|Original author(s)||Joe Bowser, Michael Brooks, Rob Ellis, Dave Johnson, Anis Kadri, Brian Leroux, Jesse MacFadyen, Filip Maj, Eric Oesterle, Brock Whitten, Herman Wong, Shazron Abdullah|
|Platform||Android, iOS, Windows 8.1, Phone 8.1 and 10, OS X, Electron (software framework) Deprecated Platforms: BlackBerry, Firefox OS, Symbian, Ubuntu Touch, webOS, Windows Phone 7.0 and 8.0|
|Type||mobile development framework|
|License||Apache License 2.0|
PhoneGap is Adobe's commercial version of Cordova along with its associated ecosystem. Many other tools and frameworks are also built on top of Cordova, including Ionic, Monaca, TACO, Onsen UI, Visual Studio, GapDebug, App Builder, Cocoon, Framework7, Quasar Framework, Evothings Studio, NSB/AppStudio, Mobiscroll, the Intel XDK, and the Telerik Platform. These tools use Cordova, and not PhoneGap for their core tools.
First developed at an iPhoneDevCamp event in San Francisco, PhoneGap went on to win the People's Choice Award at O'Reilly Media's 2009 Web 2.0 Conference, and the framework has been used to develop many apps. Apple Inc. has confirmed that the framework has its approval, even with the change to clause 3.3.1 of the Apple iPhone SDK developer license agreement 4.0 adopted in 2010. The PhoneGap framework is used by several mobile application platforms such as Monaca, appMobi, Convertigo, ViziApps, and Worklight as the backbone of their mobile client development engine.
Adobe officially announced the acquisition of Nitobi Software (the original developer) on October 4, 2011. Coinciding with that, the PhoneGap code was contributed to the Apache Software Foundation to start a new project called Apache Cordova. The project's original name, Apache Callback, was viewed as too generic. Then, it also appears in Adobe Systems as Adobe PhoneGap and also as Adobe PhoneGap Build. The Phonegap Blog shows more details, why finally the name "Cordova" was chosen. It says: "While genesis stories of PhoneGap often vary with the teller, most committers can agree the project was born at Nitobi, when the office was on Cordova Street in Vancouver."
Design and rationale
However, the use of Web-based technologies leads some Apache Cordova applications to run slower than native applications with similar functionality. Adobe Systems warns that applications built with Apache Cordova may be rejected by Apple for being too slow or not feeling "native" enough (having appearance and functionality consistent with what users have come to expect on the platform).
As of version 9, Apache Cordova currently supports development for the operating systems Apple iOS,Google Android, Windows 8.1, Windows Phone 8.1 , Windows 10 and Electron (software framework) (which in turn runs on Windows, Linux and macOS). Earlier version of Apache Cordova used to support Bada, BlackBerry, Firefox OS, LG webOS, Microsoft Windows Phone (7 and 8), Nokia Symbian OS, Tizen (SDK 2.x), and Ubuntu Touch. The table below is a list of supported features for each operating system for Adobe PhoneGap/ Apache Cordova 3.
|Feature||Android||Apple iPhone /iPhone 3G||Apple iPhone 3GS and newer||Bada||BlackBerry 10 and PlayBook OS||BlackBerry OS 4.6–4.7||BlackBerry OS 5.0-6.0+||Firefox OS||Symbian||Tizen||webOS||Ubuntu Touch||Windows Phone|
|Notification (alert, sound, vibration)||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
- "apache/cordova-cli". GitHub.
- "cordova". npm.
- "Cordova-CLI 9.0.0 Released". cordova.apache.org.
- "Cordova support by platform - Apache Cordova". cordova.apache.org.
- "apache/cordova". GitHub.
- "PhoneGap License". Phonegap.com. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
- "FAQ | PhoneGap Build | Edge Tools & Services | Adobe & HTML". Html.adobe.com. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
- "Adobe Announces Agreement to Acquire Nitobi, Creator of PhoneGap". Adobe.com. 2011-10-03. Archived from the original on 2012-04-13. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
- Jose Fermoso (April 5, 2009). "PhoneGap Seeks to Bridge the Gap Between Mobile App Platforms". GigaOM. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
- Community, Tiki. "Apache Callback - Tiki Wiki CMS Groupware :: Development". Tiki Wiki CMS Groupware :: Development. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- "Apache Callback Proposal". Wiki.phonegap.com. 2013-08-15. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
- "The Last Word on Cordova and PhoneGap". The Official Ionic Blog.
- "Intel XDK". Intel Developer Zone.
- "Apache Cordova". Apache Cordova.
- "Cordova Contributor's Who's Who". apache.org. 2015-11-02. Archived from the original on 2015-07-16. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
- Darryl K. Taft (2009-03-13). "PhoneGap Simplifies iPhone, Android, BlackBerry Development". Eweek.com. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
- Davis, Lidija (2009-04-02). "PhoneGap: People's Choice Winner at Web 2.0 Expo Launch Pad". Readwriteweb.com. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
- "PhoneGap Apps". Phonegap.com. Retrieved 2012-12-06.
- "PhoneGap and the Apple developer license agreement. « PhoneGap". Phonegap.com. 2010-04-14. Archived from the original on 2012-04-15. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
- "Develop Awesome PhoneGap Apps with Awesome Tools". monaco.mobi. Archived from the original on 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2014-06-10.
- "Open Source Mobile Enablement and Enterprise Mashups". Convertigo. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
- "Convertigo Mobilizer Uses PhoneGap Build APIs « PhoneGap". Phonegap.com. 2011-07-07. Archived from the original on 2012-05-13. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
- "Mobile Application Platform and Tools". Worklight. 2012-01-16. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
- "How PhoneGap plays an important part in our Enterprise offering PhoneGap". Phonegap.com. 2011-06-27. Archived from the original on 2012-04-15. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
- Shankland, Stephen (2011-10-03). "Adobe buys PhoneGap, TypeKit for better Web tools | Deep Tech - CNET News". News.cnet.com. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
- "finding a new name that isn't PhoneGap - Brian LeRoux - org.apache.incubator.callback-dev". MarkMail. 2011-10-28. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
- "Adobe PhoneGap Build". Adobe Systems Inc.
- Team, PhoneGap (2017-02-16). "PhoneGap, Cordova, and what's in a name?". Medium. Retrieved 2019-11-10.
- "Nitobi in Vancouver, BC". www.fyple.ca. Retrieved 2019-11-10.
- Klint Finley. "Adobe Launches Hosted PhoneGap Build Service For Creating Cross-Platform Mobile Apps". 2012.
- "The Development of Mobile Applications using HTML5 and PhoneGap on Intel Architecture-Based Platforms". 2012-06-22. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
However, HTML5 has some limitations. Most prominent, is the lack of API to access device hardware and sensors such as accelerometer, compass, GPS, etc. While native applications can access device hardware, they lack the portability that Web apps provide. Thus, a solution is to code a hybrid application, which cumulatively uses the benefits of native and Web apps.
- Sapan Diwakar (2012-06-21). "Titanium vs Phonegap vs Native application development". Retrieved 2013-02-17.
- "PhoneGap advice on dealing with Apple application rejections". Adobe Systems. 2012-10-29. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
- "Creating apps with PhoneGap: Lessons learned". Adobe Systems. 2012-09-17. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
When you add more complex CSS3 elements, heavy transitions, and supporting multiple devices (such as iOS and Android), however, it makes you realize that there are few steps you must iron out to prevent hair loss
- "Building Cordova apps for Firefox OS ✩ Mozilla Hacks – the Web developer blog". 20 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- "Using PhoneGap and the Sony Ericsson WebSDK to develop Android apps". Android and Me. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
- "Platform Support". Adobe PhoneGap. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
- "PhoneGap supported features". Phonegap.com. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
- "Android Platform Guide - Apache Cordova". cordova.apache.org. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- Pelletier, Jeff (April 25, 2013). Mobile App Manual: The Blueprint (1st ed.). Withinsight Publishing. p. 96. ISBN 978-0989072106.
- Shotts, Kerri (February 26, 2013). PhoneGap 2.x Mobile Application Development Hotshot (1st ed.). Packt Publishing. p. 388. ISBN 978-1849519403.
- Gifford, Matt (October 22, 2012). PhoneGap Mobile Application Development Cookbook (1st ed.). Packt Publishing. p. 320. ISBN 978-1849518581.
- M. Wargo, John (June 11, 2012). PhoneGap Essentials: Building Cross-Platform Mobile Apps (1st ed.). Addison-Wesley Professional. p. 384. ISBN 978-0321814296. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Munro, Jamie (March 29, 2012). 20 Recipes for Programming PhoneGap: Cross-Platform Mobile Development for Android and iPhone (1st ed.). O'Reilly Media. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-4493-1954-0.
- Marinacci, Joshua (March 21, 2012). Building Mobile Applications with Java: Using the Google Web Toolkit and PhoneGap (1st ed.). O'Reilly Media. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-4493-0823-0.
- Lunny, Andrew (September 23, 2011). PhoneGap Beginner's Guide (1st ed.). Packt Publishing. p. 328. ISBN 1-84951-536-0.
- Myer, Thomas (December 13, 2011). Beginning PhoneGap (1st ed.). Wrox. p. 336. ISBN 1-118-15665-X. Archived from the original on June 4, 2015. Retrieved October 10, 2011.