Apache Calcite

Apache Calcite is an open source framework for building databases and data management systems. It includes a SQL parser, an API for building expressions in relational algebra, and a query planning engine. As a framework, Calcite does not store its own data or metadata, but instead allows external data and metadata to be accessed by means of plug-ins.

Apache Calcite
Developer(s)Apache Software Foundation
Initial releaseJune 27, 2014 (2014-06-27)[1]
Stable release
1.21.0 / September 6, 2019 (2019-09-06)[2]
RepositoryCalcite Repository
Written inJava
Operating systemCross-platform
TypeSQL database
LicenseApache License 2.0

Several other Apache projects use Calcite.[3] Hive uses Calcite for cost-based query optimization;[4] Drill and Kylin use Calcite for SQL parsing and optimization; Samza and Storm use Calcite for streaming SQL. As of August 2016, Apex, Phoenix and Flink have projects under development that use Calcite. Since 2019, LeanXcale query engine is based on Apache Calcite.


  1. Julian Hyde. "Optiq-0.8 release announcement". Apache Software Foundation.
  2. "Release 1.21.0". 6 September 2019. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  3. "Powered by Calcite". Apache Software Foundation.
  4. Julian Hyde. "Cost-based query optimization in Apache Hive 0.14", Hortonworks, 24 September 2014.
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