α-Ethyltryptamine (αET, AET), also known as etryptamine (INN, BAN, USAN), is a psychedelic, stimulant, and entactogenic drug of the tryptamine class. It was originally developed and marketed as an antidepressant under the brand name Monase by Upjohn in the 1960s.
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||188.27 g/mol g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|Melting point||222 to 223 °C (432 to 433 °F)|
Originally believed to exert its effects predominantly via monoamine oxidase inhibition, alpha-ethyltryptamine was developed during the 1960s as an antidepressant by Upjohn chemical company in the United States under the name Monase, but was withdrawn from potential commercial use due to incidence of idiosyncratic agranulocytosis.
αET is structurally and pharmacologically related to αMT, α-methyltryptamine, and it is believed its central stimulant activity is probably not due to its activity as an MAOI, but appears to stem from its structural relationship to the indolic psychedelics. In contrast to αMT, αET is less stimulating and hallucinogenic, its effects resembling more those of entactogens like MDMA ("Ecstasy").
Similarly to α-MT, α-ET is a releasing agent of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, with serotonin being the primary neurotransmitter affected. In addition, it acts as a non-selective serotonin receptor agonist. A study performed in 1991 with rat subjects provided evidence that a-ET may induce serotonergic neurotoxicity similar to that of MDMA. As with many other serotonin releasing agents, injury can occur when excessive doses are taken or when combined with drugs such as other MAOIs.
- ""Erowid AET (alpha-ethyltryptamine) Vault"".
- Alexander Shulgin; Ann Shulgin. "#11, a-ET: Alpha-Ethyltryptamine; Indole,3-(2-Aminobutyl); Tryptamine,Alpha-Ethyl; 3-(2-Aminobutyl)Indole; Monase,". "Tryptamines i Have Known And Loved: The Continuation", Part 2, "The Chemistry Continues". Erowid Online Library. p. 11. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- US Patent 3296072, Szmuszkovicz Jacob, "Method of Treating Mental Depression", published 1967-01-03, assigned to Upjohn Co
- Alexander Shulgin; Ann Shulgin (1997). ""Part 2, The Chemistry Continues: #11, a-ET: Alpha-Ethyltryptamine; Indole,3-(2-Aminobutyl); Tryptamine,Alpha-Ethyl; 3-(2-Aminobutyl)Indole; Monase," part v, "EXTENSIONS AND COMMENTARY."" (Book). Tryptamines i Have Known and Loved: The Continuation, (1st. ed.). Berkeley, CA : Transform Press, ©1997. ISBN 978-0-9630096-9-2. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
This base, a-ET or etryptamine, was a promising anti-depressant, explored clinically as the acetate salt by Upjohn under the name of Monase. Its central stimulant activity is probably not due to its monoamineoxidase inhibition activity, but appears to stem from its structural relationship to the indolic psychedelics. It was withdrawn from potential commercial use with the appearance of an unacceptable incidence of a medical condition known as agranulocytosis, but the extra mural research into its action, among the lay population, goes on,
- Blough, Bruce E.; Landavazo, Antonio; Partilla, John S.; Decker, Ann M.; Page, Kevin M.; Baumann, Michael H.; Rothman, Richard B. (2014). "Alpha-ethyltryptamines as dual dopamine–serotonin releasers". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 24 (19): 4754–4758. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.07.062. ISSN 0960-894X. PMC 4211607. PMID 25193229.
- Huang XM, Johnson MP, Nichols DE (July 1991). "Reduction in brain serotonin markers by alpha-ethyltryptamine (Monase)". European Journal of Pharmacology. 200 (1): 187–190. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(91)90686-K. PMID 1722753.
- Gillman, P. K. (2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 95 (4): 434–441. doi:10.1093/bja/aei210. PMID 16051647. "Drugs such as MDMA, ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), if combined with MAOIs (including moclobemide) do also cause fatalities because they act as serotonin releasers,"
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Monoamine reuptake inhibitors • Adrenergics • Dopaminergics • Serotonergics • Monoamine metabolism modulators • Monoamine neurotoxins
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Adrenergics • Dopaminergics • Melatonergics • Serotonergics • Monoamine reuptake inhibitors • Monoamine releasing agents • Monoamine metabolism modulators
Drugs mentioned in TiHKAL