Air Force Intelligence Directorate
The Air Force Intelligence Directorate (Arabic: إدارة المخابرات الجوية, Idarat al-Mukhabarat al-Jawiyya) is an intelligence service of Syria, possibly the country's most powerful, owing its importance to Hafez al-Assad's role as the Air Force commander. Despite its name, it is mainly involved with issues other than air force intelligence, and took an active part in the suppression of the Muslim Brotherhood rebellion in the 1980s. Agents of this service have frequently been stationed in Syrian embassies or branch offices of the national airline.
|إدارة المخابرات الجوية|
|Jurisdiction||Government of Syria|
|Parent agency||Military of Syria|
The service was headed for nearly thirty years by Maj. Gen. Muhammad al-Khuli, who was trusted by Hafez al-Assad and had an office adjacent to the president's in the presidential palace. In 1995, it was headed by Ibrahim Huwayji.
As of 2017 it is headed by Gen Jamil Hassan, a member of the Alawite sect. Hassan previously served as a security official in the eastern governorate of Deir ez-Zor. He is a part of Bashar al-Assad's inner circle, though he has criticized "the decision of the leadership" to not immediately crush the 2011 Syrian uprising in its very beginning, making him a hardliner in the Syrian leadership.
The service has also taken part in the efforts to put down the 2011 Syrian uprising against Bashar al-Assad's government. It is known to have been active in the town of Talkalakh near the Lebanese border.
Heads of Air Force Intelligence Directorate
- Muhammad al-Khuli (1963–1987)
- Ibrahim Huwayji (1987–2002)
- Iz a-Din Isma'il (2002 – )
- Deputy director: Ali Mamlouk ( – June 2005)
- Abdulfattah Qudsiya ( – 2009)
- Jamil Hassan (2009–present) was sanctioned by the European Union for "violence against the civilian population during the Syrian Civil War".
- Deputy director: Fuad Tawil (2012) was sanctioned by European Union for "the use of violence across Syria and intimidation and torture of protestors during the Syrian uprising".
- Head of Investigative branch: Maj. Gen. Abdulsalam Fajer Mahmoud (2011), accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity by Human Rights Watch.
- Head of Special Operations branch: Maj. Gen. Ghassan Ismail (2011).
- Head of Operations branch: Col. Suheil Hassan (2011).
Regional Heads of Air Force Intelligence Directorate
- Damascus branch: Eyad Mandou (2012)
- Homs branch: Brig. Gen. Jawdat al-Ahmed (2012) accused of "ordering or committing crimes against humanity".
- Daraa branch: Col. Qusay Mihoub (2012) accused of "ordering or committing crimes against humanity".
- Latakia branch: Col. Suhail Al-Abdullah (2012) accused of "ordering or committing crimes against humanity".
- Guardians of the Dawn
- Lions of the Cherubim
- Earthquake of Jobar
- Ararat Group
- Lions of the Valley
- Intervention Regiment
- Lions of Dwel’a
- Lions of the Cherubim
- Khaybar Brigade
- Fawj Nusur Homs
Other Syrian intelligence agencies
- "Syria, Intelligence and Security". Espionageinfo.com. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- "Erreur sur la page". Desinfos.com. Archived from the original on 13 January 2006. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- "Syria's Intelligence Services: A Primer". Meib.org. July 2000. Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- "NSNL 61 – Intelligence profile : Syria". Cvni.net. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- "The Succession Struggle in Damascus – Middle East Quarterly". Meforum.org. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- Al Hendi, Ahed (3 May 2011). "The Structure of Syria's Repression". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- BBC News – Bashar al-Assad's inner circle. Bbc.co.uk (18 May 2011). Retrieved on 12 April 2012.
- Ana Maria Luca; Nadine Elali (30 April 2011). "The Syrian uprising's refugees". NOW Lebanon. Archived from the original on 9 May 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- Rathmell, Andrew (Fall 1997). "Syria's Intelligence Services: Origins and Development". Journal of Conflict Studies. XVI (2). Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- Gambil, Gary (February 2002). "The Military-Intelligence Shakeup in Syria". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin. 4 (2). Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- Bar, Shmuel (2006). "Bashar's Syria: The Regime and its Strategic Worldview" (PDF). Comparative Strategy. 25: 424. doi:10.1080/01495930601105412. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Ali Mamluk: Syria's new security chief - Region - World - Ahram Online". Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- "Syria's Assad 'reshuffles security chiefs'". UPI. 21 October 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "The Syrian President Reshuffles Security, Intelligence Leaders". 28 September 2010. Middle East Transparent. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- L_2012016EN.01000101.xml. Eur-lex.europa.eu (19 January 2012). Retrieved on 12 April 2012.
- "Council Regulation concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Syria and repealing Regulation (EU) No 442/2011".
- "Torture Archipelago". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- Syria: Turkish embassy closed, senior intel officer assassinated. Al Bawaba (26 March 2012). Retrieved on 12 April 2012.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (14 December 2016). "Usud Al-Cherubim: A Pro-Assad Christian Militia". Syria Comment. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (3 January 2016). "The Syrian National Resistance: Liwa Khaybar". Syria Comment. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (24 December 2016). "The Fifth Legion: A New Auxiliary Force". Syria Comment. Retrieved 25 December 2016.