ArcGIS is a geographic information system (GIS) for working with maps and geographic information maintained by Esri. It is used for creating and using maps, compiling geographic data, analyzing mapped information, sharing and discovering geographic information, using maps and geographic information in a range of applications, and managing geographic information in a database.
Parcel editing with ArcMap 10.1 on Windows 7
|Initial release||December 27, 1999|
|Operating system||Desktop: Windows 7 SP1 and later, Windows Server 2008 R2 and later; Enterprise additionally supports: Windows Server 2008 R2 and later; RHEL 6 and later, SLES 12;|
|Type||Geographic information system|
|License||Proprietary commercial software|
The system provides an infrastructure for making maps and geographic information available throughout an organization, across a community, and openly on the Web.
ArcGIS includes the following Windows desktop software:
- ArcReader, which allows one to view and query maps created with the other ArcGIS products;
- ArcGIS Desktop, which is licensed under three functionality levels:
- ArcGIS Desktop Basic (formerly known as ArcView), which allows one to view spatial data, create layered maps, and perform basic spatial analysis;
- ArcGIS Desktop Standard (formerly known as ArcEditor), which in addition to the functionality of ArcView, includes more advanced tools for manipulation of shapefiles and geodatabases;
- ArcGIS Desktop Advanced (formerly known as ArcInfo), which includes capabilities for data manipulation, editing, and analysis.
- ArcGIS Pro, is the new application of ESRI, will replace ArcMap . ArcGIS Pro works in 2D and 3D for cartography and visualization, and include Artificial Intelligence (AI) .
There are also server-based ArcGIS software as part of the ArcGIS Enterprise product, as well as ArcGIS applications for mobile devices like phones and tablets. Extensions can be purchased separately to increase the functionality of ArcGIS. Receiving a certificate in ArcGIS software is also available for professionals from beginners to experts through Esri's training programs.
Prior to the ArcGIS suite, Esri had focused its software development on the command line Arc/INFO workstation program and several Graphical User Interface-based products such as the ArcView GIS 3.x desktop program. Other Esri products included MapObjects, a programming library for developers, and ArcSDE as a relational database management system. The various products had branched out into multiple source trees and did not integrate well with one another. In January 1997, Esri decided to revamp its GIS software platform, creating a single integrated software architecture.
In late 1999, Esri released ArcMap 8.0, which ran on the Microsoft Windows operating system. ArcGIS combined the visual user-interface aspect of ArcView GIS 3.x interface with some of the power from the Arc/INFO version 7.2 workstation. This pairing resulted in a new software suite called ArcGIS including the command-line ArcInfo workstation (v8.0) and a new graphical user interface application called ArcMap (v8.0). This ArcMAP incorporating some of the functionality of ArcInfo with a more intuitive interface, as well as a file management application called ArcCatalog (v8.0). The release of the ArcMap constituted a major change in Esri's software offerings, aligning all their client and server products under one software architecture known as ArcGIS, developed using Microsoft Windows COM standards. While the interface and names of ArcMap 8.0 are similar to later versions of ArcGIS Desktop, they are different products. ArcGIS 8.1 replaced ArcMap 8.0 in the product line but was not an update to it.
ArcGIS Desktop 8.1 to 8.3
ArcGIS 8.1 was unveiled at the Esri International User Conference in 2000. ArcGIS 8.1 was officially released on April 24, 2001. This new application included three extensions: 3D Analyst, Spatial Analyst, and GeoStatistical Analyst. These three extension had become very powerful and popular in ArcView GIS 3.x product line. ArcGIS 8.1 also added the ability to access data online, directly from the Geography Network site or other ArcIMS map services. ArcGIS 8.3 was introduced in 2002, adding topology to geodatabases, which was a feature originally available only with ArcInfo coverages.
One major difference is the programming (scripting) languages available to customize or extend the software to suit particular user needs. In the transition to ArcGIS, Esri dropped support of its application-specific scripting languages, Avenue and the ARC Macro Language (AML), in favour of Visual Basic for Applications scripting and open access to ArcGIS components using the Microsoft COM standards. ArcGIS is designed to store data in a proprietary RDBMS format, known as geodatabase. ArcGIS 8.x introduced other new features, including on-the-fly map projections, and annotation in the database.
ArcGIS 9 was released in May 2004, which included ArcGIS Server and ArcGIS Engine for developers. The ArcGIS 9 release includes a geoprocessing environment that allows execution of traditional GIS processing tools (such as clipping, overlay, and spatial analysis) interactively or from any scripting language that supports COM standards. Although the most popular of these is Python, others have been used, especially Perl and VBScript. ArcGIS 9 includes a visual programming environment, similar to ERDAS IMAGINE's Model Maker (released in 1994, v8.0.2). The Esri version is called ModelBuilder and as does the ERDAS IMAGINE version allows users to graphically link geoprocessing tools into new tools called models. These models can be executed directly or exported to scripting languages which can then execute in batch mode (launched from a command line), or they can undergo further editing to add branching or looping.
At the 2008 Esri Developers Summit, there was little emphasis on ArcIMS, except for one session on transitioning from ArcIMS to ArcGIS Server-based applications, indicating a change in focus for Esri with ArcGIS 9.3 for web-based mapping applications.
In May 2009, Esri released ArcGIS 9.3.1, which improved the performance of dynamic map publishing and introduced better sharing of geographic information.
In December 2014 Esri released ArcGIS 10.3. The release included ArcGIS Pro 1.0, which became available in January 2015.
In January 2018 Esri released ArcGIS 10.6.
Older Esri products, including ArcView 3.x, worked with data in the shapefile format. ArcInfo Workstation handled coverages, which stored topology information about the spatial data. Coverages, which were introduced in 1981 when ArcInfo was first released, have limitations in how they handle types of features. Some features, such as roads with street intersections or overpasses and underpasses, should be handled differently from other types of features.
ArcGIS is built around a geodatabase, which uses an object-relational database approach for storing spatial data. A geodatabase is a "container" for holding datasets, tying together the spatial features with attributes. The geodatabase can also contain topology information, and can model behavior of features, such as road intersections, with rules on how features relate to one another. When working with geodatabases, it is important to understand feature classes which are a set of features, represented with points, lines, or polygons. With shapefiles, each file can only handle one type of feature. A geodatabase can store multiple feature classes or type of features within one file.
Geodatabases in ArcGIS can be stored in three different ways – as a "file geodatabase", a "personal geodatabase", or an "enterprise geodatabase" (formerly known as an SDE or ArcSDE geodatabase). Introduced at 9.2, the file geodatabase stores information in a folder named with a .gdb extension. The insides look similar to that of a coverage but is not, in fact, a coverage. Similar to the personal geodatabase, the file geodatabase only supports a single editor. However, unlike the personal geodatabase, there is virtually no size limit. By default, any single table cannot exceed 1TB, but this can be changed. Personal geodatabases store data in Microsoft Access files, using a BLOB field to store the geometry data. The OGR library is able to handle this file type, to convert it to other file formats. Database administration tasks for personal geodatabases, such as managing users and creating backups, can be done through ArcCatalog and ArcGIS Pro. Personal geodatabases, which are based on Microsoft Access, run only on Microsoft Windows and have a 2 gigabyte size limit. Enterprise (multi-user) geodatabases sit on top of high-end DBMS such as PostgreSQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, DB2 and Informix to handle database management aspects, while ArcGIS deals with spatial data management. Enterprise level geodatabases support database replication, versioning and transaction management, and are cross-platform compatible, able to run on Linux, Windows, and Solaris.
Also released at 9.2 is the personal SDE database that operates with SQL Server Express. Personal SDE databases do not support multi-user editing, but do support versioning and disconnected editing. Microsoft limits SQL Server Express databases to 4GB.
ArcGIS Desktop is available at different product levels, with increasing functionality.
- ArcReader (freeware, viewer) is a basic data viewer for maps and GIS data published in the proprietary Esri format using ArcGIS Publisher. The software also provides some basic tools for map viewing, printing and querying of spatial data. ArcReader is included with any of the ArcGIS suite of products, and is also available for free to download. ArcReader only works with preauthored published map files, created with ArcGIS Publisher.
- ArcGIS Desktop Basic, formerly known as ArcView, is the entry level of ArcGIS licensing offered. With ArcView, one is able to view and edit GIS data held in flat files, or view data stored in a relational database management system by accessing it through ArcSDE.
- ArcGIS Desktop Standard, formerly known as ArcEditor, is the midlevel software suite designed for advanced editing of spatial data published in the proprietary Esri format. It provides tools for the creation of map and spatial data used in GIS, including the ability of editing geodatabase files and data, multiuser geodatabase editing, versioning, raster data editing and vectorization, advanced vector data editing, managing coverages, coordinate geometry (COGO), and editing geometric networks. ArcEditor is not intended for advanced spatial analysis.
- ArcGIS Desktop Advanced, formerly known as ArcInfo, allows users the most flexibility and control in "all aspects of data building, modeling, analysis, and map display." ArcInfo includes increased capability in the areas of spatial analysis, geoprocessing, data management, and others.
- ArcGIS Online is a web application allowing sharing and search of geographic information, as well as content published by Esri, ArcGIS users, and other authoritative data providers. It allows users to create and join groups, and control access to items shared publicly or within groups.
ArcGIS Desktop consists of several integrated applications, including ArcMap, ArcCatalog, ArcToolbox, ArcScene, ArcGlobe, and ArcGIS Pro. ArcCatalog is the data management application, used to browse datasets and files on one's computer, database, or other sources. In addition to showing what data is available, ArcCatalog also allows users to preview the data on a map. ArcCatalog also provides the ability to view and manage metadata for spatial datasets. ArcMap is the application used to view, edit and query geospatial data, and create maps. The ArcMap interface has two main sections, including a table of contents on the left and the data frame(s) which display the map. Items in the table of contents correspond with layers on the map. ArcToolbox contains geoprocessing, data conversion, and analysis tools, along with much of the functionality in ArcInfo. It is also possible to use batch processing with ArcToolbox, for frequently repeated tasks. ArcScene is an application which allows the user to view their GIS data in 3-D and is available with the 3D Analyst License. In the layer properties of ArcScene there is an Extrusion function which allows the user to exaggerate features three dimension-ally. ArcGlobe is another one of ArcGIS's 3D visualization applications available with the 3D Analyst License. ArcGlobe is a 3D visualization application that allows you to view large amounts of GIS data on a globe surface. The ArcGIS Pro application was added to ArcGIS Desktop in 2015 February. It had the combined capabilities of the other integrated applications and was built as a fully 64-bit software application. ArcGIS Pro has ArcPy Python scripting for database programming.
There are a number of software extensions that can be added to ArcGIS Desktop that provide added functionality, including 3D Analyst, Spatial Analyst, Network Analyst, Survey Analyst, Tracking Analyst, and Geostatistical Analyst. Advanced map labeling is available with the Maplex extension, as an add-on to ArcView and ArcEditor and is bundled with ArcInfo. Numerous extensions have also been developed by third parties, such as the MapSpeller spell-checker, ST-Links PgMap XTools and MAP2PDF for creating georeferenced pdfs (GeoPDF), ERDAS' Image Analysis and Stereo Analyst for ArcGIS, and ISM's PurVIEW, which converts Arc- desktops into precise stereo-viewing windows to work with geo-referenced stereoscopic image models for accurate geodatabase-direct editing or feature digitizing.
An address locator is a dataset in ArcGIS that stores the address attributes, associated indexes, and rules that define the process for translating nonspatial descriptions of places, such as street addresses, into spatial data that can be displayed as features on a map. An address locator contains a snapshot of the reference data used for geocoding, and parameters for standardizing addresses, searching for match locations, and creating output. Address locator files have a .loc file extension. In ArcGIS 8.3 and previous versions, an address locator was called a geocoding service.
ArcGIS Mobile and ArcPad are products designed for mobile devices. ArcGIS Mobile is a software development kit for developers to use to create applications for mobile devices, such as smartphones or tablet PCs. If connected to the Internet, mobile applications can connect to ArcGIS Server to access or update data. ArcGIS Mobile is only available at the Enterprise level
Server GIS products include ArcIMS (web mapping server), ArcGIS Server and ArcGIS Image Server. As with ArcGIS Desktop, ArcGIS Server is available at different product levels, including Basic, Standard, and Advanced Editions. ArcGIS Server comes with SQL Server Express DBMS embedded and can work with enterprise DBMS such as SQL Server Enterprise and Oracle. The Esri Developer Network (EDN) includes ArcObjects and other tools for building custom software applications, and ArcGIS Engine provides a programming interface for developers.
The ArcGIS Engine is an ArcGIS software engine, a developer product for creating custom GIS desktop applications.
ArcGIS Engine provides application programming interfaces (APIs) for COM, .NET, Java, and C++ for the Windows, Linux, and Solaris platforms. The APIs include documentation and a series of high-level visual components to ease building ArcGIS applications.
ArcGIS Engine includes the core set of components, ArcObjects, from which ArcGIS Desktop products are built. With ArcGIS Engine one can build stand-alone applications or extend existing applications for both GIS and non-GIS users. The ArcGIS Engine distribution additionally includes utilities, samples, and documentation.
One ArcGIS Engine Runtime or ArcGIS Desktop license per computer is necessary.
ArcGIS Desktop products and ArcPad are available with a single-use license. Most products are also available with concurrent-use license, while development server licenses and other types of software licenses are available for other products. Single-use products can be purchased online from the Esri Store, while all ArcGIS products are available through a sales representative or reseller. Annual software maintenance and support is also available for ArcGIS. While there are alternative products available from vendors such as MapInfo, Maptitude, AutoCAD Map 3D and open-source QGIS, Esri has a dominant share of the GIS software market, estimated in 2015 at 43%.
Esri's transition to the ArcGIS platform, starting with the 1999 release of ArcGIS 8.0, rendered incompatible an extensive range of user-developed and third-party add-on software and scripts. A minority user base resists migrating to ArcGIS because of changes in scripting capability, functionality, operating system (Esri developed ArcGIS Desktop software exclusively for the Microsoft Windows operating system), as well as the significantly larger system resources required by the ArcGIS software.
- "ArcGIS Desktop". Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- "ArcGIS Desktop 10.7.x system requirements". 2019-06-27. Retrieved 2019-09-04.
- "ArcGIS Server 10.7.x system requirements". 2019-06-27. Retrieved 2019-09-04.
- "A Note About Names". ArcNews Summer 2011. ESRI. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "ArcMap will be replaced by ArcGIS Pro". GeoGeek. 2017-07-06. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- "What is ArcGIS Pro? – ArcGIS Pro". arcgis.pro. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- ESRI Staff (Spring 2000). "ArcInfo 8: A New Architecture for GIS". ESRI ArcNews. Archived from the original on 2000-08-16.
- "ESRI's ArcInfo 8 GIS Software Ships to Users Worldwide" (Press release). ESRI. 2000-01-13. Archived from the original on 2000-03-04.
- "ArcGIS 8.1 Now Shipping: The First Release of a Single, Integrated GIS" (Press release). ESRI. 2001-05-01. Archived from the original on 2001-05-07.
- "ArcGIS 8.2 Now Available: Improved ArcIMS Integration, New Extensions, and New Features" (Press release). ESRI. 2002-05-10. Archived from the original on 2002-10-08.
- "ArcGIS 8.3 Now Available: Topology Support, New Extensions, and New Features Highlight Latest Release" (Press release). ESRI. 2003-02-10. Archived from the original on 2003-02-22.
- "ArcGIS 9 Now Available: New Release Focuses on Geoprocessing, 3D Visualization, Interoperability, Cartography, and GIS Infrastructure" (Press release). ESRI. 2004-05-11. Archived from the original on 2004-05-24.
- "ArcGIS 9.1 Now Available" (Press release). ESRI. 2005-05-25. Archived from the original on 2006-05-27.
- "ESRI Announces ArcGIS 9.2 Is Now Shipping: A Major Advancement for GIS, Making It Easier to Author, Serve, and Use Geographic Knowledge" (Press release). ESRI. 2006-11-14. Archived from the original on 2006-11-17.
- "ArcGIS 9.3 Improves Your Entire GIS Workflow: Enhanced Data Management, New Cartographic Tools, and More Efficient Information Sharing" (Press release). ESRI. 2008-06-25. Archived from the original on 2008-06-30.
- "ArcGIS 9.3.1 Unlocks the Potential of Your GIS" (Press release). ESRI. 2009-04-28. Archived from the original on 2009-05-03.
- "ArcGIS 10 Transforms the Way People Use GIS: New Release Simplifies Your Work, Provides New Ways to Share Information, Supplies GIS in the Cloud, and Much More" (Press release). Esri. 2010-06-29. Archived from the original on 2010-07-03.
- "ArcGIS 10.1 Simplifies Sharing of Geographic Information: New Tools and Infrastructure Extend the Reach of GIS throughout Organizations" (Press release). Esri. 2012-06-11. Archived from the original on 2012-06-15.
- "ArcGIS 10.2 Delivers Transformational Capabilities: Latest Release of ArcGIS Includes New Online Analysis Tools, Live Data Integration, and Enhanced Business Intelligence" (Press release). Esri. 2013-07-30.
- "ArcGIS for Desktop (includes ArcMap and ArcGIS Pro) Product Life Cycle Support Status" (PDF). Esri. 2016-02-18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-08. Retrieved 2016-03-07.
- "ArcGIS for (Desktop, Engine, Server) 10.2.2" (Press release). Esri. 2014-02-27. Archived from the original on 2014-09-10.
- "ArcGIS for Desktop (includes ArcMap and ArcGIS Pro) Product Life Cycle Support Status" (PDF) (Press release). Esri. 2016-02-18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-08. Retrieved 2016-03-07.
- "ArcGIS 10.3.1 Brings Smart Mapping and 3D Content Sharing to ArcGIS for Server" (Press release). Esri. 2015-05-13.
- "ArcGIS 10.4 is here!" (Press release). Esri. 2016-02-18.
- "Esri Support 10.4 (10.4.1)" (Press release). Esri. 2015-05-31.
- "Esri Support 10.5 (10.5)" (Press release). Esri. 2016-12-15.
- "Esri Support 10.5 (10.5)" (Press release). Esri. 2017-06-29.
- "What's new in ArcGIS Enterprise 10.7" (Press release). Esri. 2019-03-21.
- "What's new in ArcGIS Enterprise 10.7.1" (Press release). Esri. 2019-06-27.
- Smith, Susan (May 2004). "Dr. David Maguire on the ArcGIS 9.0 Product Family Release". GIS Weekly. Retrieved 2013-04-14.
- Elroi, Daniel (2000-05-16). "Straight Talk From the Top". Directions Magazine. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- Maguire, David J (May 2000). "Esri's New ArcGIS Product Family". ArcNews (Esri).
- "Here Comes ArcView 8.1". GeoCommunity. Archived from the original on 10 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- "ArcGIS Brings Topology to the Geodatabase". ArcNews (Esri). Summer 2002.
- Huber, Bill (August 2000). "The Future of ArcView; Part 1". Directions Magazine. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- "What's New in ArcGIS 9.3". esri.com. 2008-06-26. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-16.
- "ArcGIS Desktop 9.3 Demos". esri.com. 2008-06-26. Archived from the original on 2013-02-14. Retrieved 2009-04-16.
- "ArcIMS Goes Out With a Whimper". Fuzzy Tolerance / Mecklenburg County GIS. 2008-03-17. Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 2011-06-21.
- "What's coming ArcGIS 10". esri.com. Archived from the original on 11 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-07.
- Elkins, Rob. "ArcGIS 10.1 Available Soon". ArcGIS Resource Center Blog. ESRI. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Guerra, Lucy. "Now that ArcGIS 10.1 is shipping…". ArcGIS Resource Center Blog. ESRI. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "ArcGIS 10.2 Released". Support Services Blog. ESRI. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "New Esri ArcGIS Release Transforms Spatial Analytics" (Press release). Esri. 2016-12-09.
- Zeiler, Michael (1999). Modeling Our World: The Esri Guide to Geodatabase Design. Esri. p. 4.
- Tomlinson, Roger F. (2003). Thinking about GIS: Geographic Information System Planning for Managers. Esri. p. 144.
- Detwiler, Jim. "ArcGIS – Building geodatabases" (PDF). Penn State – Population Research Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2004-05-13. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- "Types of Geodatabases (ArcGIS 9.2 Desktop Help)". Esri. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- "Esri Personal Geodatabase". MapServer. Archived from the original on 2007-12-18. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- Gillgrass, Craig; Tom Brown; Gary McDougall. "What's New with Geodatabases" (PDF). Esri. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-11.
- Reid, Hal (2004-08-18). "ArcGIS 9 and the Geodatabase". Directions Magazine. Archived from the original on 2007-02-07. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- "ArcReader – Frequently Asked Questions". Esri. Archived from the original on 2007-12-29. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- "ArcGIS Desktop 9.2 Functionality Matrix" (PDF). Esri. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- Esri – Product Page
- "Custom Mobile ArcGIS Online". webmapsolutions.com.com. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- Zeiders, Michelle (October 2002). "Introduction to ArcCatalog" (PDF). Penn State. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-07-05. Retrieved 2008-02-11.
- Zeiders, Michelle (October 2002). "Introduction to ArcMap" (PDF). Penn State. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2008-02-11.
- Graham, Steve (October 2002). "Introduction to ArcToolbox" (PDF). Penn State. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-11-22. Retrieved 2008-02-11.
- "3D Analyst and ArcScene—Help | ArcGIS Desktop". desktop.arcgis.com. Retrieved 2017-10-28.
- "About using extrusion as 3D symbology—Help | ArcGIS Desktop". desktop.arcgis.com. Retrieved 2017-10-28.
- "3D Analyst and ArcGlobe—Help | ArcGIS Desktop". desktop.arcgis.com. Retrieved 2017-10-28.
- Menon, Sud (December 2014). "ArcGIS 10.3: The Next Generation of GIS Is Here". Esri. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- "ArcGIS Pro". Esri. Feb 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- "ArcGIS Pro Python reference". Retrieved 2019-06-13.
- "Extensions for ArcInfo, ArcEditor, and ArcView". Esri. Archived from the original on 10 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- Limp, W. Fredrick (October 2007). "MAP2PDF Bundle". GeoWorld.
- Wade, Tasha; Sommer, Shelly, eds. (2006). A to Z GIS: An Illustrated Dictionary of Geographic Information Systems. ESRI Press. ISBN 9781589481404.
- "ArcGIS Goes Mobile". ArcNews (Esri). Spring 2007.
- "Streamlining Server Technology at ArcGIS 9.2". ArcNews (Esri). Summer 2006.
- "What is ArcGIS 9.2?" (PDF). Esri. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-13. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- "ArcGIS for Home Use Program". esri.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- "General License Terms and Conditions" (PDF). Esri. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-04. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
- "ArcGIS Pricing". Esri. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
- "Independent Report Highlights Esri as Leader in Global GIS Market". www.esri.com. Retrieved 2017-10-01.
- Flanders, Kevin (2005-11-11). "Is It Time for Open Source?". Directions Magazine. Archived from the original on 2007-08-04. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- Nasr, Mahmoud Refaat (June 2007). "Open Source Software: The Use of Open Source GIS Software and its Impact on Organizations" (PDF). Middlesex University / MIT.
- Mitchell, Tyler (2006-11-23). "The missing open source piece?". Archived from the original on 2013-02-02. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
- "Making The Move From ArcView 3x to ArcView 8.1". GeoCommunity. May 2001. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- Fee, James (2006-10-02). "Do you still use ArcView 3.x?". Spatially Adjusted. Archived from the original on 23 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- ArcGIS official website – Esri
- Esri (2004) What is ArcGIS? – White paper
- Mapping the world and all its data, USA Today, August 3, 2004
- Geodatabase at 9.2 with Craig Gillgrass – A VerySpatial Podcast, Episode 57, August 20, 2006
- ST-Links SpatialKit, a tool to connect Spatial Database with ArcMap
- List of 2,200+ government ArcGIS server addresses