Akhnaten (opera)

Akhnaten is an opera in three acts based on the life and religious convictions of the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV),[1] written by the American composer Philip Glass in 1983. The libretto is by Philip Glass in association with Shalom Goldman, Robert Israel, Richard Riddell and Jerome Robbins. Akhnaten was commissioned by Württembergische Staatstheater, Stuttgart and had its world premiere on March 24, 1984, at the Stuttgart State Theatre, under the German title Echnaton. Paul Esswood sang the title role, German director Achim Freyer staged the opera in an abstract style with highly ritualistic movements. The American premiere, directed by David Freeman, was on October 12, 1984, at the Houston Grand Opera, where Glass's opera The Making of the Representative for Planet 8 also premiered. The UK premiere, based on the American production, was on June 17, 1985 by English National Opera at the London Coliseum.[2] This production was revived at the London Coliseum in March 1987. The award-winning Polish premiere, directed by Henryk Baranowski, was on May 20, 2000 at the Grand Theatre in Łódź[3]. A new co-production by English National Opera and LA Opera and in collaboration with Improbable directed by Phelim McDermott starring Anthony Roth Costanzo and Zachary James premiered at the London Coliseum on March 4, 2016, which won a 2017 Olivier Award, and at LA Opera on November 5, 2016.[4] A revival of this production in London took place in March 2019 and played at the Metropolitan Opera in their 2019/2020 season.[5] A new production directed by Laura Scozzi premiered at the Theater Bonn, Germany on March 11, 2018.

Opera by Philip Glass
The composer in 1993
Based onthe life of the pharaoh Akhenaten
March 24, 1984 (1984-03-24)

According to the composer, this work is the culmination of his two other biographical operas, Einstein on the Beach (about Albert Einstein) and Satyagraha (about Mahatma Gandhi). These three people – Akhenaten, Einstein and Gandhi – were all driven by an inner vision which altered the age in which they lived, in particular Akhenaten in religion, Einstein in science, and Gandhi in politics.

The text, taken from original sources, is sung in the original languages, linked together with the commentary of a narrator in a modern language, such as English or German. Egyptian texts of the period are taken from a poem of Akhenaten himself, from the Book of the Dead, and from extracts of decrees and letters from the Amarna period, the seventeen-year period of Akhenaten's rule. Other portions are in Akkadian and Biblical Hebrew. Akhnaten's Hymn to the Sun is sung in the language of the audience.


RoleVoice typePremiere cast, Stuttgart, 24 March 1984 ENO, London, June 1985[2] CBS recording, 1987[6] Oakland Opera Theater, 2004[7][8] ENO, London, March 2016[4], March 2019[5][9] LA Opera, LA, November 2016[10] Theater Bonn, Bonn, March 2018[11] The Metropolitan Opera, NY, November 2019[12]
AkhnatencountertenorPaul Esswood Christopher Robson Paul Esswood Paul Flight Anthony Roth Costanzo Anthony Roth Costanzo Benno Schachtner Anthony Roth Costanzo
Nefertiti, Wife of AkhnatencontraltoMilagro Vargas Sally Burgess Milagro Vargas Darla Wigginton Emma Carrington (2016)

Katie Stevenson (2019)

J'Nai Bridges Susanne Blattert J'Nai Bridges
Queen Tye, Mother of AkhnatensopranoMaria Husmann/Melinda Liebermann Marie Angel Melinda Liebermann Angela Dean-Baham Rebecca Bottone Stacey Tappan Marie Heeschen Dísella Lárusdóttir
Horemhab, General and future PharaohbaritoneWolfgang Probst/Tero Hannula Christopher Booth-Jones Tero Hannula Martin Bell James Cleverton Kihun Yoon Giorgos Kanaris Will Liverman
High Priest of AmontenorHelmut Holzapfel Graeme Matheson-Bruce Helmut Holzapfel Alan Cochran Colin Judson Frederick Ballentine Johannes Mertes Aaron Blake
Aye, Father of Nefertiti and advisor to the PharaohbassKonrad Arlt/Cornelius Hauptmann Richard Angas Cornelius Hauptmann John Minagro Clive Bayley (2016)

Keel Watson (2019)

Patrick Blackwell Martin Tzonev/James Homman Richard Bernstein
Daughters of Akhnaten:







3 sopranos, 3 contraltosVictoria Schnieder
Lynna Wilhelm-Königer
Maria Koupilova-Ticha
Christina Wächtler
Geraldine Rose
Angelika Schwarz
Janis Kelly

Ethna Robinson

Tamsin Dives

Rosemary Ashe

Eileen Hulse

Linda Kitchen

Victoria Schnieder
Lynna Wilhelm-Königer
Maria Koupilova-Ticha
Christina Wächtler
Geraldine Rose
Angelika Schwarz
Clare Eggington

Alexa Mason

Rosie Lomas

Anna Huntley

Katie Bray

Victoria Gray (2016);

Charlotte Shaw

Hazel McBain

Rosie Lomas

Lydia Marchione

Elizabeth Lynch

Martha Jones

Angharad Lyddon (2019)

So Young Park

Summer Hassan

Elizabeth Zharoff

Michelle Siemens

Michele Hemmings

Sharmay Musacchio

Vardeni Davidian

Brigitte Jung

Martina Kellermann

Mariane Freiburg

Joelle Fleury

Ramune Sliuauskiene

Lindsay Ohse

Karen-chia-ling Ho

Chrystal E Williams

Annie Rosen

Olivia Vote

Suzanne Hendrix

Amenhotep III, father of Akhenaton spoken role David Warrilow David Warrilow Michael Mohammed Thomas Dehler Zachary James
The Scribe / Tourist GuidenarratorHildegard Wensch/David Warrilow George Harewood David Warrilow Zachary James Zachary James
Young Tutankhamun non-speaking role Joshua Simpson/Dylan Rhodes (2016); Ewan Hawkins/Tylan Hernandez (2019)
Two sisters Rose Weissgerber/Sheva Tehoval

Ava Gesell

Small male chorus (Priests), large opera chorus (The people of Egypt)
Creative Team
Conductor Dennis Russell Davies Paul Daniel Dennis Russell Davies Deirdre McClure Karen Kamensek Matthew Aucoin Stephan Zillias Karen Kamensek
Director Achim Freyer David Freeman Ellen Sebastian Chang Phelim McDermott Phelim McDermott Laura Scozzi Phelim McDermott
Set designer Ilona and Achim Freyer David Roger Tom Pye Tom Pye Natascha Le Guen de Kerneizon Tom Pye
Lighting designer Hanns-Joachim Haas Richard Riddell Bruno Poet; Gary James (2019) Bruno Poet Friedel Grass Bruno Poet


The orchestra's size is about the size employed for early 19th-century opera: 2 flutes (one doubling piccolo), 2 oboes (both doubling oboe d'amore), 2 clarinets, bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 2 french horns, 2 trumpets, 2 trombones, tuba, percussion (3 players), celesta (doubling synthesizer), 12 violas, 8 celli, 6 double basses.[13]

Since the Stuttgart State Opera house was being restored in 1984 and the orchestra pit of the Kleines Haus at the Stuttgart State Theatre, where the premiere was to take place, was considerably smaller, Glass chose to completely leave out the violins (about 20), giving the orchestra a darker, sombre character, which fits the subject. Apart from this, this was Glass's most "conventional" opera orchestra until then (compared to Einstein on the Beach, written for the six-piece Philip Glass Ensemble, and Satyagraha, scored for woodwinds and strings only).


The opera is divided into three acts:

Act 1: Year 1 of Akhnaten's Reign in Thebes

Thebes, 1370 BC

Prelude, verse 1, verse 2, verse 3

Set in the key of A minor, the strings introduce a ground bass theme, with following variations. (A passacaglia). The scribe recites funeral texts from the pyramids. "Open are the double doors of the horizon; unlocked are its bolts."

Scene 1: Funeral of Akhnaten's father Amenhotep III

Heralded by hammering drums, Aye and a small male chorus chant a funeral hymn in Egyptian, later joined by the full chorus. The music is basically a march, based on the chords of A major and F minor (with added major sixth),[14] and grows to ecstatic intensity towards the end.

Scene 2: The Coronation of Akhnaten

After a lengthy orchestral introduction, during which Akhnaten appears, heralded by a solo trumpet, the High Priest, Aye, and Horemhab sing a ritual text. After that, the Narrator recites a list of royal titles bestowed upon Akhnaten, while he is crowned. After the coronation, the chorus repeats the ritual text from the beginning of the scene. Again, the main key is A minor.

Scene 3: The Window of Appearances

After an introduction in A minor, dominated by tubular bells, Akhnaten sings a praise to the Creator (in Egyptian) at the window of public appearances. This is the first time he actually sings, after he has already been on stage for 20 minutes (and 40 minutes into the opera) and the effect of his countertenor voice (which in 1983 was even more rare than nowadays) is startling. He is joined by Nefertiti, who actually sings lower notes than he, and later by Queen Tye, whose soprano soars high above the intertwining voices of the royal couple.

Act 2: Years 5 to 15 in Thebes and Akhetaten

Scene 1: The Temple

The scene opens again in A minor, with the High Priest and a group of priests singing a hymn to Amun, principal god of the old order, in his temple. The music becomes increasingly dramatic, as Akhnaten, together with Queen Tye and his followers, attack the temple. This scene has only wordless singing. The harmonies grow very chromatic, finally reaching A major and E minor. The temple roof is removed and the sun god Aten's rays invade the temple, thus ending Amun's reign and laying the foundation for the worship of the only god Aten.

Scene 2: Akhnaten and Nefertiti

Two solo celli introduce a "love theme". Accompanied by a solo trombone while the harmony switches to H(sus), the Narrator recites a prayer-like poem to the sun god. The strings softly take over the music in E minor, and the same poem is recited again, this time actually as a love poem from Akhnaten to Nefertiti. Then Akhnaten and Nefertiti sing the same text to each other (in Egyptian), as an intimate love duet. After a while, the trumpet associated with Akhnaten joins them as the highest voice, turning the duet into a trio.

Scene 3: The City – Dance

The Narrator speaks a text taken from the boundary stones of the new capital of the empire, Akhet-Aten (The Horizon of Aten), describing the construction of the city, with large, light-filled spaces. After a brass fanfare, the completion of the city is celebrated in a light-hearted dance, contrasting with the stark, ritualistic music with which this act began. (In the Stuttgart premiere, the dance actually described the construction of the city.) The dance scene was omitted from the UK premiere production and its 1987 revival.[2]

Scene 4: Hymn

What now follows is a hymn to the only god Aten, a long aria (alternating between A minor and A major) by Akhnaten, and the central piece of the opera. Notably, it is the only text sung in the language of the audience, praising the sun giving life to everything. After the aria, an off-stage chorus sings Psalm 104 in Hebrew, dating some 400 years later, which has strong resemblances to Akhnaten's Hymn, thus emphasizing Akhnaten as the first founder of a monotheistic religion.

Act 3: Year 17 and the Present

Akhnaten, 1358 BC

Scene 1: The Family

Two oboes d'amore play the "love theme" from act 2. Akhnaten, Nefertiti and their six daughters, sing wordlessly in contemplation, they are oblivious of what happens outside of the palace. As the music switches from E minor to F minor, the Narrator reads letters from Syrian vassals, asking for help against their enemies. Since the king does not send troops, his land is being seized and plundered by their enemies. The scene focuses again on Akhnaten and his family, still oblivious to the country falling apart.

Scene 2: The Attack and Fall of the City

The music moves again to a vigorous F minor. Horemhab, Aye and the High Priest of Aten instigate the people (as the chorus), singing part of the vassal's letters (in their original Akkadian language) until finally the palace is attacked, the royal family killed, and the city of the sun destroyed.

Scene 3: The Ruins

The music of the very beginning of the opera returns. The scribe recites an inscription on Aye's tomb, praising the death of "the heretic" and the new reign of the old gods. He then describes the restoration of Amun's temple by Akhnaten's son Tutankhamun. The Prelude music grows stronger and the scene moves to present-day Egypt, to the ruins of Amarna, the former capital Akhet-Aton. The Narrator appears as a modern tourist guide and speaks a text from a guide book, describing the ruins. "There is nothing left of this glorious city of temples and palaces".

Scene 4: Epilogue

The ghosts of Akhnaten, Nefertiti and Queen Tye appear, singing wordlessly amongst the ruins. The funeral procession from the beginning of the opera appears on the horizon, and they join it. The music introduces a bass line from the beginning of Einstein on the Beach, the first part of Glass's "portrait" trilogy (The second one being Satyagraha and the third one Akhnaten), thus providing a musical bracket for the whole trilogy.



  1. The composer uses the spelling Akhnaten, while the more conventional spelling of the name is Akhenaten. Given the nature of Egyptian hieroglyphs, the absence of a vowel is not linguistically significant. In this article, the first version refers to the opera and the second to the pharaoh.
  2. Akhnaten ENO programme (1985) and (1987)
  3. "Echnaton". Cyfrowe Muzeum Teatru Wielkogo w Łodzi. Teatr Wielki w Łodzi. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  4. Akhnaten ENO programme (2016)
  5. "Akhnaten". www.eno.org. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  6. Akhnaten CBS recording (1987)
  7. "Philip Glass: Akhnaten". www.classical-music-review.org. Retrieved Dec 7, 2019.
  8. "Akhnaten". The Opera Tattler. Retrieved Dec 7, 2019.
  9. Akhnaten ENO Programme (2019)
  10. "LA Opera Akhnaten". Retrieved Dec 7, 2019.
  11. "Theatre Bonn".
  12. "Akhnaten". www.metopera.org. Retrieved Dec 7, 2019.
  13. "Philip Glass - Akhnaten (1983) - Music Sales Classical". www.musicsalesclassical.com. Retrieved Dec 7, 2019.
  14. or its equivalent chord, B major 9


  • Stuttgart State Theater, world premiere, programme (1984)
  • A Composer's Notes – Philip Glass and the Making of an Opera, Michael Blackwood (Director), (1985)
  • ENO, programme (1985)
  • ENO, programme (2016)
  • ENO, programme (2019)
  • CD booklet (Soloists, chorus and orchestra of the Stuttgart State Opera, Dennis Russell Davies, cond., CBS 1987)
  • Glass, Philip; Jones, Robert T (1995). Music by Philip Glass. Da Capo. ISBN 978-0-306-80636-0. OCLC 424030462.
  • Schwarz, K. Robert (2008). Minimalists. Phaidon. ISBN 978-0-7148-4773-3. OCLC 971783837.

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