Afro-Seminole Creole

Afro-Seminole Creole (ASC) is a dialect of Gullah spoken by Black Seminoles in scattered communities in Oklahoma, Texas, and Northern Mexico.[3][lower-alpha 1]

Afro-Seminole Creole
Native toUnited States, Mexico
EthnicityBlack Seminoles
Native speakers
(200 in Mexico cited 1990)[1]
English Creole
  • Atlantic
    • Eastern
      • Northern
Language codes
ISO 639-3afs

It was first identified as a distinct language in 1978 by Ian Hancock, a linguist at the University of Texas. The Creole developed when Black Seminoles and Seminoles lived together in Florida in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.[3]

Present-day speakers of Afro-Seminole Creole live in Seminole County, Oklahoma, and Brackettville, Texas, in the United States and in Nacimiento de los Negros, Coahuila, in Mexico. The language is considered threatened with extinction. There are about 200 speakers of the language.[3] A majority of the living speakers are descendants of Black Seminoles who once lived at Fort Clark and are at least 65 years old.

See also


  1. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, Black Seminoles have also been known as Seminole Maroons or Seminole Freedmen and were a group of free blacks and runaway slaves who joined with a group of Native Americans in Florida after the Spanish abolished slavery there in 1793.[4]


  1. Afro-Seminole Creole at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Afro-Seminole Creole". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. "Creoles in Texas – 'The Afro-Seminoles'.” Kreol Magazine. March 28, 2014. Accessed April 11, 2018.
  4. Kuiper, Kathleen. "Black Seminoles." In: Encyclopedia Britannica. Accessed April 13, 2018.

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