AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro

The Denmark Hitachi Rail Italy Driverless Metro is an class of driverless electric multiple units and corresponding signaling system. Manufactured by Hitachi Rail Italy (formerly AnsaldoBreda) and Ansaldo STS in Italy, it is or is used on the Copenhagen Metro, Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University, the Brescia Metro, the Thessaloniki Metro, Line 5 of the Milan Metro, Line C of the Rome Metro and the Yellow Line of the Taipei Rapid Transit System. The first system to use this class of driverless electric multiple units was the Copenhagen Metro which was opened in 2002.

Hitachi Rail Italy Driverless Metro
In service2002–present
ManufacturerHitachi Rail Italy (formerly AnsaldoBreda) and Ansaldo STS
Number built255 (as of 2019)
Formation2–6 cars
Operator(s)Brescia Metro
Copenhagen Metro
Milan Metro
Rome Metro
Thessaloniki Metro
Taipei Metro
Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University
Width2.65 m (8 ft 8 in)
2.85 m (9 ft 4 in) (Rome)
Height3.4 m (11 ft)
3.85 m (12.6 ft)
Maximum speed80 km/h (50 mph) to 90 km/h (56 mph)
Electric system(s)750 V third rail
1,500 V overhead line (Rome)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)

The rolling stock consists of two[1] to six articulated cars. All trains are 2.65 meters (8.7 ft) wide, except those used on the Rome Metro which are 2.85 meters (9.4 ft) wide. All operate on standard gauge. Each car has a power output of 210 or 256 kilowatts (282 or 343 hp), fed from a third rail at 750 volts (except in Rome where it is 1,500 V overhead line). The systems are fully automated, consisting of automatic train protection (ATP), automatic train operation (ATO) and automatic train supervision.

Rolling stock

The rolling stock uses standardized car bodies, articulated together. The number of cars varies across the different systems where they are used. The trains used on the Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University system are two car units. For the other systems, the units vary between three and six cars, making the trains from 39 to 109 meters (128 to 358 ft) long. They are 2.65 meters (8.7 ft) wide, except the Rome Metro units, which are 2.85 meters (9.4 ft). The units vary from 3.4 to 3.85 meters (11 ft 2 in to 12 ft 8 in) tall. Each car has two doors on each side, which are 1.3 meters (4 ft 3 in) wide and 1.945 meters (6 ft 4.6 in) tall.[2] The vehicles are designed by Giugiaro Design.[3]

The three and four-car trains have six three-phase asynchronous motors per train, with each motor giving a power output of 105 and 128 kilowatts (141 and 172 hp), giving each train a power output of 630 or 764 kilowatts (845 or 1,025 hp). In each car, the two motors are fed by the car's own insulated-gate bipolar transistor. They transform the 750-volt (1,500 V in Rome) direct current collected from the third rail shoe to the three-phase alternating current used in the motors. The trains' top speeds are 80 or 90 km/h (50 or 56 mph), with an acceleration and deceleration capacity of 1.3 m/s2 (4.3 ft/s2). Trains are fully compatible with platform screen doors, which are found at all stations in Brescia, Rome and Milan, Copenhagen, and Thessaloniki.[2][4][5][6]

System Line Opening date Trains Cars Length Width Power Speed
Brescia201318339.0 128.02.65 8 ft 8 in630 84080 50
CopenhagenM1 and M2200234339.0 128.02.65 8 ft 8 in630 84090 56
CopenhagenM3 and M4201930339.0 128.02.65 8 ft 8 in630 84090 56
Honolulu201820439.10128.33.0510 ft10565
MilanLine 4202147450.9 1672.65 8 ft 8 in630 84080 50
MilanLine 5201321450.5 1662.65 8 ft 8 in630 84080 50
RomeLine C2014306109.4 3592.85 9 ft 4 in90 56
TaipeiCircular line201917468.0 223.12.65 8 ft 8 in80 50
Thessaloniki202033451.0 167.32.65 8 ft 8 in764 1,02590 56
CPC second Metro202120551.0 167.32.65 8 ft 8 in764 1,02590 56
New Taipei[7]Sanying Line2023292


The systems are controlled by a fully automated computer system, located at the control and maintenance center. The automatic train control (ATC) consists of three subsystems: automatic train protection (ATP), automatic train operation (ATO) and automatic train supervision (ATS). The ATP is responsible for managing the trains' speed, ensuring that doors are closed before departure and that switches are correctly set. The system uses fixed block signaling, except around stations, where moving block signaling is used.[8][5] The system has been designed and built by Union Switch & Signal.[9]

The ATO is the autopilot that drives the trains in line with a pre-defined schedule, ensures that the train stop at stations and operates the doors. The ATS monitors all components of the network, including the rails and all trains on the system, and displays a live schematic at the control center. The ATC is designed so that only the ATP is safety-critical, and will halt trains if the other systems have faults. Other aspects of the system, such a power supply, ventilation, security alarms, cameras and pumps, are controlled by a system called "control, regulating and surveillance".[8]

The most common repairs are the grinding of the wheels; more complicated repairs are made by replacing entire components that are sent to the manufacturer. By having components in reserve, trains can have shorter maintenance times. The center also has the system's work trains, including a diesel locomotive that can fetch broken trains.[8] At any time, there are four people working at the control center. Two monitor the ATC system, one monitors passenger information, while the last is responsible for secondary systems, such as power supply. In case of technical problems, there is always a team of technicians who can be sent to perform repairs. Although the trains are not equipped with drivers, there are stewards that help passengers, perform ticket controls and assist in emergency situations.[8]



The Brescia Metro is a system which opened in March 2013 in Brescia, Italy. The 18-kilometer (11 mi) system was built in three stages and has 17 stations. The system features a 90-second headway. ASM Brescia ordered 18 trains which are now being used on the Metro.[10][11]


The Copenhagen Metro, Denmark, consists of three lines, M1, M2 and M3 that run 35.9 kilometers (22.3 mi) serving 37 stations. The system opened between 2002 and 2019, and connects the city center to the areas of Frederiksberg and Amager, and Copenhagen Airport. The next extension, the City Circle Line opened on 29 September 2019. Metroselskabet took delivery of 34 three-car units between 2002 and 2007, and operates with a headway of between two and twenty minutes, including an all-night service.[4][8] In April 2008, the Copenhagen Metro won the award at MetroRail 2008 for the world's best metro.[12]


The Honolulu Rail Transit project will be a 20 mi (32 km) elevated rail route which will connect the city of Honolulu on the island of Oahu in Hawaii with outlying suburbs. The project is planned to open in phases starting in late 2020 with the entire 21 station route to be completed in late 2025. AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro rolling stock will be used for the system.[13] Honolulu politicians and construction crews broke ground on the project on February 22, 2011 in Kapolei, Hawaii. As of October 2012, construction of the columns and foundations have been completed for the first 0.5 mi (0.80 km) mile of the route. Future extensions to the route have been planned, which include spurs to the route and 15 additional stations. Construction of the project is currently on hold as litigation resulting from Kaleikini v. Yoshioka court case bars continuation of the project until the City and County submits a complete archeological survey to the State Historic Preservation Division for the entire line.[14]


It is currently under construction in Lima the Line 2 of Lima Metro and a branch of Line 4, which will connect the city of east to west in the first case and the portion of line 4 linking the Jorge Chavez International Airport with the line 2. the line will be built in two phases, the first of which is scheduled to open in 2017 and the second in 2020. the total of the 2 lines will cost US $5,346,000 [15]


The Milan Metro's Line 5 first section between Bignami and the interconnection with M3 at Zara opened on 10 February 2013. The second stage opened on 1 March 2014, and runs from Zara to Porta Garibaldi station. The third and fourth sections are under construction and are both planned to open in 2015, and will run from Garibaldi to San Siro stadium and from Bignami to Monza. Further extensions are planned. The first stage of 5.6 kilometres (3.5 mi) was estimated to cost €500 million.[16][17]


An 11·5 km metro serving the Princess Nora Bint Abdulrahman University on the outskirts of Riyadh opened in 2012.[1]


Rome Metro's Line C is 25.5 kilometers (15.8 mi) long, of which 17.6 kilometers (10.9 mi) are underground. Metropolitana di Roma has ordered thirty six-car units, which are 20 centimeters (7.9 in) wider than the other systems' vehicles, and capable of carrying 1,200 passengers per train. Average speed on the system is 35 km/h (22 mph), with the headway varying from three to twelve minutes.[18]


The Yellow Line or Circular Line of the Taipei Rapid Transit System, Taiwan, will serve as a cross-link between existing lines. The 49-kilometer (30 mi) system will feature 42 stations. The 15.4 kilometers (9.6 mi) phase 1 will have 14 stations and is planned for completion in June 2019. The Taipei Rapid Transit Corporation has ordered 17 trains for this phase.[19][20]


Construction on Greece's second metro system began in 2006 and is scheduled to open in phases between 2020 and 2021, at a cost of €1.57 billion ($1.77 billion).[21] The 14.28 km (8.87 mi) system will feature 18 stations in 2021.[6][6] 33 driverless AnsaldoBreda units will be put to operation on the two lines.[22] Those will be articulated in 4 sections with a capacity of 466 passengers (96 seated and 370 standing).[23]


  1. Andy Hellawell (21 August 2012). "Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University driverless metro opens". Railway Gazette International.
  2. AnsaldoBreda. "Driverless metros" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  3. "Copenhagen Metro". Arcspace. Archived from the original on 30 July 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  4. Haas, Torkil (2002). "En mini-metro med maksimal virkning" (PDF). Jernbanen (in Danish) (2): 52–53. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-19.
  5. "Treni driverless" (in Italian). Rome Metro. Archived from the original on 2008-08-04. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
  6. Attiko Metro S.A. "Ιστορικό" [History]. (in Greek). Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  7. "Sanying Line turnkey contract awarded". Railway Gazette International. 2016-06-21. Retrieved 2019-06-30.
  8. Jensen, Tommy O. (2002). "Bag om metroen" (PDF). Jernbanen (in Danish) (5): 32–41. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-19.
  9. "Union Switch and Signal". Find Articles. March 2007. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  10. "Brescia To Build Automated Metro". International Railway Journal. June 2000. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  11. "Ansaldobreda unveiled the first of 18 metro trains for the first metro line in the Italian city of Brescia". International Railway Journal. July 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  12. de Laine, Thomas (2 April 2008). "København har verdens bedste metro". Myldretid (in Danish). Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  13. Park, Gene (22 March 2011), "Have a seat", Honolulu Star-Advertiser, 130 (50), p. A1, A6, retrieved 7 November 2013
  15. "Metro Line 2 will operate with driverless trains and will be 100 % automated". Andina (in Spanish). 28 April 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
  16. "Milan Metro". Railway Age. March 2007. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  17. "500 million [euro] Italian metro deal". International Railway Journal. April 2006. Archived from the original on 2016-01-10. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  18. (in Italian)
  19. "Ansaldo secures Taipei contract". Find Articles. April 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  20. 臺北捷運 [Taipei MRT], Taipei Rapid Transit Corporation, 2009
  21. Attiko Metro S.A. "Funding". Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  22. Technical Description (PDF), Attiko Metro S.A., 1 December 2014
  23. Salonicco. Hitachi Rail Italy. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.