Andrei Alexandrescu

Andrei Alexandrescu (born 1969) is a Romanian-American C++ and D language[3] programmer and author. He is particularly known for his pioneering work on policy-based design implemented via template metaprogramming. These ideas are articulated in his book Modern C++ Design and were first implemented in his programming library, Loki. He also implemented the "move constructors" concept in his MOJO library.[4] He contributed to the C/C++ Users Journal under the byline "Generic<Programming>". Alexandrescu worked as a research scientist at Facebook, before departing the company in August 2015 in order to focus on developing the D programming language.[5]

Andrei Alexandrescu
Alexandrescu at ACCU 2009
Born1969 (age 4950)
NationalityRomanian, American [2]
EducationPolitehnica University of Bucharest and University of Washington
OccupationDeveloper of the D programming language
Known forExpert on C++ and D programming[3]
Spouse(s)Sanda Alexandrescu

He became an American citizen in August 2014.[6]

Education and career

Alexandrescu received a B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from Polytechnic University of Bucharest (Universitatea Politehnica din Bucureşti) in July 1994.[7][8]

His first article was published in the C/C++ Users Journal in September 1998. He was a program manager for Netzip, Inc. from April 1999 until February 2000. When the company was acquired by RealNetworks, Inc., he served there as a development manager from February 2000 through September 2001.[7]

Alexandrescu earned an M.S. (2003) and a Ph.D. (2009) in computer science from the University of Washington.[9][10][11]

More recently, he has been assisting Walter Bright in the development of the D programming language. Alexandrescu released a book titled The D Programming Language in May 2010.

From 2010 to 2014, Alexandrescu, Herb Sutter, and Scott Meyers ran a small annual technical conference called C++ and Beyond.


Expected is a template class for C++ which is on the C++ Standards track.[12][13] Alexandrescu proposes[14] Expected<T> as a class for use as a return value which contains either a T or the exception preventing its creation, which is an improvement over use of either return codes or exceptions exclusively. Expected can be thought of as a restriction of sum (union) types or algebraic datatypes in various languages, e.g., Hope, or the more recent Haskell and Gallina; or of the error handling mechanism of Google's Go, or the Result type in Rust.

He explains the benefits of Expected<T> as:

  • Associates errors with computational goals
  • Naturally allows multiple exceptions in flight
  • Switch between error handling and exception throwing styles
  • Teleportation possible across thread boundaries, across nothrow subsystem boundaries and across time (save now, throw later)
  • Collect, group, combine exceptions


For example, instead of any of the following common function prototypes:

int parseInt(const string&); // Returns 0 on error and sets errno.


int parseInt(const string&); // Throws invalid_input or overflow

he proposes the following:

Expected<int> parseInt(const string&); // Returns an expected int: either an int or an exception


  • Andrei Alexandrescu (February 2001). Modern C++ Design: Generic Programming and Design Patterns Applied. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-201-70431-0.
  • Herb Sutter, Andrei Alexandrescu (November 2004). C++ Coding Standards: 101 Rules, Guidelines, and Best Practices. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-321-11358-0.
  • Andrei Alexandrescu (June 2010). The D Programming Language. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-321-63536-5.


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