the foundation of eventual human exploration of Mars.
On 26 March 2019, Vice President Mike Pence announced that NASA's Moon landing goal would be accelerated by four years with a planned landing in 2024. On 14 May 2019, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine announced that the new program would be named Artemis, who is both the twin sister of Apollo and the goddess of the Moon in Greek mythology. Despite the immediate new goals, Mars missions by the 2030s are still intended.
Implementation of the Artemis program will require additional programs, projects, and commercial launchers to support the construction of the Lunar Gateway, launch resupply missions to the station, and deploy numerous robotic spacecraft and instruments to the lunar surface. Several precursor robotic missions are being coordinated through the Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) program, which is dedicated to scouting and characterization of lunar resources as well as testing principles for in-situ resource utilization.
Commercial Lunar Payload Services
In March 2018, NASA established the Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) program with the aim of sending small robotic landers and rovers mostly to the lunar south pole region as a precursor to and in support of crewed missions. The main goals include scouting of lunar resources, in situ resource utilization (ISRU) feasibility testing, and lunar science. NASA will award commercial providers indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity contracts to develop and fly lunar landers with scientific payloads . The first stage considered proposals capable of delivering at least 10 kilograms (22 lb) of payload by the end of 2021. Proposals for mid-sized landers capable of delivering between 500 kilograms (1,100 lb) and 1,000 kilograms (2,200 lb) of cargo will also be considered for launch beyond 2021.
|Astrobotic Technology||Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania||Peregrine lander|
|Deep Space Systems||Littleton, Colorado||Rover; design and development services|
|Draper Laboratory||Cambridge, Massachusetts||Artemis-7 lander|
|Firefly Aerospace||Cedar Park, Texas||Firefly Genesis lander based on Israel's Beresheet; Firefly Alpha and Beta launch vehicles.|
|Intuitive Machines||Houston, Texas||Nova-C lander|
|Lockheed Martin Space||Littleton, Colorado||McCandless Lunar Lander|
|Masten Space Systems||Mojave, California||XL-1 lander|
|Moon Express||Cape Canaveral, Florida||MX-1, MX-2, MX-5, MX-9 landers; sample return.|
|OrbitBeyond||Edison, New Jersey||Z-01 and Z-02 landers|
|Blue Origin||Kent, Washington||Blue Moon lander|
|Ceres Robotics||Palo Alto, California|
|Sierra Nevada Corporation||Louisville, Colorado|
|Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems||Irvine, California|
The first twelve payloads and experiments from NASA centers were announced on 21 February 2019. On 1 July 2019, NASA announced the selection of twelve additional payloads, provided by universities and industry. Seven of these are scientific investigations while five are technology demonstrations.
The Lunar Surface Instrument and Technology Payloads (LSITP) program is soliciting payloads that do not require significant additional development. They will include technology demonstrators to advance lunar science or the commercial development of the Moon.
Space Launch System
The initial SLS Block 1 is required by the US Congress to lift a payload of 95 metric tons (209,000 lb) to low Earth orbit (LEO), and will launch Artemis 1, 2, and 3. The later Block 1B is intended to debut the Exploration Upper Stage and launch the notional Artemis 4-7. Block 2 is planned to replace the initial Shuttle-derived boosters with advanced boosters and would have a LEO capability of more than 150 metric tons (330,000 lb), again as required by Congress. Block 2 is intended to enable crewed launches to Mars. The SLS will launch the Orion spacecraft and use the ground operations and launch facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
In March 2019, the Trump Administration released its Fiscal Year 2020 Budget Request for NASA. This budget did not initially include any money for the Block 1B and Block 2 variants of SLS but later a request for a budget increase of 1.6 billion dollars towards SLS, Orion, and crewed landers was made. Block 1B is currently intended to debut on Artemis 4, and will be used mainly for co manifested crew transfers and logistic rather than constructing the Gateway as initially planned. An uncrewed Block was planned to launch the Lunar Surface Asset in 2028, the first lunar outpost of the Artemis program, but now that launch has been moved to a commercial launcher. Block 2 development will most likely start in the late 2020s, after NASA is regularly visiting the lunar surface and shifts focus towards Mars.
In October 2019, it was announced NASA had authorized Boeing to purchase materials in bulk for more SLS rockets ahead of the announcement of a new contract. This contract is expected to support up to ten core stages and eight Exploration Upper Stages.
Supporting launch vehicles
The PPE module and the Habitation and Logistics Outpost (HALO) of the Lunar Gateway, which were previously planned for the SLS Block 1B, will now fly on commercial launch vehicles yet to be determined. The Gateway will be supported and resupplied by approximately 28 commercial cargo missions launched by undetermined commercial rockets. The Gateway Logistics Services (GLS) will be in charge of the resupply missions, as well for contracting the construction of a resupply vehicle capable to remain docked to the Lunar Gateway for one year of operations, provide and generate its own power while docked, and be capable of autonomous disposal at the end of its mission.
The three components of an expendable crewed lunar lander will also be deployed to the station on a commercial launcher before the arrival of the first crewed mission, Artemis 3.
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion MPCV) is a US-European spacecraft intended to carry a crew of four astronauts to destinations at or beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). As of August 2019, it is under development by NASA and the ESA for launch on the Space Launch System (SLS). Orion is intended to be the main crew vehicle of the Artemis program and other potential missions to asteroids or to Mars. (See Deep Space Transport) The Orion MPCV was announced by NASA on 24 May 2011. Its design is based on the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle from the cancelled Constellation program. The Orion command module is being built by Lockheed Martin at the Michoud Assembly Facility, while the Orion service module is being built by Airbus Defence and Space with funding from the European Space Agency.
The Lunar Gateway is a space station under development that will be deployed in lunar orbit. It is intended to serve as a solar-powered communications hub, science laboratory, short-term habitation module, and holding area for rovers and other robots.
The Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) started development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory during the now canceled Asteroid Redirect Mission. The original concept was a robotic, high performance solar electric spacecraft that would retrieve a multi-ton boulder from an asteroid and bring it to lunar orbit for study. When ARM was cancelled, the solar electric propulsion was repurposed for the Gateway. The PPE will allow access to the entire lunar surface and act as a space tug for visiting craft. It will also serve as the command and communications center of the Gateway. The PPE is intended to have a mass of 8-9 t and the capability to generate 50 kW of solar electric power for its ion thrusters, which can be supplemented by chemical propulsion. It is currently planned to launch on a commercial launch vehicle in 2022.
The Habitation and Logistics Outpost (HALO), also called the Minimal Habitation Module (MHM) and formerly known as the Utilization Module, will be built by Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems (NGIS). A commercial launch vehicle would launch the HALO before the end of year 2023. The HALO is based on a Cygnus Cargo resupply module to the outside of which radial docking ports, body mounted radiators (BMRs), batteries and communications antennae will be added. The HALO will be a scaled-down habitation module, yet, it will feature a functional pressurized volume providing sufficient command, control & data handling capabilities, energy storage and power distribution, thermal control, communications and tracking capabilities, two axial and up to two radial docking ports, stowage volume, environmental control and life support systems to augment the Orion spacecraft and support a crew of four for at least 30 days.
Crewed lander concepts
As of 2018, work on crewed landers was intended to be supported under a new budget line called "Advanced Cislunar and Surface Capabilities" included in the fiscal year 2019 budget proposal, which seeks $116.5 million for the program. As of November 2018, Congress had yet to pass a final fiscal year 2019 appropriations bill for NASA. These architectures are simply concepts that were not submitted to NASA.
- The Lockheed Martin Mars - Precursor Lunar Lander concept, presented in October 2018, proposes a reusable crewed lunar lander with a mass of 62 metric tons (137,000 lb) wet, 22 metric tons (49,000 lb) dry, and capable of carrying up to 1 metric ton (2,200 lb) of payload, and a crew of four, for a duration of two weeks before returning to the Gateway for servicing and refueling. A drawback is that not even the future Block 1B version of Space Launch System can place more than 45 tons onto a trajectory to the Moon, so additional launches would be required to transport fuel depots for the lander. The lander would be used to test technologies for a future Mars ascent / descent vehicle.
- Lockheed Martin also presented the Lockheed Martin Lunar Lander. The concept consists of a descent and ascent stage and does not require a third transfer stage. The concept would use an early version of the Gateway using only its propulsion module and docking port, which would put the critical enabling elements in lunar orbit as quickly as possible. The lander is designed around proven avionics, structures and propulsion systems from Orion's crew and service modules, which are already built for human-rated lunar exploration. This concept has been combined with Blue Origin's Blue Moon Lunar Lander.
- The Advanced Exploration Lander is a three-stage lander concept by a NASA team used as a design reference for commercial proposals. After departure from the Gateway, a transfer module would take the crew to a low lunar orbit and then separate, after which the descent module would handle the rest of the journey to the lunar surface. A crew of up to four would spend up to two weeks on the surface before reboarding the ascent module, which would take them back to the Gateway. Each module would have a mass of approximately 12 to 15 metric tons and would be delivered separately by commercial launchers and integrated at the Gateway. The astronauts would board the lander at the Gateway's near-rectilinear halo orbit that goes between about 1,000 and 70,000 kilometers (620 and 43,500 mi) above the Moon, with the circular low orbit about 100 kilometers (62 mi) high. Both the ascent and transfer modules could be designed to be reused, with the descent module left on the lunar surface.
Human Landing System proposals
On 30 September 2019, NASA issued a solicitation for the development and demonstration of a Human Landing System (HLS) to deliver humans to the lunar surface by 2024 and for the development and demonstration of a more sustainable HLS by 2026 known as NextSTEP H. Submissions were closed on 5 November 2019. These are the currently known submissions made public by their contractors, not all have been disclosed.
- On October 2019, it was announced that Blue Origin, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman and Draper Laboratory will collaborate to create a joint proposal of a 'Human Landing System'. Blue Origin would serve as the primary contractor with its Blue Moon Lunar Lander serving as the descent stage. Lockheed Martin would build the ascent stage. Northrop Grumman would build a transfer stage based on its Cygnus spacecraft. The lander would launch on Blue Origin's reusable New Glenn rocket.
- The Boeing Human Landing System was submitted to NASA in early November 2019. The lander consists of a descent and ascent stage with the descent stage being able to deorbit the lander which eliminates the need for a third transfer stage. The lander is designed to be launched on an SLS Block 1B rather than assembled in multiple launches. The lander would also not require the Gateway and could dock with Orion directly in order to allow for a simpler mission profile. Boeing has partnered with Intuitive Machines to provide engines, and also plans to reuse key technologies from their CST-100 Starliner. An alternate plan for launching the lander was also detailed: In the event the SLS Block 1B was not ready by 2024, the descent stage would launch on a Block 1 while the ascent stage would be launched by a commercial launcher and assembled in lunar orbit.
- SpaceX Chief Operating Officer Gwynne Shotwell announced in October 2019 that the company had made a proposal for Artemis. Details are not public yet other than that the proposal focuses mainly on Falcon Heavy and that Starship "can be leveraged as well".
In May 2019 NASA announced 11 contracts worth $45.5 million in total for studies on transfer vehicles, descent elements, descent element prototypes, refueling element studies and prototypes. One of the requirements is that selected companies will have to contribute at least 20% of the total cost of the project "to reduce costs to taxpayers and encourage early private investments in the lunar economy."
|Aerojet Rocketdyne||One transfer vehicle study|
|Blue Origin||One descent element study, one transfer vehicle study, and one transfer vehicle prototype|
|Boeing||One descent element study, two descent element prototypes, one transfer vehicle study, one transfer vehicle prototype, one refueling element study, and one refueling element prototype|
|Dynetics||One descent element study and five descent element prototypes|
|Lockheed Martin Space Systems||One descent element study, four descent element prototypes, one transfer vehicle study, and one refueling element study|
|Masten Space Systems||One descent element prototype|
|Maxar (formerly SSL)||One refueling element study and one refueling element prototype|
|Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems||One descent element study, four descent element prototypes, one refueling element study, and one refueling element prototype|
|OrbitBeyond||Two refueling element prototypes|
|Sierra Nevada Corporation||One descent element study, one descent element prototype, one transfer vehicle study, one transfer vehicle prototype, and one refueling element study|
|SpaceX||One descent element study, one descent element prototype|
HERACLES (Human-Enhanced Robotic Architecture and Capability for Lunar Exploration and Science) is a planned ESA-JAXA-CSA transport system that will feature a robotic lander called European Large Logistic Lander (EL3), which can be configured for different operations such as up to 1.5 tons of payload, sample-returns, or prospecting resources found on the Moon. ESA approved the project in November 2019. Its first mission is envisioned for launch in 2027.
The EL3 lander will be launched directly to the Moon and will have a landing mass of approximately 1,800 kg (4,000 lb). It will be capable of transporting a Canadian robotic rover to explore, prospect potential resources, and load samples up to 15 kg (33 lb) on the ascent module. The rover would then traverse several kilometers across the Schrödinger basin on the far side of the Moon to explore and collect more samples to load on the next EL3 lander. The ascent module would return each time to the Lunar Gateway, where it would be captured by the Canadian robotic arm and samples transferred to an Orion spacecraft for transport to Earth with returning astronauts.
The Artemis program will make use of two space suits: the Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (xEMU), and the Orion Crew Survival System (OCSS).
The xEMU is for use on the lunar surface, with an endurance of up to eight hours. The suit has movable joints and a bearing to allow for movement of the waist. Audio microphones and speakers are located inside the helmet, instead of using the traditional "Snoopy cap". The astronaut enters the suit from between the backpack and the rest of the suit; zippers, which were an issue with the Apollo suits, were excluded.
The OCSS is to be worn inside the Orion spacecraft during launch and re-entry, in case of a depressurization emergency. The outer layer of the suit is orange to allow for visibility in the ocean if astronauts need to exit the spacecraft without any assistance from recovery personnel. The suit includes enhanced shoulder joints for better range of reach, and greater fire resistance.
The Artemis program has received criticisms from several space professionals:
Mark Whittington, who is a contributor to The Hill and an author of several space exploration studies, stated in an article that the "lunar orbit project doesn't help us get back to the Moon".
Aerospace engineer, author, and Mars Society founder Robert Zubrin has voiced his distaste for the Lunar Gateway which is part of the Artemis program as of 2019. He presented an alternative approach to a 2024 crewed lunar landing called Moon Direct, a successor to his proposed Mars Direct. His vision phases out the SLS and Orion, replacing them with the SpaceX launch vehicles and Dragon 2. It also proposes using a heavy ferry/lander that would be refueled on the lunar surface via In situ resource utilization and transfer the crew from LEO to the lunar surface. The concept bears a heavy resemblance to NASA's own Space Transportation System proposal from the 1970s.
Former Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin disagrees with NASA's current goals and priorities, including their plans for a lunar outpost. He also questioned the benefit of the idea to "send a crew to an intermediate point in space, pick up a lander there and go down". However, Aldrin expressed support for Robert Zubrin's Moon Direct concept which involves lunar landers traveling from Earth orbit to the lunar surface and back.
Three tests of the Orion spacecraft have been conducted prior to the launch of Artemis 1. Pad Abort-1, the second and final mission in the preceding Constellation program, was a successful test of Orion's launch escape system using a boilerplate capsule on 6 May 2010. The second test of Orion was Exploration Flight Test-1 on 5 December 2014. A stripped down version of the Orion spacecraft was launched atop a Delta IV Heavy rocket, and its reaction control system was tested in two orbits around Earth, reaching an apogee of 5,800 kilometers (3,600 mi) before making a high-energy reentry at 32,000 kilometers per hour (20,000 mph). The third and final test of Orion prior to Artemis 1 was Ascent Abort-2 on 2 July 2019, which tested an updated launch abort system at maximum aerodynamic load, using a 10,000-kilogram (22,000 lb) Orion test article and a custom launch vehicle built by Orbital Sciences.
||N/A||Orion Launch Abort System (LAS)||Success||95 seconds|
|Exploration Flight Test 1||
||Success||4 hours 24 minutes|
|Ascent Abort-2||N/A||Orion Abort Test Booster||Success||3 minutes 13 seconds|
As of 2019, all Artemis missions will be launched on the Space Launch System from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39B. Current plans call for supporting hardware to be launched on other vehicles and from other launch pads. However, in July 2016 a Government Accountability Office report cast doubt on the planned initial launch date and suggested that an early date may be counterproductive to the program.
|Mission||Patch||Launch date||Crew||Launch vehicle||Duration|
|Artemis 1||NET November 2020||N/A||SLS Block 1 Crew||~25d|
|Artemis 2||Q4 2022||TBA||SLS Block 1 Crew||~10d|
|Artemis 3||2024||TBA||SLS Block 1 Crew||~30d|
A proposal curated by William H. Gerstenmaier before his 10 July 2019 reassignment suggests four launches of the SLS Block 1B launch vehicle with crewed Orion spacecraft and logistical modules to the Gateway between 2024 and 2028. The crewed Artemis 4 through 7 would launch yearly between 2025 and 2028, testing in situ resource utilization and nuclear power on the lunar surface with a partially reusable lander. Artemis 7 would deliver in 2028 a crew of four astronauts to a surface lunar outpost known as the Lunar Surface Asset. The Lunar Surface Asset would be launched by an undetermined launcher and would be used for extended crewed lunar surface missions. Prior to each crewed Artemis mission, various payloads to the Gateway, such as refueling depots and expendable elements of the lunar lander, would be delivered on commercial launch vehicles. This would leave five SLS launches for use on interplanetary missions such as the Europa Clipper and Europa Lander or launching the crewed Deep Space Transport for a Mars orbital mission in the early 2030s.
|Mission||Launch date||Crew||Launch vehicle||Duration|
|Artemis 4||2025||TBA||SLS Block 1B Crew||~30d|
|Artemis 5||2026||TBA||SLS Block 1B Crew||~30d|
|Artemis 6||2027||TBA||SLS Block 1B Crew||~30d|
|Artemis 7||2028||TBA||SLS Block 1B Crew||~30d|
Artemis support missions
|Year||Mission objective||Mission name||Launch vehicle|
|Q4 2022||Launch of the Power and Propulsion Element (PPE)||Artemis Support Mission||Commercial launch vehicle|
|2023||Delivery of the Habitation and Logistics Outpost (HALO) to the Gateway||Artemis Support Mission||Commercial launch vehicle|
|2023||Three components of an expendable lunar lander||Artemis Support Mission||Commercial launch vehicles|
|2025||Three Components of an expendable lunar lander||Artemis Support Mission||Commercial launch vehicles|
|2025||Delivery of a Gateway station module||Artemis Support Mission||Commercial launch vehicles|
|2026||Delivery of a reusable lunar lander||Artemis Support Mission||Commercial launch vehicles|
|2026||Delivery of Gatewat station module||Artemis Support Mission||Commercial launch vehicles|
|2027||Refueling of lunar lander components and delivery of new descent module||Artemis Support Mission||Commercial launch vehicles|
|2027||Delivery of a Gateway station module||Artemis Support Mission||Commercial launch vehicles|
|2028||Refueling of lunar lander components and delivery of new descent module||Artemis Support Mission||Commercial launch vehicles|
|2028||Delivery of a Gateway station module||Artemis Support Mission||Commercial launch vehicles|
- Apollo program – 1961–1972 United States human spaceflight program, which landed the first humans on the lunar surface
- Colonization of the Moon – Proposed establishment of a permanent human community or robotic industries on the Moon
- Commercial Crew Development – NASA space program partnership with space companies
- Deep Space Transport – A crewed interplanetary spacecraft concept
- Space policy of the United States
- International Lunar Resources Exploration Concept – Lunar exploration concept
- Serial number displayed in parentheses.
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NASA's new Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) effort to award contracts to provide capabilities as soon as 2019.
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... selected but unspecified instruments from RP will instead be flown on future commercial lunar lander missions under a new Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) program. NASA released a draft request for proposals for that program April 27. [...] Under CLPS, NASA plans to issue multiple indefinite-delivery indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) contracts to companies capable of delivering payloads to the lunar surface. Companies would have to demonstrate their ability to land at least 10 kilograms of payload on the lunar surface by the end of 2021.
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NASA also will look for payloads for the miniature landers in addition to landers capable of delivering 500 to 1,000 kilograms to the surface of the Moon.
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Supports launch of the Power and Propulsion Element on a commercial launch vehicle as the first component of the LOP - Gateway
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And before NASA sends astronauts to the moon in 2024, the agency will first have to launch five aspects of the lunar Gateway, all of which will be commercial vehicles that launch separately and join each other in lunar orbit. First, a power and propulsion element will launch in 2022. Then, the crew module will launch (without a crew) in 2023. In 2024, during the months leading up to the crewed landing, NASA will launch the last critical components: a transfer vehicle that will ferry landers from the Gateway to a lower lunar orbit, a descent module that will bring the astronauts to the lunar surface, and an ascent module that will bring them back up to the transfer vehicle, which will then return them to the Gateway.
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This will be the second and final planned LAS test following the Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) development test conducted in 2010 as a part of the ccanceled [sic] Constellation Program and the abort system design changed from PA-1 to AA-2 both inside and outside [...] in preparation for a scheduled daybreak test on July 2.
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The first orbital test flight of NASA's Orion crew capsule will lift off on top of a United Launch Alliance Delta 4 rocket from Cape Canaveral]s Complex 37B launch pad. The rocket will send the unmanned crew module 3,600 miles above Earth ...
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In the Ascent Abort-2 test, NASA will verify that the Orion spacecraft's launch abort system can steer the capsule and astronauts inside it to safety in the event of an issue with the Space Launch System rocket when the spacecraft is under the highest aerodynamic loads it will experience during ascent ...
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