Anfal genocide

The Anfal genocide[3][4][5][6] was a genocide[7][8] that killed between 50,000[1] and 182,000[2] Kurds as well as a couple of thousand Assyrians. It was committed during the Al-Anfal campaign (Harakat al-Anfal/Homleh al-Anfal) (Kurdish: پڕۆسەی ئەنفال) (Arabic: حملة الأنفال) led by Ali Hassan al-Majid against Kurdistan in northern Iraq during the final stages of the Iran–Iraq War.

Anfal genocide
Part of the Iraqi–Kurdish conflict and the Iran–Iraq War
Human remains found at a mass grave site in Iraqi Kurdistan, July 15, 2005
LocationIraqi Kurdistan
Date12 March 1986 – 7 June 1989 (in strict sense
23 February 1988 – 6 September 1988)
TargetExterminating Kurdish opposition
Attack type
Genocide, mass murder, ethnic cleansing, forced disappearance, counter-insurgency
Deaths50,000–100,000 (according to Human Rights Watch,[1] although Kurdish officials have claimed the figure could be as high as 182,000)[2]
PerpetratorsGovernment of Iraq, especially Ali Hassan al-Majid
MotiveAnti-Kurdish sentiment, Arabization, Eliminate Peshmerga resistance and insurgency.

The campaign's name was from Sura 8 (al-Anfal) in the Qur'an, which was used as a code name by the former Iraqi Ba'athist Government for a series of systematic attacks against the Kurdish fighters in northern Iraq between 1986 and 1989, with the peak in 1988. Sweden, Norway, South Korea and the United Kingdom officially recognize the Anfal campaign as genocide.[9]

The genocide was part of the destruction of Kurdish villages during the Iraqi Arabization campaign.


Al-Anfal is the eighth sura, or chapter, of the Qur'an. It explains the triumph of 313 followers of the new Muslim faith over almost 900 pagans at the Battle of Badr in 624 AD. "Al Anfal" literally means the spoils (of war) and was used to describe the military campaign of extermination and looting commanded by Ali Hassan al-Majid. His orders informed jash (literally "donkey's foal" in Kurdish) units that taking cattle, sheep, goats, money, weapons and even Kurdish women was legal.[10]


The Anfal campaign began in 1986, and lasted until 1989, and was headed by Ali Hassan al-Majid, a cousin of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein from Saddam's hometown of Tikrit. The Anfal campaign included the use of ground offensives, aerial bombing, systematic destruction of settlements, mass deportation, firing squads, and chemical warfare, which earned al-Majid the nickname of "Chemical Ali". The Iraqi Army was supported by Kurdish collaborators who were armed by the Iraqi government, so called Jash forces, who led the Iraqi troops to the Kurdish villages that often did not figure on maps as well as to their hideouts in the mountains. The Jash forces also promised the Kurdish population amnesties and gave their word of honor that a passage to flee was free, which both often turned out to be false.[11]

Thousands of civilians were killed during the anti-insurgent campaigns stretching from the northern spring of 1987, to the northern fall of 1988. The attacks were part of a long campaign that destroyed approximately 4,500 Kurdish and at least 31 Assyrian Christian villages in areas of northern Iraq and displaced at least a million of the country's estimated 3.5 million Kurdish population. Amnesty International collected the names of more than 17,000 people who had "disappeared" in 1988.[12][13] The campaign has been characterized as genocidal in nature.[14] It is also characterized as gendercidal, because "battle-age" men were the primary targets, according to Human Rights Watch/Middle East.[15] According to the Iraqi prosecutors and Kurdish officials, as many as 180,000 people were killed.[16]

Under U.S. President Ronald Reagan, the United States continued to aid Iraq after reports of the use of poison gas on Kurdish civilians.[17][18][19]


In March 1987, Ali Hassan al-Majid was appointed secretary-general of the Ba'ath Party's Northern Bureau[20], which included Iraqi Kurdistan. Under al-Majid, control of policies against the Kurdish insurgents passed from the Iraqi Army to the Ba'ath Party itself.

Al-Anfal campaign
Part of the Iraqi–Kurdish conflict and the Iran–Iraq War
(In strict sense 23 February 1988  6 September 1988)
Result Insurgency weakened but not quelled* Destruction of 4,500 villages.
Commanders and leaders
Units involved
200,000 3,500
Casualties and losses
50,000–182,000 civilians killed[22][2]

Military operations and chemical attacks

Anfal, officially conducted in 1988, had eight stages (Anfal 1 - Anfal 8) altogether, seven of which targeted areas controlled by the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan. The Kurdish Democratic Party-controlled areas in the northwest of Iraqi Kurdistan, which the regime regarded as a lesser threat, were the target of the Final Anfal operation in late August and early September 1988. For those assaults, the Iraqis mustered up to 200,000 soldiers with air support against Kurdish guerrilla forces that numbered no more than a few thousand.

Anfal 1

The first Anfal stage was conducted between 23 February and 18 March 1988. It was targeted the Jafali Valley at the border to Iran, where the headquarters of the PUK was seated. The villages Sargallu, Bargallu, Gwezeela, Chalawi, Haladin and Yakhsamar were attacked with poison gas. During mid March, the PUK, in an alliance with Iranian troops and other Kurdish factions, captured Halabja.[23] This led to the poison gas attack on Halabja on 16 March 1988[23] during which 3,200–5,000 Kurdish people were killed, most of them civilians.[24][25] The Peshmerga managed to open a flight route to Iran through which a part of the population in the Jafali Valley was able to flee. During the first Anfal campaign no prisoners were made by the Iraqi army.

Anfal 2

During the second Anfal from 22 March and 2 April 1988 the region Qara Dag, southwest of the city Suleimanya, was targeted. Again several villages were attacked with poison gas. Villages attacked with poisonous gas were Safaran, Sewsenan, Belekjar, Serko and Meyoo. As a result of the attack, the majority of the population in the Qara Dagh region fled in direction Suleimanya. Many fugitives were detained by the Iraqi forces, and the men were separated from the women. The men were not seen again. The women were transported to camps. The population that managed to flee, fled to the Garmia region.[26]

Anfal 3

In the next Anfal campaign from 7 April to 20 April 1988, the Garmian region east of Suleimanya was targeted. In this campaign many women and children disappeared. The only village attacked with chemical weapons was Tazashar. Many were lured to come towards the Iraqi forces due to an Amnesty which was announced through a loudspeaker of a mosque in Qader Karam from 10 - 12 April. The announced amnesty was a trap, and many who surrendered were detained. Some civilians were able to bribe Kurdish collaborators of the Iraqi Army and fled to Laylan or Shorsh.[27]

Anfal 4

Anfal 4 took place between 3 - 8 May 1988 in the valley of the Little Zab which forms the border of the provinces of Erbil and Kirkuk. The moral of the Iraqi army was on the rise due to the capture of the Faw Peninsula on the 17-18 April 1988 from Iran in the Iran-Iraq war.[28] Major poisonous gas attacks were perpetrated in Askar and Goktapa.[29] Again it was announced an amnesty was issued, which turned out to be false. Many of the ones who surrendered were arrested. Men were separated from the women.[30]

Anfal 5, 6 and 7

In these 3 consecutive attacks between 15 May and 16 of August 1988 the valleys of Rawandiz and Shaqlawa were targeted and they had different success. The Anfal 5 failed completely, therefore two more attacks were necessary to gain Iraqi governmental control over the valleys. The Peshmerga commander of the region, Kosrat Abdullah was well prepared for a long siege with storages of ammunition and food. He also achieved an agreement with the Kurdish collaborators of the Iraqi Army, so the civilians could flee. The villages Hiran, Balisan, Smaquli, Malakan, Shek Wasan, Ware, Seran ans Kaniba were attacked with poisonous gas. After the Anfal 7 Attack the valleys were under the control of the Iraqi government.[30]

Anfal 8

The last Anfal was aimed at the region controlled by the KDP, Badinan and took place from 25 August to 6 September 1988. In this campaign the villages Wirmeli, Barkavreh, Bilejane, Glenaska, Zewa Shkan, Tuka and Ikmala were targeted with chemical attacks. After tens of thousands of Kurds fled to Turkey, the Iraqi Army blocked the route to Turkey on the 26 August 1988. Following, the population who did not manage to flee was arrested, the men separated from the women and children. Men were executed, and the women and children brought to camps.[31]

Concentration camps and extermination

When captured, Kurdish populations were transported to detention centers (notably Topzawa, near the city of Kirkuk), and adult and teenage males viewed as possible insurgents were separated from the civilians. According to Human Rights Watch/Middle East,

With only minor variations... the standard pattern for sorting new arrivals [at Topzawa was as follows]. Men and women were segregated on the spot as soon as the trucks had rolled to a halt in the base's large central courtyard or parade ground. The process was brutal. ... A little later, the men were further divided by age, small children were kept with their mothers, and the elderly and infirm were shunted off to separate quarters. Men and teenage boys considered to be of an age to use a weapon were herded together. Roughly speaking, this meant males of between fifteen and fifty, but there was no rigorous check of identity documents, and strict chronological age seems to have been less of a criterion than size and appearance. A strapping twelve-year-old might fail to make the cut; an undersized sixteen-year-old might be told to remain with his female relatives.... It was then time to process the younger males. They were split into smaller groups.... Once duly registered, the prisoners were hustled into large rooms, or halls, each filled with the residents of a single area.... Although the conditions at Topzawa were appalling for everyone, the most grossly overcrowded quarter seem to have been those where the male detainees were held.... For the men, beatings were routine. (Iraq's Crime of Genocide, pp. 143–45. ISBN 0-300-06427-6)

After a few days in the camps, the men accused of being insurgents were trucked off to be killed in mass executions.

In its book Iraq's Crime of Genocide, Human Rights Watch/Middle East writes: "Throughout Iraqi Kurdistan, although women and children vanished in certain clearly defined areas, adult males who were captured disappeared in mass. ... It is apparent that a principal purpose of Anfal was to exterminate all adult males of military service age captured in rural Iraqi Kurdistan." (pp. 96, 170). Only a handful survived the execution squads. Even amidst this most systematic slaughter of adult men and boys, however, "hundreds of women and young children perished, too," but "the causes of their deaths were different—gassing, starvation, exposure, and willful neglect—rather than bullets fired from a Kalashnikov." (Iraq's Crime of Genocide, p. 191.) Nevertheless, on 1 September 2004, U.S. forces in Iraq discovered hundreds of bodies of Kurdish women and children at the site near Hatra, who are believed to be executed in early 1988, or late 1987.[32]

The focus of the Iraqi killing campaign varied from one stage of Anfal to another. The most exclusive targeting of the male population occurred during the final Anfal (25 August – 6 September 1988). It was launched immediately after the signing of a ceasefire with Iran, which allowed the transfer of large numbers of men and amount of matériel from the southern battlefronts. The final Anfal focused on "the steep, narrow valleys of Badinan, a four-thousand-square mile (10,360 km²) chunk of the Zagros Mountains bounded on the east by the Great Zab and on the north by Turkey." There, uniquely in the Anfal campaigns, lists of the "disappeared" provided to Human Rights Watch/Middle East by survivors "invariably included only adult and teenage males, with the single exception of Assyrians and Yezidi Kurds," who were subsidiary targets of the slaughter. Many of the men of Badinan did not even make it as far as "processing" stations but were simply "lined up and murdered at their point of capture, summarily executed by firing squads on the authority of a local military officer." (Iraq's Crime of Genocide, pp. 178, 190, 192; on the fate of the Christians and Yezidi Kurds, see pp. 209–13.)

On 20 June 1987, Directive SF/4008 was issued, under al-Majid's signature. Of greatest significance is clause 5. Referring to those areas designated "prohibited zones," al-Majid ordered that "all persons captured in those villages shall be detained and interrogated by the security services and those between the ages of 15 and 70 shall be executed after any useful information has been obtained from them, of which we should be duly notified." However, it seems clear from the application of the policy that it referred only to males "between the ages of 15 and 70." Human Rights Watch/Middle East takes that as given and writes that clause 5's "order [was] to kill all adult males" and later writes: "Under the terms of al-Majid's June 1987, directives, death was the automatic penalty for any male of an age to bear arms who was found in an Anfal area." (Iraq's Crime of Genocide, pp. 11, 14.) A subsequent directive on 6 September 1987, supports this conclusion: it calls for "the deportation of... families to the areas where there saboteur relatives are..., except for the male [members], between the ages of 12 inclusive and 50 inclusive, who must be detained." (Cited in Iraq's Crime of Genocide, p. 298.)


"Arabization," another major element of al-Anfal, was a tactic used by Saddam Hussein's regime to drive pro-insurgent populations out of their homes in villages and cities like Kirkuk, which are in the valuable oil field areas, and relocate them in the southern parts of Iraq.[33] The campaign used heavy population redistribution, most notably in Kirkuk, the results of which now plague negotiations between Iraq's Shi'a United Iraqi Alliance and the Kurdish Kurdistani Alliance. Saddam's Ba'athist regime built several public housing facilities in Kirkuk as part of his "Arabization," shifting poor Arabs from Iraq's southern regions to Kirkuk with the lure of inexpensive housing. Another part of the arabization campaign was the census of October 1987. Citizens who failed to turn up for the October 1987 Census were not anymore recognized as Iraqi citizens. Most of the Kurdish population who learned that a census is taking place, did not take part in the census.[20]

Iraq's Kurds now strongly resent Arabs still residing in Ba'ath-era Kirkuk housing and view them as a barrier to Kirkuk's recognition as a Kurdish city (and regional seat) in the Kurdistan Region. Major General Wafiq al Samarrai is quoted to have said: "You can kill half a million Kurds in Erbil, but it wont change anything, it will still be Kurdish, but killing 50`000 Kurds in Kirkuk will finish the Kurdish cause forever."[34]


In September 1988 the Iraqi Government was satisfied with its achievements. The male population between 15 and 50 has either been killed or fled. The Kurdish resistance fled to Iran and was no longer a threat for Iraq. An amnesty was issued and the detained women, children and elderly were released.[35]

Documenting events

In August 2013, after many years of relationship-building, Imani Lee Language Services entered a multi-year and multi-phased agreement with the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), a self-proclaimed autonomous state within the borders of Iraq, on an important project of historical significance.

The first phase of the project concerned the translation of historical documents related to the events that happened in Halabja, Kurdistan, Iraq on 16 March 1988, when Saddam Hussein's regime bombed the entire district with chemical weapons in the closing days of the Iran–Iraq War, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 5,000 Kurds. The attack on Halabja has been well-documented as being the single most brutal attack of the regime as well as the deadliest chemical weapons attack against a civilian population in the history of the world. Today, many of the living Kurdish civilians affected by the chemical attack still suffer from various illnesses both psychological and physical in addition to the birth defects of their progeny.

For years, the victims of the attack and the KRG have tried to tell their story to the rest of the world. Their effort has included petitioning international countries to recognize the attack as an official act of genocide.

The Kurdish Genocide has been published in Halabja: Facing the Poisons of Death, A Legal Reading of the Event and the Supreme Iraqi Criminal Court Documents, authored by Bakr Hamah Seddik Arif, a lawyer and member of the Iraqi Parliament.


According to Human Rights Watch, during the Anfal campaign, the Iraqi government did the following:

  • Massacred 50,000 to 100,000 non-combatant civilians, including women and children.[1] However, Kurdish officials have claimed the figure could be as high as 182,000.[2]
  • Destroyed about 4,000 villages (out of 4,655) in Iraqi Kurdistan. Between April 1987, and August 1988, 250 towns and villages were exposed to chemical weapons;[36]
  • Destroyed 1,754 schools, 270 hospitals, 2,450 mosques, and 27 churches;[37]
  • Wiped out around 90% of Kurdish villages in the targeted areas.[2]
  • Made 2,000 Assyrian Christians, along with Kurds and others, victims of gas campaigns.[38]

Violation of human rights

The campaigns of 1987–89 were characterized by the following human rights violations:

  1. mass summary executions and mass disappearance of many tens of thousands of non-combatants, including large numbers of women and children, and sometimes the entire population of villages; 17,000 persons are known to have disappeared in 1988 alone. [Ibid. 11]
  2. the widespread use of chemical weapons, including mustard gas and the nerve agent GB, or sarin, against the town of Halabja as well as dozens of Kurdish villages, killing many thousands of people, mainly women and children;
  3. the wholesale destruction of some 2,000 villages, which are described in government documents as having been "burned", "destroyed", "demolished" and "purified", as well as at least a dozen larger towns and administrative centers (nahyas and qadhas); Since 1975, a total of 3,839 Kurdish villages have been destroyed by the former Iraqi regime.[39]
  4. Human Rights Watch/Middle East estimates that between 50,000 and 100,000 people were killed.[22] Some Kurdish sources put the number higher, estimating 182,000 Kurds were killed.[40]
  5. In 1989, army engineers destroyed the last major Kurdish town near the Iranian border. Qala Dizeh had a population of 70,000 before it was razed. Afterwards, the surrounding area was considered a "prohibited area".[41]


Frans van Anraat

In December 2005 a court in The Hague convicted Frans van Anraat of complicity in war crimes for his role in selling chemical weapons to the Iraqi government. He was given a 15-year sentence.[14] The court also ruled that the killing of thousands of Kurds in Iraq in the 1980s was indeed an act of genocide.[14] In the 1948 Genocide Convention, the definition of genocide is "acts committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group". The Dutch court said that it was considered "legally and convincingly proven that the Kurdish population meets the requirement under the Genocide Conventions as an ethnic group. The court has no other conclusion than that these attacks were committed with the intent to destroy the Kurdish population of Iraq".

Trial of Saddam Hussein

In an interview broadcast on Iraqi television on 6 September 2005, Iraqi President Jalal Talabani, a respected Kurdish politician, said that judges had directly extracted confessions from Saddam Hussein that he had ordered mass killings and other crimes during his regime and that he deserves to die. Two days later, Saddam's lawyer denied that he had confessed.[42]

Anfal trial

In June 2006, the Iraqi Special Tribunal announced that Saddam Hussein and six co-defendants would face trial on 21 August 2006, in relation to the Anfal campaign.[43] In December 2006, Saddam was put on trial for the genocide during Operation Anfal. The trial for the Anfal campaign was still underway on 30 December 2006, when Saddam Hussein was executed for his role in the unrelated Dujail Massacre.[44]

The Anfal trial recessed on 21 December 2006, and when it resumed on 8 January 2007, the remaining charges against Saddam Hussein were dropped. Six co-defendants continued to stand trial for their roles in the Anfal campaign. On 23 June 2007, Ali Hassan al-Majid, and two co-defendants, Sultan Hashem Ahmed and Hussein Rashid Mohammed l, were convicted of genocide and related charges and sentenced to death by hanging.[16] Another two co-defendants (Farhan Jubouri and Saber Abdel Aziz al-Douri) were sentenced to life imprisonment, and one (Taher Tawfiq al-Ani) was acquitted on the prosecution's demand.[45]

Al-Majid was charged with war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. He was convicted in June 2007, and was sentenced to death. His appeal of the death sentence was rejected on 4 September 2007, he was sentenced to death for the fourth time on 17 January 2010, and was hanged eight days later, on 25 January 2010.[46]

Remembrance day

The Kurdistan Regional Government has set aside 14 April as a day of remembrance for the Al-Anfal campaign.[47]

International recognition

#NameDate of recognitionSource
1 Norway21 November 2012[48]
2 Sweden5 December 2012[49][50]
3 United Kingdom1 March 2013[51]
4 South Korea13 June 2013[52]

On 5 December 2012, Sweden's parliament, the Riksdag, adopted a resolution by the Green party to officially recognize Anfal as genocide. The resolution was passed by all 349 members of parliament.[53] On 28 February 2013, the British House of Commons formally recognized the Anfal as genocide following a campaign led by Conservative MP Nadhim Zahawi, who is of Kurdish descent.[54]

See also


  1. GENOCIDE IN IRAQ Human Rights Watch, 1993
  2. The Crimes of Saddam Hussein – 1988 The Anfal Campaign PBS Frontline
  3. Fazil Moradi (2016) "The Force of Writing in Genocide: On Sexual Violence in the al-Anfāl Operations and Beyond." in Gender Violence in Peace and War: States of Complicity, 102-115, edited by Victoria Sanford, Katerina Stefatos and Cecilia Salvi. New Brunswick, NJ and London: Rutgers University Press.
  4. .Fazil Moradi (2017) "Genocide in Translation: On Memory, Justice, and Future Remembrance." in Memory and genocide: on what remains and the possibility of representation, edited by Fazil Moradi, Ralph Buchenhorst, and Maria Six-Hohenbalken London and New York: Routledge.
  5. Faraidoun Moradi, Mia Söderberg, Fazil Moradi, Bledar Daka, Anna-Carin Olin, Mona Lärstad. (2019) "Health Perspectives among Halabja’s Civilian Survivors of Sulfur Mustard Exposure with Respiratory Symptoms—A Qualitative Study" PLOS ONE 1-16.
  6. "Anfal Genocide: activists say Kurdish perpetrators remain at large". RUDWAW. 14 April 2017.
  7. "Kurdish Genocide". The Kurdish Project.
  8. "WHAT HAPPENED IN THE KURDISH GENOCIDE". KRG UK REPRESENTATION LONDON. Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  9. "British Parliament officially recognizes 'Kurdish Genocide'". Hurriyet Daily News. 1 March 2013. Archived from the original on 4 March 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  10. Jonathan C. Randal, After Such Knowledge, What Forgiveness?: My Encounters with Kurdistan, 356 pp., Westview Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8133-3580-9, p.231
  11. Hardi, Choman (2011). Gendered Experiences of Genocide: Anfal Survivors in Kurdistan-Iraq. Ahgate. p. 17. ISBN 978-0754677154.
  12. Iraq: 'Disappearances' – the agony continues Archived 27 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine Amnesty International
  13. Certrez, Donabed, and Makko (2012). The Assyrian Heritage: Threads of Continuity and Influence. Uppsala University. p. 288. ISBN 978-91-554-8303-6.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  14. Killing of Iraq Kurds 'genocide' BBC News, 23 December 2005
  15. Whatever Happened To The Iraqi Kurds? Human Rights Watch Report, 1991
  16. Omar Sinan (25 June 2007). "Iraq to hang 'Chemical Ali'". Associated Press. Tampa Bay Times. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  17. Pear, Robert. "U.S. Says It Monitored Iraqi Messages on Gas". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 September 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  18. "Whatever Happened To The Iraqi Kurds?". Human Rights Watch. 10 March 1991. Archived from the original on 12 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  19. Harris, Shane. "Exclusive: CIA Files Prove America Helped Saddam as He Gassed Iran". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  20. Hardi, Choman (2011). Gendered Experiences of Genocide: Anfal Survivors in Kurdistan-Iraq. Ahgate. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-0754677154.
  21. "TRIAL : Profiles". Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  22. "Iraqi Anfal". Human Rights Watch. 1993. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  23. Hardi, Choman (2011). Gendered Experiences of Genocide: Anfal Survivors in Kurdistan-Iraq. Ahgate. p. 19. ISBN 978-0754677154.
  24. "BBC ON THIS DAY | 16 | 1988: Thousands die in Halabja gas attack". BBC News. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
  25. "Halabja, the massacre the West tried to ignore". Archived from the original on 23 January 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
  26. Hardi, Choman (2011). Gendered Experiences of Genocide: Anfal Survivors in Kurdistan-Iraq. Ahgate. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-0754677154.
  27. Hardi, Choman (2011). Gendered Experiences of Genocide: Anfal Survivors in Kurdistan-Iraq. Ahgate. p. 20. ISBN 978-0754677154.
  28. Committee, Human Rights Watch Middle East Watch; Staff, Middle East Watch; Black, George; Watch (Organization), Middle East (1993). Genocide in Iraq: The Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds. Human Rights Watch. pp. 171–172. ISBN 9781564321084.
  29. Committee, Human Rights Watch Middle East Watch; Staff, Middle East Watch; Black, George; Watch (Organization), Middle East (1993). Genocide in Iraq: The Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds. Human Rights Watch. pp. 172–176. ISBN 9781564321084.
  30. Hardi, Choman (2011). Gendered Experiences of Genocide: Anfal Survivors in Kurdistan-Iraq. Ahgate. p. 21. ISBN 978-0754677154.
  31. Hardi, Choman (2011). Gendered Experiences of Genocide: Anfal Survivors in Kurdistan-Iraq. Ahgate. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-0754677154.
  32. Mass grave unearthed in Iraq CNN, 13 October 2004
  33. Middle East Watch. Genocide in Iraq, the Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds, Human Rights Watch, 1993, p. 36
  34. Hardi, Choman (2011). Gendered Experiences of Genocide: Anfal Survivors in Kurdistan-Iraq. Ahgate. p. 20. ISBN 978-0754677154.
  35. Hardi, Choman (2011). Gendered Experiences of Genocide: Anfal Survivors in Kurdistan-Iraq. Ahgate. p. 22. ISBN 978-0754677154.
  36. Michael Rubin, Are Kurds a pariah minority? Archived 13 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine Social Research, Spring, 2003.
  37. "List of the churches been demolished by Saddam Hussein's regime" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  38. Certrez, Donabed, and Makko (2012). The Assyrian Heritage: Threads of Continuity and Influence. Uppsala University. p. 289. ISBN 978-91-554-8303-6.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  39. "Genocide in Iraq - The Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  40. "Ethnic Cleansing and the Kurds". 15 May 2005. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  41. MONTGOMERY, BRUCE P. "The Iraqi Secret Police Files: A Documentary Record of the Anfal Genocide". Archivaria: 97.
  42. Lawyer denies Saddam confession BBC News, 8 September 2005
  43. Iraqi High Tribunal announces second Saddam trial to open Associated Press, 27 June 2006
  44. Dictator Who Ruled Iraq With Violence Is Hanged for Crimes Against Humanity The New York Times, 30 December 2006
  45. 'Chemical Ali' sentenced to hang CNN, 24 June 2007
  46. "Saddam Hussein's henchman 'Chemical Ali' executed". 25 January 2010. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  47. "Anfal campaign receives national day of remembrance". Archived from the original on 7 January 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  48. "Norwegian Government recognises Saddam Hussein's genocide – Justice4Genocide calls on the British Government to do the same". 21 November 2012. Archived from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  49. "Is Swedish neutrality over?". 11 December 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  50. "Swedish Parliament recognises Saddam Hussein's genocide – Justice4Genocide calls on Britain to do the same". 14 December 2012. Archived from the original on 11 June 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  51. "British parliament unanimously recognises Kurdish genocide". 1 March 2013. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  52. "South Korea recognizes Kurdish genocide". 13 June 2013. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
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  54. "Historic Debate Secures Parliamentary Recognition of the Kurdish Genocide". Retrieved 31 August 2013.

36. ^Documenting the Kurdish Genocide – 31 January 2014

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