Angels in the Outfield (1951 film)

Angels in the Outfield is a 1951 American comedy film produced and directed by Clarence Brown and starring Paul Douglas and Janet Leigh. Based on a story by Richard Conlin, the film is about a young woman reporter who blames the Pittsburgh Pirates' losing streak on their abusive manager, who begins hearing the voice of an angel promising to help the team if he changes his ways. The film was released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer on October 19, 1951.

Angels in the Outfield
Theatrical release poster
Directed byClarence Brown
Produced byClarence Brown
Screenplay by
Story byRichard Conlin
Music byDaniele Amfitheatrof
CinematographyPaul Vogel
Edited byRobert J. Kern
Distributed byMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Release date
  • October 19, 1951 (1951-10-19) (US)
Running time
99 minutes
CountryUnited States
Box office$1,666,000[1]


With baseball's Pittsburgh Pirates in last place, their combative, foul-mouthed manager Guffy McGovern has plenty to complain about. All this changes when, while wandering through Forbes Field in search of his good luck charm one night, Guffy is accosted by the voice of an angel (voice of James Whitmore), who hints at having been a ballplayer during his earthly life.

As the spokes-angel for the Heavenly Choir Nine, a celestial team of deceased ballplayers, he begins bestowing "miracles" upon the Pirates—but only on the condition that McGovern put a moratorium on swearing and fighting.

With the help of the invisible ghosts of past baseball greats, the Pirates make it into the pennant race. During a game, 8-year-old orphan Bridget White insists that she can see the angels helping out the "live" ballplayers—understandably so, since it was Bridget's prayers to the Archangel Gabriel that prompted the angel to visit McGovern in the first place.

Local newspaper reporter and former "household hints" writer Jennifer Paige inadvertently transforms Bridget's angelic visions into a nationwide news story, causing McGovern no end of trouble. After Guffy is beaned during a game and himself confirms Bridget's claims, he falls into the hands of vengeful sportscaster Fred Bayles, who has been scheming to have McGovern thrown out of baseball and persuades the Commissioner of Baseball to investigate McGovern's fitness as a manager.

Complication piles upon complication until the pennant-deciding game, wherein Guffy is forced to rely exclusively upon the talents of his ballplayers—notably "over the hill" pitcher Saul Hellman (who, the angel has told Guffy, will be "signed up" by the Heavenly Choir team shortly). Guffy also wins over Jennifer, and they plan to adopt young Bridget.

The angels themselves are never actually seen by the viewing audience, just the effects of their presence—a feather dropping, or someone being jostled from time to time. The angel who talks to Guffy never reveals who he was in life. However, this angel does reveal his presence to Bayles: When Bayles sarcastically asks "the little angels up there" if they are happy with the Pirates' win over the New York Giants, Bayles hears the angel reply "Oh, why don't you just shut up?" and the angel pulls Bayles' hat down over Bayles' face. Bayles looks up incredulously upon hearing the voice, searching for the speaker.

It being a time when the Hays Code prohibited most use of profanity in films, the "swearing" uttered by Guffy is audio gibberish, scrambled recordings of his own voice.


Cameo appearances


MGM originally purchased the story as a vehicle for Spencer Tracy,[3] who was later replaced by Clark Gable.[4] When Gable chose instead to make Lone Star, MGM attempted unsuccessfully to borrow James Cagney from Warner Brothers before settling on Paul Douglas.[5][6] Two years earlier Douglas had played a catcher in another baseball comedy film, It Happens Every Spring. Although he had no background in baseball, Bruce Bennett, who portrays a veteran Pittsburgh pitcher, in real life had played football in the 1926 Rose Bowl and won a silver medal in the shot put at the 1928 Summer Olympics.

Rothberg, one of the Pirate players, is played by Jeff Richards, who had been a minor-league baseball player before becoming an actor. Fred Graham, who appears as "Chunk," had been a semi-pro ballplayer, while another member of the cast, Paul Salata, who has the role of Tony Minelli, played professional football from 1949-53.

Filming locations

The film contains extensive baseball action shots, most of which were filmed at Forbes Field,[7] the former home of the Pittsburgh Pirates and Steelers, demolished in 1971, the year after the Pirates and Steelers moved to Three Rivers Stadium. The opening credits acknowledge "the kind cooperation of the Pittsburgh 'Pirates' for the use of the team and its ballpark," while reminding the viewer that the story is fictional and "could be any baseball team, in any league, in any town in America."

Historians may note several distinguishing features of Forbes Field at the time. One is the "Kiner's Korner" inner fence in left field, with the 365-feet left field foul line marker observable on the outer wall, and the 335-feet sign on the inner fence. The other distance markers (376-457-436-375-300) are visible in some scenes. Other objects on the field of play at Forbes are visible from time to time, including the flagpole and batting cage near the 457 foot marker in deep left center field, and the Barney Dreyfuss monument in straightaway center field. The University of Pittsburgh's Cathedral of Learning is prominent in many shots filmed in Forbes Field.

A few scenes were shot on location at Wrigley Field, conveniently sited in South Los Angeles. Well-used by film-makers of the era, the ballpark—home to the minor league Angels from 1925 to 1957—was named for team owner William Wrigley, Jr. when the landmark Chicago stadium was still known as Cubs Park. While Wrigley's ivy-covered outfield wall stands in nicely for that of Forbes Field, "Kiner's Korner" is conspicuous in its absence, and visible distance markers (412 feet in centre field; 345 feet in left) are inconsistent with Forbes Field's grander dimensions.

Some stock footage alleged to be the Polo Grounds in New York City was actually Comiskey Park in Chicago, as evidenced by a quick glimpse of an auxiliary scoreboard reading "Visitors" and "White Sox".

Box office

According to MGM records the film made $1,466,000 in the US and Canada and $200,000 elsewhere. Once studio overhead was added, the film recorded a net loss of $171,000.[1]

See also


  1. The Eddie Mannix Ledger, Los Angeles: Margaret Herrick Library, Center for Motion Picture Study
  2. Biederman, Les. "The Scoreboard". The Pittsburgh Press. September 8, 1951. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
  3. Brady, Thomas F. "Metro Will Film Baseball Comedy; 'Angels in the Outfield,' Written by Priest, Bought by Studio for Spencer Tracy". The New York Times. October 12, 1950.
  4. Brady, Thomas. "Clark Gable Gets Metro Movie Lead; He Replaces Spencer Tracy as Star of 'Angels in the Outfield". The New York Times. January 19, 1951
  5. Brady, Thomas F. "Miss Barrymore Signs for Picture". The New York Times. February 16, 1951. "At Metro, Clark Gable has turned down the starring role in "Angels in the Outfield," a baseball comedy with religious overtones, and the studio is negotiating with James Cagney to replace him."
  6. Parsons, Louella. "Monday Morning Gossip of the Nation". The Philadelphia Inquirer. February 26, 1951. "Yes, Paul, who belongs to 20th Century Fox, goes on loan to Culver City to make this baseball special first scheduled for Clark Gable. "The King" bowed out in favor of his independent, "Lone Star." James Cagney was close to inheriting the part when Warners decided to keep him on the home lot for Harlan Ware's "Come Fill the Cup."
  7. Leventhal, Josh; Jessica MacMurray (2000). Take Me Out to the Ballpark. New York, New York: Workman Publishing Company. p. 53. ISBN 1-57912-112-8.

Further reading

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