Armenian calendar

The Armenian calendar is the calendar traditionally used in Armenia.

The older Armenian calendar was based on an invariant year length of 365 days. As a result, the correspondence between it and both the solar year and the Julian calendar slowly drifted over time, shifting across a year of the Julian calendar once in 1,461 calendar years (see Sothic cycle). Thus, the Armenian year 1461 (Gregorian 2010/2011) completed the first full cycle.

Armenian year 1 began on 11 July 552 of the Julian calendar, and Armenian year 1462 began on 11 July 2012 of the Julian calendar which co-incided with 24 July 2012 of the Gregorian calendar.

An analytical expression of the Armenian date includes ancient name of Day of week, Christian name of Day of week, named Day of month, Date, Month, Year number after 552 A.D. and the religious feasts.

The Armenian calendar is divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus an additional (epagomenal) five days are called aweleacʿ ("superfluous"). Years are usually given in Armenian numerals, letters of the Armenian alphabet preceded by the abbreviation ԹՎ for t’vin "in the year" (for example, ԹՎ ՌՆԾԵ "in the year 1455").

Months

The Armenian month names show influence of the Zoroastrian calendar,[1] and, as noted by Antoine Meillet, Kartvelian influence in two cases. There are different systems for transliterating the names; the forms below are transliterated according to the Hübschmann-Meillet-Benveniste system.

Months of the year
#ArmenianH-M
Romaniz.
MeaningEtymology/Notes
1նաւասարդnawasardnew yearAvestan*nava sarəδa
2հոռիhoṙitwoFrom Georgian ორი (ori) meaning "two"
3սահմիsahmithreeFrom Georgian სამი (sami) meaning "three"
4տրէtrēZoroastrian Tïr
5քաղոցkʿałocʿmonth of cropsFrom Old Armenian քաղեմ (kʿałem) meaning "to gather" from PIE *kʷl̥-
6արացaracʿFrom old armenian արաց[2](aracʿ), meaning harvest time, harvest of grape/fruit
7մեհեկանmehekanfestival of MithraIranian *mihrakān-; Zoroastrian Mitrō
8արեգaregsun monthFrom Old Armenian արեւ (arew) meaning "sun" from PIE *h₂rew-i- also meaning sun
9ահեկանahekanfire festivalIranian *āhrakān-; Zoroastrian Ātarō
10մարերիmarerimid-yearAvestan maiδyaīrya; Zoroastrian Dīn
11մարգացmargacʿ
12հրոտիցhroticʿPahlavi *fravartakān; Zoroastrian Spendarmat̰
13աւելեաց[3]aweleacʿredundant, superfluous Epagomenal days

Days of the month

The Armenian calendar names the days of the month instead of numbering them – a peculiarity also found in the Avestan calendars. Zoroastrian influence is evident in five names.[1]

Days of the month
#NameMeaning/derivation
1Aregsun
2Hrandearth mixed with fire
3Aram
4Margarprophet
5Ahrank’half-burned
6Mazdeł
7AstłikVenus
8MihrMithra
9Jopabertumultuous
10Murçtriumph
11Erezhanhermit
12Aniname of a city
13Parkhar
14Vanathost, refectioner of a monastery
15AramazdAhura Mazda
16Manibeginning
17Asakbeginningless
18MasisMount Ararat
19AnahitAnahita
20AragatsMount Aragats
21Gorgorname of a mountain
22Kordvik6th province in Armenia Major
23Tsmakeast wind
24Lusnakhalf-moon
25Tsrōndispersion
26NpatApam Napat
27VahagnZoroastrian Vahrām; Avestan Verethragna, name of the 20th day
28Simmountain
29Varag name of a mountain
30Gišeravarevening star

See also

References

  1. L. H. Gray, "On Certain Persian and Armenian Month- Names as Influenced by the Avesta Calendar," JAOS 28 (1907), 339.
  2. "արաց - Wiktionary". en.wiktionary.org. Retrieved 2018-10-31.
  3. Հին հայկական տոմար

Literature

  • V. Bănăţeanu, “Le calendrier arménien et les anciens noms des mois”, in: Studia et Acta Orientalia 10, 1980, pp. 33–46
  • Edouard Dulaurier, Recherches sur la chronologie arménienne technique et historique (1859), 2001 reprint ISBN 978-0-543-96647-6.
  • Jost Gippert, Old Armenian and Caucasian Calendar Systems in The Annual of The Society for The Study of Caucasia", 1, 1989, 3-12.
  • Louis H. Gray, On Certain Persian and Armenian Month-Names as Influenced by the Avesta Calendar, Journal of the American Oriental Society (1907)
  • P'. Ingoroq'va, “Jvel-kartuli c'armartuli k'alendari” (“The Old Georgian pagan calendar”), in: Sakartvelos muzeumis moambe (“Messenger of the Museum of Georgia”), 6, 1929–30, pp. 373–446 and 7, 1931–32, pp. 260–336
  • K'. K'ek'elije, “Jveli kartuli c'elic'adi” (“The Old Georgian year”), in: St'alinis saxelobis Tbilisis Saxelmc'ipo Universit'et'is šromebi (“Working papers of the Tbilisi State University by the name of Stalin”) 18, 1941, reprinted in the author's “Et'iudebi jveli kartuli lit'erat'uris ist'oriidan” (“Studies in the history of Old Georgian literature”) 1, 1956, pp. 99–124.
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