Anal dysplasia is a pre-cancerous condition which occurs when the lining of the anal canal undergoes abnormal changes. It can be classified as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Most cases are not associated with symptoms, but people may notice lumps in and around the anus.
Anal dysplasia is most commonly linked to human papillomavirus (HPV), a usually sexually-transmitted infection. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States while genital herpes (HSV) was the most common sexually transmitted infection globally.
- Darragh, Teresa (October 2012). "The Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology. Standardization Project for HPV-Associated Lesions:". Arch Pathol Lab Med. 136: 1266–1297.
- Salit, Irving. "Fact Sheets: Anal dyspasia". Canadian Aids Treatment Information Exchange. Archived from the original on 2009-02-01. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
- Palefsky, Joel M.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Ralston, Mary L.; Jay, Naomi (February 1988). "Prevalence and Risk Factors for Human Papillomavirus Infection of the Anal Canal in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)–Positive and HIV-Negative Homosexual Men" (PDF). Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Stomatology, and Epidemiology Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- "CDC Fact Sheet - Incidence, Prevalence, and Cost of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States" (PDF). CDC. February 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- Antonio C Gerbase; Jane T Rowley; Thierry E Merten (1998). "Global epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases". Lancet. 352: S2–S4. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)90001-0.