Albert II, Prince of Monaco

Albert II[1][2] (Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi; born 14 March 1958) is the reigning monarch of the Principality of Monaco and head of the princely house of Grimaldi. He is the son of Prince Rainier III and Grace, Princess of Monaco formerly Grace Kelly, the American actress. Prince Albert's sisters are Caroline, Princess of Hanover, and Princess Stéphanie. In July 2011, Prince Albert married Charlene Wittstock.[3]

Albert II
Prince of Monaco
Reign6 April 2005 – present
PredecessorRainier III
Heir apparentJacques
Ministers of StatePatrick Leclercq
Jean-Paul Proust
Michel Roger
Gilles Tonelli
Serge Telle
Born (1958-03-14) 14 March 1958
Prince's Palace of Monaco
IssueJazmin Grace Grimaldi
Alexandre Grimaldi-Coste Princess Gabriella
Hereditary Prince Jacques
Full name
Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi
FatherRainier III, Prince of Monaco
MotherGrace Kelly

Prince Albert II is one of the wealthiest royals in the world, with assets valued at more than $1 billion,[4] which include land in Monaco and France. Although Prince Albert does not own the Prince's Palace of Monaco, he does own shares in the Société des bains de mer de Monaco, which operates Monaco's casino and other entertainment properties in the principality.[5][6]

Early life

Albert was born in the Prince's Palace of Monaco. He has ancestry from Italy, Ireland, Britain, the United States, Germany, France, Mexico, Belgium, and Monaco and is American[7]-Monegasque by birth; he renounced American citizenship in his early adulthood. He was baptized on 20 April 1958, by Monsignor Jean Delay, archbishop of Marseille, in the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of Monaco, before being presented at the balcony of the Palace to the people of Monaco.[8] His godmother was the Spanish queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain, and his godfather was Prince Louis de Polignac (1909–1996).[9] Albert graduated with distinction from the Lycée Albert Premier, in 1976.

He was a camper and later a counselor for six summers at Camp Tecumseh,[9] on Lake Winnipesaukee, Moultonborough, New Hampshire, in the 1970s. He spent a year training in various princely duties and enrolled at Amherst College, in western Massachusetts, in 1977 as Albert Grimaldi, studying political science, economics, music, and English literature; he also joined Chi Psi fraternity.[9] He speaks French, English, German, and Italian.[9]

He spent mid-1979 touring Europe and the Middle East with the Amherst Glee Club, and also undertook an exchange program with the University of Bristol, at the Alfred Marshall School of Economics and Management in 1979. He graduated in 1981 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science. [10]

Prince Albert's mother died as a result of injuries sustained in a car accident in 1982. She was aged 52.[11] In 2017, in In Depth interview with Graham Bensinger, the Prince stated that his mother's death was a traumatic event for him and the family. He also revealed that his father was "never the same man" after the loss.[12]

Sports career

Albert II, Prince of Monaco
Country Monaco
Event(s)4-man, 2-man
Achievements and titles
Olympic finals1988, 1992, 1994, 1998, 2002

Albert was an enthusiastic sportsman, participating in cross country, javelin throwing, handball, judo, swimming, tennis, rowing, sailing, skiing, squash and fencing. He is a patron of Monaco's football team, AS Monaco.

Albert competed in the bobsleigh at five consecutive Winter Olympics for Monaco, taking part in both the two-man and four-man events. In the two-man bobsleigh Albert finished 25th at the 1988 games in Calgary, 43rd at the 1992 games in Albertville, and 31st at the 2002 games. In the four-man bobsleigh Albert finished 27th in 1992, 26th at the 1994 games in Lillehammer, and 28th at both the 1998 games in Nagano and the 2002 games in Salt Lake City.[13] Albert was Monaco's flag bearer at the 1988, 1994, and 1998 Winter Olympics.[13] Albert has been a member of the International Olympic Committee since 1985, and his maternal grandfather, John B. Kelly Sr., and maternal uncle, John B. Kelly Jr., were both Olympic medalists in rowing.[13] Albert has been the patron of the World Olympians Association since 2012.[14] In 2017 Albert gained OLY post-nominal status under his competition name of Albert Grimaldi rather than his royal title.[15]

Albert took part in the 1985 Paris–Dakar Rally, but did not finish it. He also became a judo black belt.[16]


On 31 March 2005, following consultation with the Crown Council of Monaco, the Palais Princier announced that Albert would take over the duties of his father as regent since Rainier was no longer able to exercise his royal functions.[17] On 6 April 2005, Rainier died and Albert succeeded him as Albert II.

The first part of Prince Albert II's enthronement as ruler of the Principality was on 12 July 2005, after the end of the three-month mourning period for his father.[9] A morning Mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral presided over by the Archbishop of Monaco, the Most Reverend Bernard Barsi, formally marked the beginning of his reign.[18] Afterward Albert II returned to the princely palace to host a garden party for 7,000 Monégasques born in the principality. In the courtyard, the Prince was presented with two keys of the city as a symbol of his investiture[19] and he made a speech.[20] The evening ended with a spectacular fireworks display on the waterfront.[18]

The second part of his investiture was on 19 November 2005. Albert was enthroned at Saint Nicholas Cathedral.[21] His family was there in attendance, including his elder sister Princess Caroline with her husband Ernst, Prince of Hanover and three of her four children, Andrea, Pierre and Charlotte; as well as his younger sister Princess Stéphanie, his paternal aunt Princess Antoinette, Baroness of Massy, his godson, Jean-Léonard Taubert-Natta de Massy, and his cousin Elisabeth-Anne de Massy. Royalty from 16 delegations were present for the festivities throughout the country. The evening ended with an opera performance in Monte Carlo.[21]


Prince Albert continues the policy – initiated by previous rulers of Monaco – of strengthening environmental awareness. In July, 2005, just like his great-great-grandfather Albert I, he travelled to Spitsbergen. During this trip, he visited the glaciers Lilliehöökbreen and Monacobreen. Prince Albert II also engaged in a Russian Arctic expedition, reaching the North Pole on Easter, 16 April 2006.[22] As a result, he is the first incumbent head of state to have reached the North Pole.

Prince Albert is the Vice-Chairman of the Princess Grace Foundation-USA, an American charity founded in 1982, after his mother's death, which supports emerging artists in theatre, dance, and film, as Princess Grace did in her lifetime.

In 2006, Prince Albert created the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation, which continues the Principality of Monaco's commitment by supporting sustainable and ethical projects around the world. The foundation focus on three main challenges: climate change and renewable energy development; combating the loss of biodiversity; and water management (improving universal access to clean water).[23] Albert is also a global adviser to Orphans International.

On August 27, 2015, Prince Albert apologized for Monaco's role in facilitating the deportation of a total of 90 Jews and resistance fighters, of whom only nine survived. "We committed the irreparable in handing over to the neighboring authorities women, men, and a child who had taken refuge with us to escape the persecutions they had suffered in France," Albert said at a ceremony in which a monument to the victims was unveiled at the Monaco cemetery. "In distress, they came specifically to take shelter with us, thinking they would find neutrality."[24]

Personal life and relationships

Prior to Albert's marriage, there was much discussion of his continual bachelor status. Although he had received much press attention for dating well-known fashion models and actresses, his apparent disinclination to marry gave rise to rumours that he was homosexual. Prince Albert has consistently denied suggestions of homosexuality, most notably in a 1994 interview published in the French magazine Madame Figaro. "At first it was amusing", he said, "but it becomes very irritating in the long term to hear people say that I am homosexual".[25]

Albert is close friends with the artist Nall and owns some of his works.[26]

In October 2005, the German magazine Bunte reported that Prince Albert was dating Telma Ortiz Rocasolano, a sister-in-law of the Prince of Asturias (who is now the king of Spain). However, in November 2005, the Prince instructed his lawyer, Thierry Lacoste, to commence legal proceedings against the French newspaper France Dimanche for violation of privacy and false information regarding the story.

In 2016, Albert purchased his mother's childhood house in the East Falls district of Philadelphia. Upon acquiring Grace Kelly's childhood property, he stated the home might be used as a museum space or as offices for the family's Princess Grace Foundation.[27] Although Prince Albert does not directly own the Prince's Palace, he does own – in addition to his mother's childhood home – personal homes in both La Turbie[28][29] and Marchais.[30]

Prince Albert, a well-known automotive enthusiast, owns vehicles like the BMW Hydrogen 7,[31] the Lexus LS 600h,[32] the Lexus RX 400h,[32] and the Toyota Prius PHV.[32][33] He also owns a Dassault Aviation Falcon 7X, a 14-passenger leisure jet, currently stationed at Nice Côte d'Azur Airport.[34][35]


Prince Albert married former South African swimmer Charlene Wittstock on 1 July 2011. They announced their engagement on 23 June 2010.[36] They had been seen together since 10 February 2006, when Prince Albert was accompanied by Wittstock to the opening ceremony of the Torino Olympics. They were seen again together at the Monaco Grand Prix. The Prince and Wittstock attended the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics in 2008, and both the "Bal de la Rose", and Princess Grace Awards Gala in 2009. They also attended the opening ceremony of the Vancouver Olympics. As a couple, they also attended the wedding of Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden and Daniel Westling in Stockholm four days before their own engagement was announced and the wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine Middleton on 29 April 2011. The wedding took place over two days: the civil marriage ceremony took place on 1 July 2011, followed by the religious ceremony on 2 July 2011.[37] Twins Gabriella Thérèse Marie, Countess of Carladès and Jacques Honoré Rainier, Hereditary Prince of Monaco were born to Prince Albert and Princess Charlene on 10 December 2014.[38]

Children in the line of succession

On 10 December 2014, Prince Albert and Princess Charlene welcomed their first and second child, twins Gabriella Thérèse Marie and Jacques Honoré Rainier. The twins were born at Princess Grace Hospital in La Colle, Monaco. Jacques, as his father's heir-apparent, bears the titles Hereditary Prince of Monaco and Marquis of Baux while Albert has granted Gabriella the title of Countess of Carladès.

Children born out of wedlock

Jazmin Grace Grimaldi

In 1992, an American woman, Tamara Rotolo, filed a paternity suit against the prince, claiming that he was the father of her daughter, whom she named Jazmin Grace Grimaldi. Prince Albert was also listed as the child's father on the Riverside County, California, birth certificate, according to The Desert Sun. The case went to trial in 1993 and was eventually dismissed by Superior Court Judge Graham Anderson Cribbs, who refused jurisdiction and found that there was "insufficient connection between [Prince] Albert and the State of California to justify hearing a suit [in California]"[39] and in doing so essentially accepted the submissions of the Prince's lawyer, Stanley Arkin, on that point.

On 31 May 2006, after a DNA test confirmed the child's parentage, Prince Albert admitted, in a statement from his lawyer, that he is Jazmin's father. He also extended an invitation for the girl to study and live in Monaco.[9]

Alexandre Grimaldi-Coste

In May 2005, Nicole Coste, a former Air France flight attendant, originally from Togo (West Africa), claimed that her youngest son, whom she named Alexandre Coste, was Prince Albert's son, and that this was proven by DNA tests conducted by Swiss technicians working on orders from the Monegasque government. She further claimed the prince had signed a notarised certificate confirming paternity but that she had not received a copy of it. The French weekly Paris Match published a ten-page interview with Coste and included photographs of the prince holding and feeding the child. Coste also told Paris Match that she was living in the prince's Paris apartment, and receiving an allowance from him while pretending to be the girlfriend of one of his friends in order to maintain privacy. She also said that the prince had last seen the boy in February 2005. A spokesman for Prince Albert had no comment, though upon news of Coste's claims, the prince's lawyer, Thierry Lacoste, announced that "A judicial strategy will be determined within the next few days".

In mid-May 2005, Lacoste announced that as a result of the international publicity over the revelations of the prince's son, Prince Albert was suing the Daily Mail, Bunte, and Paris Match for delving too deeply into his private life.

On 6 July 2005, a few days before he was enthroned on 12 July, Prince Albert officially confirmed via his lawyer Lacoste that the 22-month-old was his biological son.[40]

Other alleged children

In an earlier paternity suit, Bea Fiedler, a German topless model whom the Daily Telegraph described as a "sex-film star", claimed her son Daniel was the prince's son. This suit was reportedly dismissed. A blood test, which was refused by the judge, did not prove that the prince was the father of Fiedler's son.[41]

Succession issues

As Rainier III's health declined, his son's lack of legitimate children became a matter of public and political concern owing to the legal and international consequences. Had Prince Albert succeeded his father and died without lawful heirs, it would have triggered Article 3 of the 1918 Franco-Monegasque Treaty, according to which the Principality of Monaco would become a protectorate of the French Republic.[42] Prior to 2002, Monaco's constitution stipulated that only the last reigning prince's "direct and legitimate" descendants could inherit the crown.

On 2 April 2002, Monaco promulgated Princely Law 1.249, which provides that if a reigning prince dies without surviving legitimate issue, the throne passes to his legitimate siblings and their legitimate descendants of both sexes, according to the principle of male-preference primogeniture.[43] Following Albert's accession, this law took full effect in 2005 when ratified by France, pursuant to the Franco-Monégasque Treaty regulating relations between the Principality and its neighbour. Prince Albert's sisters and their legitimate children thereby retained the right to inherit the Monegasque throne, which they would have otherwise lost upon the death of Prince Rainier.

Under the current constitution, neither Jazmin, nor Alexandre, are in the line of succession to the Monegasque throne as they are not Prince Albert's legitimate children, and he emphasised their ineligibility to inherit the throne in statements confirming his paternity.[22][40] Monegasque law stipulates that any non-adulterine illegitimate child is legitimised by the eventual marriage of his/her parents, thereupon obtaining the rights to which that child would have been entitled if born in lawful marriage. Thus Alexandre would have become Monaco's heir apparent under current law if Albert were to marry his son's mother. But in a 2005 exchange with American reporter Larry King, Albert stated that this would not happen.[44]

Prior to the birth of Princess Gabriella and Prince Jacques, Prince Albert's elder sister, Caroline, Princess of Hanover, was heir presumptive and, according to the Grimaldi house law, bore the traditional title of Hereditary Princess of Monaco.[45] Following their birth, she is now third in line.

In the spring of 2015, it was revealed in the magazine 'Ici Paris'[46] that Prince Albert had undergone surgery for a malignant skin cancer. Questions were raised in terms of succession as his heir, Prince Jacques, was barely four months old.

Environmental issues

Year of the Dolphin

The year 2007 was declared as (International) Year of the Dolphin by the United Nations and United Nations Environment Programme.[47] Prince Albert served as the International Patron of the "Year of the Dolphin", saying "The Year of the Dolphin gives me the opportunity to renew my firm commitment towards protecting marine biodiversity. With this strong initiative we can make a difference to save these fascinating marine mammals from the brink of extinction."

Jardin Animalier

The Zoological Garden of Monaco (Jardin Animalier) was founded by Prince Rainier in 1954. Rainier was petitioned unsuccessfully for many years by Virginia McKenna, founder of the Born Free Foundation, to release a pair of leopards at the zoo.[48] Prince Albert met McKenna after his accession to the throne, and agreed to release the leopards as well the zoo's hippo and camel.[9] He intends to convert the Jardin into a zoo for children.[48]

Expedition to Antarctica

In January 2009, Prince Albert left for a month-long expedition to Antarctica, where he visited 26 scientific outposts and met with climate-change experts in an attempt to learn more about the impact of global warming on the continent.[49] During the trip he stopped at the South Pole, making him the only incumbent head of state to have visited both poles.[50][51]

CITES and bluefin tuna

In June 2009, Prince Albert co-authored an op-ed published in the Wall Street Journal with Charles Clover, the author of The End of the Line, a book about overfishing and ocean conservation issues that had recently been made into a documentary by Rupert Murray. In the piece, Prince Albert and Clover note that bluefin tuna has been severely overfished in the Mediterranean, and decry the common European Union practice of awarding inflated quotas to bluefin fleets.[52] Albert also announced that Monaco would seek to award endangered species status to the Mediterranean bluefin Thunnus thynnus, (also called the Northern bluefin) under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). If upheld by the voting CITES delegates, this proposal would effectively ban the international trade in Mediterranean bluefin. This was the first time a nation had called for the inclusion of Mediterranean bluefin under CITES since Sweden[52] at the 1992 CITES Conference, which was vehemently opposed by Japan who eventually threatened retaliation through trade barriers.[53] Sweden withdrew its proposal.

On 16 July 2009, France declared that it too would seek to have Mediterranean bluefin listed as an endangered species.[54] Only hours later, the United Kingdom followed suit.[55]

Roger Revelle Prize

On 23 October 2009, Prince Albert was awarded the Roger Revelle Prize for his efforts to protect the environment and to promote scientific research.[56] This award was given to Prince Albert by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California.[57] Prince Albert is the second recipient of this prize.[58]


In 1996, Prince Albert received the Eagle Award from the United States Sports Academy. The Eagle Award is the Academy's highest international honor and was awarded to Prince Albert for his significant contributions in promoting international harmony, peace and goodwill through the effective use of sport.[59]

In October 2017, Prince Albert received the Lowell Thomas Award from The Explorers Club, a non-profit group that promotes scientific exploration. The award is presented by the President of the Club on special occasions to groups of outstanding explorers. The Club cited Prince Albert's dedication to the protection of the environment, and that he was the first head of state to reach both the North and South poles.[60]

Prince of Monaco Albert II.  on October 14, 2019 at the Comenius University in Bratislava, he received the honorary title "doctor honoris causa" for activities in the field of protection of natural and cultural heritage and in removing the consequences of climate change.

Commemorative coins

As Monaco's head of state, Prince Albert II is depicted on coins, including collectors' coins, with very rare exceptions. One of the most recent examples is the €5 silver Prince Albert II commemorative coin, the first commemorative coin with his effigy on it, minted in 2008. On the obverse, the prince is depicted in profile with his name on the top of the coin. On the reverse, the Grimaldi coat of arms appears; around it, the words "Principauté de Monaco" (Principality of Monaco) also appear along with the nominal monetary value of the coin.[61]

Other roles

Titles, styles, honours and awards

Titles and styles

Styles of
Albert II, Prince of Monaco
Reference styleHis Serene Highness
Spoken styleYour Serene Highness
Alternative styleSir
  • 14 March 1958 — 16 March 1958: His Serene Highness The Hereditary Prince of Monaco
  • 16 March 1958 — 6 April 2005: His Serene Highness The Hereditary Prince of Monaco, Marquis of Baux
    • 31 March 2005 — 6 April 2005: His Serene Highness The Prince Regent of Monaco
  • 6 April 2005 — present: His Serene Highness The Sovereign Prince of Monaco

As the prince, his official shortened title is "His Serene Highness Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco"; this does not include the many other styles claimed by the Grimaldi family.

Military appointments


National orders

Foreign orders

Dynastic orders

Other awards


Arms and monograms

Coat of Arms of Prince Albert II
of Monaco
Monogram of
Prince Albert II
Dual Cypher of Prince Albert
and Princess Charlene

See also


  1. "Titles of Sovereign Prince of Monaco". Archived from the original on 6 May 2011. Retrieved 2009-01-10..
  2. "Biography of Prince Albert". Archived from the original on 15 November 2013. Retrieved 2012-05-28. – Website of the Palace of Monaco
  3. "Prince Albert of Monaco – Fast Facts". CNN. 20 March 2014.
  4. "The World's Richest Royals – Forbes". Forbes. 29 April 2011.
  5. Serafin, Tatiana (17 June 2009). "The World's Richest Royals". Forbes. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  6. "In Pictures: The World's Richest Royals – Prince Albert II, Monaco". Forbes. 7 July 2010.
  7. Thomas, Zoe (13 April 2019). "Could Harry and Meghan's child pay US taxes?". BBC.
  8. André, Véronique (2014). Palais de Monaco : À la table des princes (in French). Hachette Pratique. p. 160. ISBN 978-2012317765.
  9. Knightley, Emma (24 October 2017). Coco, Tatiana (ed.). A to Z: The Past and Present of Prince Albert of Monaco (3 ed.). Archived from the original (Kindle) on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  10. Leemiller, Heaven. "Back to School with Prince Albert of Monaco". Royal Central. Royal Central. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  11. "Princess Grace of Monaco". Unofficial Royalty. 27 January 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  12. "Prince Albert II: Tragic death of mom Grace Kelly". YouTube. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  13. "Albert, Prince Grimaldi profile". Sports Reference. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  16. Editorial, Reuters (29 June 2011). "Factbox: Monaco's Prince Albert to marry". Reuters.
  17. Son of ailing Prince Rainier takes over duties, MSNBC, 31 March 2005. Accessed 31 May 2008.
  18. Willsher, Kim (13 July 2005). "Albert takes the Monaco crown". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  19. "Monaco's Prince Albert: 10 defining moments during decade on throne". Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  20. "Investiture speech H.S.H. Prince Albert IInd of Monaco, July 12th, 2005". Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  21. "Prince Albert's Monaco enthronement complete". 19 November 2005. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  22. "Albert, à nouveau père". Le Figaro. France. 20 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
  23. Prince Albert. Retrieved on 7 May 2014.
  24. Williams, Carol J. (27 August 2015). "More than seven decades later, Monaco apologizes for deporting Jews". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  25. "Madame Figaro", 1994; reported in Daily Mail, 13 August 1994, p. 17
  26. Foreman, Liza (6 October 2009). "In France, an Artist's Retreat". The New York Times.
  27. Mikelbank, Peter. "Prince Albert Buys Mom Princess Grace's Childhood Home in Philadelphia". PEOPLE. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  28. Charlène de Monaco: pour l'amour des enfants. 29 September 2011.
  29. Monaco Princely Wedding: Miscellaneous News, Information, and Updates. 21 June 2011.
  30. (in French) Le château des Grimaldi en Picardie. 12 January 2011.
  31. Joseph, Noah (9 April 2008). "Crown Jewel: Prince Albert II of Monaco gets a BMW Hydrogen 7". Autoblog. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
  32. "Le Prince Albert de Monaco, 1er utilisateur de la Lexus LS 600h". Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  33. "Europe's first production Prius PHV Delivered to H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco". Toyota Motors. 9 April 2012. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
  34. New jet for Prince Albert II Archived 24 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. (30 April 2014). Retrieved on 7 May 2014.
  35. Le prince Albert de Monaco s'offre un Falcon 7X et un hangar flambant neuf à Nice. Retrieved on 7 May 2014.
  36. "Prince Albert of Monaco engaged to Charlene Wittstock". BBC. 23 June 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
  37. The program Archived 14 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine from Prince's Palace of Monaco, 30 June 2011
  38. "Monaco's Princess Charlene, Prince Albert, welcome twin girl and boy".
  39. Evening Standard article, 24 March 1993, page 20
  40. Monaco prince admits love child, BBC News, 6 July 2005. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
  41. "Bea in His Bonnet," Daily Telegraph, 29 July 1987. Also Sunday Mirror, 8 March 1998, pages 1+
  42. United Nations Treaty Series, 1975, vol. 981, Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1918. P. 360. "Should the throne become vacant, particularly for lack of a direct or adoptive heir, the territory of Monaco shall form, under the protectorate of France, an autonomous state under the name of the State of Monaco," United Nations translation.
  43. The Constitution (2002)
  44. Larry King Live. Interview with Prince Albert II. 25 October 2005. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  45. The House Laws
  46. Ici Paris - report online via Nouvelles 24h (News Channel): Albert II de Monaco atteint d'un cancer de la peau ?
  47. "International Year of the Dolphin Website". Archived from the original on 15 October 2009. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
  48. Gilchrist, Roderick (26 January 2008). "Leopards incredible journey to freedom". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
  49. "Monaco's Prince Albert heads to Antarctica". AFP via The Free Library. 5 January 2009.
  50. A royal visit, The Antarctic Sun published by the United States Antarctic Program
  51. "HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco reached the geographic South Pole on Wednesday 14 January 2009". Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 2013-03-26.. 14 January 2009.
  52. Clover, Charles; Grimaldi, Albert (5 June 2009). It's Not Too Late to Save the Tuna, The Wall Street Journal.
  53. Olsson, Jan. "The Atlantic Bluefin Tuna". Archived from the original on 25 January 2011.
  54. "France Supports International Trade Ban for Endangered Bluefin Tuna". Archived from the original on 1 August 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-17., NatGeo News Watch, 16 July 2009. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
  55. Webster, Ben. Britain to support a ban on international trade in blue-fin tuna, The Times, 17 July 2009. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
  56. "San Diego gives Monaco's Prince Albert the royal treatment". 23 October 2009. Archived from the original on 23 February 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
  57. Casey, Shannon (2 November 2009) A Prize Fit for a Prince, UCSD News.
  58. Scripps to Honor Prince Albert II of Monaco for his Environmental Efforts, Scripps News, 1 April 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  59. "News 21/01/08 – FISU President Receives USSA Award". 21 January 2008. Archived from the original on 2 July 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
  60. "The Explorers Club - News - Announcing the 2017 Lowell Thomas Award Winners". Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  61. "Albert II (silver) commemorative coin". The Euro Coins Store. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
  62. "Honorary Board". IPC.
  63. "Art of the Olympians | Trustee". Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  64. Prince Albert II Photos – Monaco National Day 2011 – Award Ceremony – Zimbio. Retrieved on 7 May 2014.
  65. fr:Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince
  66. "L'Uniforme de S.A.S le Prince Albert II de Monaco – Palais Princier de Monaco". Archived from the original on 14 February 2013. Retrieved 2012-10-17.. palais.m
  67. Official Website Archived 16 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine Prince Albert II wore the miniature of the Order on his uniform during the evening gala dinner after the wedding
  68. "Meta i dorëzon princit të Monakos Dekoratën e Flamurit Kombëtar".
  69. Monaco, Principauté de. "Voyage officiel de S.A.S. le Prince Héréditaire Albert en Bulgarie".
  70. Official website, Biographie Archived 5 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine (French), mention of receiving the Order
  71. Official website, Biography Archived 8 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine, mention of receiving the Order
  72. Italian Presidency website, decorations – S.A.S. il Principe Alberto II Sovrano del Principato di Monaco Decorato di Gran Cordone Archived 14 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  73. Video of the state visit of Monaco in Lithuania, 15 October 2012
  74. "The Princely has arrived in Poland" Archived 8 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Nice Matin, 18 October 2012, mention of receiving the order of Merit without citing the grade
  75. Recipients table.
  76. Official Visit by the Grand Master of the Order of Malta, His Most Eminent Highness Fra’ Matthew Festing Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine – website of the Prince's Palace of Monaco
  77. Website of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, "The Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta receives Prince Albert of Monaco Archived 22 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine", quote : "The Grand Master conferred the Collar of the Order of Merit on the Prince"
  78. A l’invitation du Président de la République Tunisienne, S.A.S. le Prince Albert II a effectuéune visite officielle de deux jours le 7 et 8 septembre en Tunisie Archived 1 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. 11 September 2006.
  79. 50Th Anniversary Of King Carl Gustav Of Sweden In Stockholm, Sweden On 30 April 1996. Gettyimages (30 April 1996). Retrieved on 7 May 2014.
  80. Déjeuner au Palais Princier en l'honneur de LL. AA. RR. le Prince et la Princesse de Savoie à l'occasion du 1er Millénaire de la Maison de Savoie.1 March 2003 (French)
  81. S.A.S. le Prince reçoit le titre de Docteur Honoris Causa - website of the Palace of the Prince
  82. Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Fürstliche Häuser Band XV, Band 114 der Gesamtreihe, Limburg a. d. Lahn 1997, pp. 68–71. (in German)
Albert II, Prince of Monaco
Born: 14 March 1958
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Rainier III
Prince of Monaco
Heir apparent:
Monegasque royalty
Preceded by
Hereditary Prince of Monaco
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Rainier III
Marquis of Baux
Succeeded by
Olympic Games
Preceded by
David Lajoux
Flagbearer for  Monaco
1988, 1992, 1994
Succeeded by
Gilbert Bessi
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