Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy)

Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the Royal Navy formally established in 1688.[2] The five-star NATO rank code is OF-10, equivalent to a field marshal in the British Army or a marshal of the Royal Air Force. Other than honorary appointments no new admirals of the fleet have been named since 1995.

Admiral of the Fleet
The flag of an admiral of the Fleet is the Union Flag, and is in 1:2 rather than the 2:3 of other admirals' flags.[1]
Insignia shoulder board and Sleeve lace for Admiral of the Fleet
Country United Kingdom
Service branch Royal Navy
RankFive-star
NATO rankOF-10
Non-NATO rankO-11
Formation1688
Next lower rankAdmiral
Equivalent ranks
NaviesArmiesAir forces
Commissioned officers
Admiral of
the fleet
Field marshal or
General of the army
Marshal of
the air force
AdmiralGeneralAir chief marshal
Vice admiralLieutenant generalAir marshal
Rear admiralMajor generalAir vice-marshal
CommodoreBrigadier or
brigadier general
Air commodore
CaptainColonelGroup captain
CommanderLieutenant colonelWing commander
Lieutenant
commander
Major or
commandant
Squadron leader
LieutenantCaptainFlight lieutenant
Lieutenant
junior grade
or
sub-lieutenant
Lieutenant or
first lieutenant
Flying officer
Ensign or
midshipman
Second lieutenantPilot officer
Officer cadetOfficer cadetFlight cadet
Enlisted grades
Warrant officer or
chief petty officer
Warrant officer or
sergeant major
Warrant officer
Petty officerSergeantFlight sergeant
Leading seamanCorporal or
bombardier
Corporal
SeamanPrivate or
gunner or
trooper
Aircraftman or
airman
Talk·View

History

The origins of the rank can be traced back to Sir John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp de Warwick, who was appointed 'Admiral of the King's Southern, Northern and Western Fleets' on 18 July 1360.[3] The appointment gave the command of the English navy to one person for the first time; the post evolved into the post of Admiral of the Fleet.[4] In the days sailing ships the admiral distinctions then used by the Royal Navy when the fleet was divided into three divisions – red, white, or blue. Each division was assigned an admiral, who in turn commanded a vice-admiral and a rear admiral. The rank of Admiral of the Fleet was formally established in 1688: prior to this date the Admiral of the White was pre-eminent and regarded informally as the admiral of the fleet.[5] In the 18th century, the original nine ranks began to be filled by more than one person at any one time. The admiral of the red was pre-eminent and became known as the admiral of the fleet.

In November 1805, a new rank of Admiral of the Red immediately junior to that of Admiral of the Fleet was created, the announcement on page 1373 of issue 15859 of the London Gazette stating "His Majesty having been pleased to order the Rank of Admirals of the Red to be restored[6] in His Majesty's Navy..." and promoting 22 men then serving as Admirals to that rank.[7]

The organisation of the British fleet into coloured squadrons was abandoned in 1864, although the Royal Navy kept the White Ensign. When the professional head of the Royal Navy was given the title of First Naval Lord in 1828 (renamed First Sea Lord in 1904), the rank of admiral of the fleet became an honorary promotion for retiring First Naval Lords allowing more than one admiral of the fleet to exist at one time. It was broadly customary for the senior Admiral on the active list to be made an Admiral of the Fleet (after 1870 Admirals were obliged to retire at 65) whether or not he had served as First Naval Lord. However, there was no Admiral of the Fleet between 1854 and 1857 (the senior Admiral, Thomas Le Marchant Gosselin[8][9] had never actually served since he was a Captain in 1809) and on the death of Provo Wallis in 1892 the promotion went to John Edmund Commerell rather than the senior Algernon Frederick Rous de Horsey. In 1914 the criteria were revised and in 1940 the Admirals of the Fleet were exempted from compulsory retirement.[10]

Since 1811 five members of the British Royal family, other than the monarch, and four members of foreign royal families have been appointed admirals of the fleet. Of the British royalty granted the rank, only one, the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) had not seen service in the Royal Navy.

During the two World Wars a number of serving officers held active commissions as admirals of the fleet, as well as the First Sea Lord. Following the creation of the Chief of the Defence Staff in 1959, the five naval officers appointed to that position became admirals of the fleet. Recognizing the reduced post–Cold War size of the British Armed Forces, no further appointments were made to the rank after 1995 when Sir Benjamin Bathurst was appointed admiral of the fleet on his retirement as First Sea Lord. The rank was not abolished and in 2012 the Prince of Wales became an honorary admiral of the fleet (as well as field marshal and marshal of the Royal Air Force), in recognition of his support to Queen Elizabeth II in her role of as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces. In 2014, Lord Boyce, a former First Sea Lord and Chief of the Defence Staff, was also appointed an honorary admiral of the fleet.[11]

Admirals of the Fleet

Appointed
Image
Name
Born
Died
Notes
Reference
1688George Legge
(later Earl of Dartmouth)
16471691[12]
1690Edward Russell
(later Earl of Orford)
16521727[13]
1696Sir George Rooke16501709circa[14]
13 January 1705Sir Cloudesley Shovell16501707[15]
8 January 1708Leake JohnSir John Leake16561720[16]
21 December 1708Fairborne StaffordSir Stafford Fairborne16661742circa[17]
12 November 1709Aylmer MatthewSir Matthew Aylmer16501720[18]
14 March 1718Byng GeorgeSir George Byng
(later Viscount Torrington)
16631733[19]
20 February 1734Norris JohnSir John Norris16701749[20]
1 July 1749Ogle ChallonerSir Chaloner Ogle16811750[21]
22 November 1751Steuart JamesJames Steuart16901757[22]
March 1757Clinton GeorgeGeorge Clinton16861761[23]
30 July 1761AnsonThe Lord Anson16971762[24]
17 December 1762Rowley WilliamSir William Rowley16901768circa[25]
15 January 1768Hawke EdwardSir Edward Hawke
(later Lord Hawke)
17051781[26]
24 October 1781Luke O'KeefeJohn Forbes17141796[27]
12 March 1796HoweThe Earl Howe17261799[28]
16 September 1799Parker PeterSir Peter Parker17211811[29]
24 December 1811Clarence and Saint AndrewsThe Duke of Clarence and St Andrews
(later King William IV)
17651837[30]
19 July 1821Saint VincentThe Earl of St Vincent17351823acting from May 1814[31]
28 June 1830Williams-Freeman WilliamWilliam Williams-Freeman17421832[32]
22 July 1830GambierThe Lord Gambier17561833[33]
22 July 1830Pole CharlesSir Charles Pole17571830[33]
24 April 1833Nugent CharlesSir Charles Nugent17591844[34]
8 January 1844Hawkins-Whitshed JamesSir James Hawkins-Whitshed17621849[35]
9 November 1846Martin GeorgeSir George Martin17641847[36]
13 October 1849Martin ThomasSir Thomas Byam Martin17731854[37]
1 July 1851Cockburn GeorgeSir George Cockburn17721853[38]
8 December 1857Ogle CharlesSir Charles Ogle17751858[39]
25 June 1858West JohnSir John West17741862[40]
20 May 1862Gage WilliamSir William Gage17771864[41]
10 November 1862Hamond GrahamSir Graham Hamond17791862[42]
27 April 1863Austen FrancisSir Francis Austen17741865[43]
27 April 1863Parker WilliamSir William Parker17811866[44]
11 January 1864Curtis LuciusSir Lucius Curtis17861869[45]
12 September 1865Cochrane ThomasSir Thomas Cochrane17891872[46]
30 November 1866Seymour GeorgeSir George Seymour17871870[47]
30 January 1868Gordon JamesSir James Gordon17821869on the Retired List[48]
15 January 1869Bowles WilliamSir William Bowles17801869[49]
2 July 1869Sartorious GeorgeSir George Sartorius17901885[50]
21 January 1870Moresby FairfaxSir Fairfax Moresby17861877[51]
20 October 1872Stewart HoustonSir Houston Stewart17911875[52]
11 December 1875Wallis ProvoSir Provo Wallis17911892[53]
22 January 1877Codrington HenrySir Henry Codrington18081877[54]
5 August 1877Keppel HenrySir Henry Keppel18091904[55]
27 December 1877LauderdaleThe Earl of Lauderdale18031878[56]
27 December 1877Mundy RodneySir Rodney Mundy18051884[56]
15 June 1879Hope JamesSir James Hope18081881[57]
15 June 1879Symonds ThomasSir Thomas Symonds18131894[57]
10 June 1881Milne AlexanderSir Alexander Milne, Bt.18061896on the Retired List[58]
1 December 1881Elliot CharlesSir Charles Elliot18181895[59]
29 April 1885Ryder AlfredSir Alfred Ryder18201888[60]
18 July 1887WalesThe Prince of Wales
(later King Edward VII)
18411910honorary to non-Navy royalty[61]
1 May 1888Hornby GeoffreySir Geoffrey Hornby18251895[62]
8 December 1888Hay JohnLord John Hay18271916First Sea Lord 1886[63]
2 August 1889William IIHIM German Emperor William II18591941honorary, to foreign royalty[64]
13 February 1892Commerell JohnSir John Commerell18291901[65]
3 June 1893EdinburghThe Duke of Edinburgh
(later Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha)
18441900[66]
20 February 1895ClanwilliamThe Earl of Clanwilliam18321907[67]
23 August 1897Lyons AlgernonSir Algernon Lyons18331908[68]
29 November 1898Richards FrederickSir Frederick Richards18331912First Sea Lord 1893–1899[69]
13 January 1899Salmon NowellSir Nowell Salmon18351912[70]
3 October 1902Erskine JamesSir James Erskine18381911[71]
30 August 1903Hotham CharlesSir Charles Hotham18431925[72]
16 June 1904Kerr WalterLord Walter Kerr18391927First Sea Lord 1899–1904[73]
20 February 1905Seymour EdwardSir Edward Seymour18401929[74]
5 December 1905Fisher JohnSir John Fisher
(later Lord Fisher)
18411920First Sea Lord 1905–1910 and 1914–1915[75]
1 March 1907Wilson ArthurSir Arthur Wilson18421921First Sea Lord 1910–1911[76]
11 June 1908Nicholas IIHIM Tsar Nicholas II of Russia18681918honorary, to foreign royalty[77]
2 December 1908Noel GerardSir Gerard Noel18451918[78]
27 January 1910Heinrich of PrussiaPrince Henry of Prussia18621929honorary, to foreign royalty[79]
30 April 1910Fanshawe ArthurSir Arthur Fanshawe18471936[80]
6 May 1910 George VKing George V18651936[81]
20 March 1913May WilliamSir William May18491930[82]
5 March 1915Meux HedworthSir Hedworth Meux18561929[83]
2 April 1917Callaghan GeorgeSir George Callaghan18521920[84]
3 April 1919JellicoeThe Viscount Jellicoe
(later Earl Jellicoe)
18591935First Sea Lord 1916–1918[85]
3 April 1919Beatty DavidSir David Beatty
(later Earl Beatty)
18711936First Sea Lord 1919–1927[86]
31 July 1919Jackson HenrySir Henry Jackson18551929First Sea Lord 1915–1916[87]
1 November 1919Wemyss RosslynSir Rosslyn Wemyss
(later Lord Wester Wemyss)
18641933First Sea Lord 1918–1919[88]
24 November 1920Burney CecilSir Cecil Burney, Bt.18581929[89]
5 July 1921Sturdee DovetonSir Doveton Sturdee, Bt.18591925[90]
19 August 1921Milford HavenThe Marquess of Milford Haven18541921First Sea Lord 1912–1914. On the Retired List[91]
31 July 1924Madden CharlesSir Charles Madden, Bt.18621935First Sea Lord 1927–1930[92]
8 May 1925Calthorpe SomersetSir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe18641937[93]
24 November 1925de Robeck JohnSir John de Robeck, Bt.18621928[94]
21 January 1928Oliver HenrySir Henry Oliver18651965[95]
31 July 1929Brock OsmondSir Osmond Brock18691947[96]
8 May 1930Keyes RogerSir Roger Keyes, Bt.
(later Lord Keyes)
18721945[97]
21 January 1933Field FrederickSir Frederick Field18711945First Sea Lord 1930–1933[98]
31 July 1934Tyrwhitt ReginaldSir Reginald Tyrwhitt, Bt.18701951[99]
8 May 1935Chatfield ErnleSir Ernle Chatfield
(later Lord Chatfield)
18731967First Sea Lord 1933–1938[100]
21 January 1936Edward VIIIKing Edward VIII18941972[101]
12 July 1936Kelly JohnSir John Kelly18711936[102]
11 December 1936George VIKing George VI18951952[103]
21 January 1938CorkThe Earl of Cork and Orrery18731967[104]
7 July 1939Backhouse RogerSir Roger Backhouse18781939First Sea Lord 1938–1939[105]
31 July 1939Pound DudleySir Dudley Pound18771943First Sea Lord 1939–1943[106]
8 May 1940Forbes CharlesSir Charles Forbes18801960[107]
21 January 1943Cunningham AndrewSir Andrew Cunningham
(later Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope)
18831963First Sea Lord 1943–1946[108]
22 October 1943Tovey JohnSir John Tovey
(later Lord Tovey)
18851971[109]
8 May 1945Somerville JohnSir James Somerville18821949[110]
21 January 1948Cunningham JohnSir John Cunningham18851965First Sea Lord 1946–1948[111]
22 October 1948Fraser of North CapeThe Lord Fraser of North Cape18881981First Sea Lord 1948–1951[112]
20 March 1949Willis AlgernonSir Algernon Willis18891976[113]
22 April 1952Power ArthurSir Arthur Power18891960[114]
1 June 1952Vian PhilipSir Philip Vian18941968[115]
15 January 1953EdinburghThe Duke of Edinburgh1921Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom 2011–present[116]
1 May 1953McGrigor RhoderickSir Rhoderick McGrigor18931959First Sea Lord 1951–1955[117]
22 April 1955Creasy GeorgeSir George Creasy18951972[118]
22 October 1956Mountbatten of BurmaThe Earl Mountbatten of Burma19001979First Sea Lord 1955–1959 Chief of the Defence Staff 1959–1965[119]
10 May 1960Lambe CharlesSir Charles Lambe19001960First Sea Lord 1959–1960[120]
23 May 1962John CasparSir Caspar John19031984First Sea Lord 1960–1963[121]
12 August 1968Begg VarylSir Varyl Begg19081995First Sea Lord 1966–1968[122]
30 June 1970Le Fanu MichaelSir Michael Le Fanu19131970First Sea Lord 1968–1970[123]
12 March 1971Hill-Norton PeterSir Peter Hill-Norton
(later Lord Hill-Norton)
19152004First Sea Lord 1970–1971 Chief of the Defence Staff 1971–73[124]
1 March 1974Pollock MichaelSir Michael Pollock19162006First Sea Lord 1971–1974[125]
9 February 1977Ashmore EdwardSir Edward Ashmore19192016First Sea Lord 1977-1977 Chief of the Defence Staff 1977[126]
6 July 1979Lewin TerenceSir Terence Lewin
(later Lord Lewin)
19201999First Sea Lord 1977–1979 Chief of the Defence Staff 1979–1982[127]
1 December 1982Leach HenrySir Henry Leach19232011First Sea Lord 1979–1982[128]
2 August 1985Fieldhouse JohnSir John Fieldhouse
(later Lord Fieldhouse)
19281992First Sea Lord 1982–1985 Chief of the Defence Staff 1985–1988[129]
12 April 1988King Olav V of Norway19031991honorary, to foreign royalty[130]
25 May 1989Staveley WilliamSir William Staveley19281997First Sea Lord 1985–1989[131]
2 March 1992Oswald JulianSir Julian Oswald19332011First Sea Lord 1989–1993[132]
10 July 1995Bathhurst BenjaminSir Benjamin Bathurst1936First Sea Lord 1993–1995[133]
16 June 2012WalesThe Prince of Wales1948Honorary rank[134]
13 June 2014Boyce MichaelThe Lord Boyce1943Chief of the Defence Staff 2001–2003. Honorary rank[135]

See also

References

  1. Prothero, David (3 December 2002). "United Kingdom: Royal Navy rank flags". Flags of the World. Archived from the original on 28 June 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2006.
  2. "Information sheet no 055: Squadron Colours" (PDF). nmrn-portsmouth.org.uk. The National Museum Royal Navy. 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  3. 1, St. George Tucker. Vol. (1996). Blackstone's commentaries: with notes of reference to the constitution and laws, of the federal government of the United States, and of the Commonwealth of Virginia; with an appendix to each volume, containing short tracts upon such subjects as appeared necessary to form a connected view of the laws of Virginia as a member of the federal union (Originally published: Philadelphia : William Young Birch, and Abraham Small, 1803. ed.). Union, NJ: Lawbook Exchange. p. xxxiii. ISBN 9781886363168.
  4. "Trafalgar Ancestors, Glossary". nationalarchives.gov.uk. National Archives, 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  5. "Information sheet no 055: Squadron Colours" (PDF). nmrn-portsmouth.org.uk. The National Museum Royal Navy. 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  6. The Dictionary of National Biography (Volume 20, page 394) says of James Gambier, 1st Baron Gambier that he "seems to have been as ignorant of naval history as careless of naval prestige, and must be considered one of the chief of the perpetrators of the official blunder which, in the warrant of 9 Nov. 1805 appointing admirals of the red, spoke of the rank as restored to the navy, whereas, in point of fact, it had never previously existed."
  7. "No. 15859". The London Gazette. 5 November 1805. p. 1373.
  8. O'Byrne, William Richard (1849). "Gosselin, Thomas Le Marchant" . A Naval Biographical Dictionary. John Murray via Wikisource.
  9. Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney, eds. (1890). "Gosselin, Thomas le Marchant" . Dictionary of National Biography. 22. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  10. Dreadnought Project overview
  11. "2014 Birthday Honours for service personnel and defence civilians". Ministry of Defence. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
  12. "Naval Ranks NMRN Portsmouth". www.nmrn-portsmouth.org.uk. The National Museum Royal Navy, Portsmouth. 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  13. "Russell, Edward, Earl of Orford". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  14. "Rooke, Sir George". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  15. "Shovell, Sir Cloudesley". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  16. "Leake, Sir John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  17. "Fairborne, Stafford". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  18. "Aylmer, Matthew". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  19. "Byng, George, first Viscount Torrington". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  20. Heathcote, p. 197
  21. "No. 8864". The London Gazette. 4 July 1749. p. 6.
  22. Heathcote p. 236
  23. Heathcote, p. 45
  24. "No. 10126". The London Gazette. 28 July 1761. p. 2.
  25. "No. 10275". The London Gazette. 1 January 1763. p. 1.
  26. Heathcote, p. 109
  27. Heathcote, p. 87
  28. "No. 13875". The London Gazette. 15 March 1796. p. 258.
  29. Heathcote, p. 271
  30. "No. 16554". The London Gazette. 21 December 1811. p. 2454.
  31. "No. 17727". The London Gazette. 20 July 1821. p. 1511.
  32. "No. 18701". The London Gazette. 2 July 1830. p. 1369.
  33. "No. 18709". The London Gazette. 23 July 1830. p. 1539.
  34. "No. 19042". The London Gazette. 26 April 1833. p. 793.
  35. "No. 20305". The London Gazette. 16 January 1844. p. 146.
  36. "No. 20660". The London Gazette (Supplement). 10 November 1846. p. 3994.
  37. "No. 21037". The London Gazette. 13 November 1849. p. 3387.
  38. "No. 21225". The London Gazette. 8 July 1851. p. 1769.
  39. "No. 22071". The London Gazette. 11 December 1857. p. 4367.
  40. "No. 22157". The London Gazette. 29 June 1858. p. 3090.
  41. "No. 22627". The London Gazette. 20 May 1862. p. 2616.
  42. "No. 22679". The London Gazette. 10 November 1862. p. 5343.
  43. "No. 22730". The London Gazette. 28 April 1863. p. 2246.
  44. "No. 22730". The London Gazette. 28 April 1863. p. 2246.
  45. "No. 22806". The London Gazette. 12 January 1864. p. 157.
  46. "No. 23014". The London Gazette. 15 September 1865. p. 4466.
  47. "No. 23187". The London Gazette. 20 November 1866. p. 6158.
  48. "No. 23349". The London Gazette. 4 February 1868. p. 537.
  49. "No. 23462". The London Gazette. 26 January 1869. p. 407.
  50. "No. 23516". The London Gazette. 13 July 1869. p. 3958.
  51. "No. 23582". The London Gazette. 1 February 1870. p. 598.
  52. "No. 23915". The London Gazette. 1 November 1872. p. 5106.
  53. "No. 24278". The London Gazette. 24 December 1875. p. 6577.
  54. "No. 24411". The London Gazette. 30 January 1877. p. 436.
  55. "No. 24497". The London Gazette. 24 August 1877. p. 4957.
  56. "No. 24537". The London Gazette. 1 January 1878. p. 2.
  57. "No. 24734". The London Gazette. 17 June 1879. p. 3967.
  58. "No. 24997". The London Gazette. 19 July 1881. p. 3548.
  59. "No. 25044". The London Gazette. 2 December 1881. p. 6470.
  60. "No. 25466". The London Gazette. 1 May 1885. p. 1984.
  61. Heathcote, p. 68
  62. "No. 25816". The London Gazette. 15 May 1888. p. 2766.
  63. "No. 25883". The London Gazette. 14 December 1888. p. 7140.
  64. Heathcote, p. 261
  65. "No. 26262". The London Gazette. 26 February 1892. p. 1108.
  66. Heathcote, p. 10
  67. "No. 26601". The London Gazette. 22 February 1895. p. 1066.
  68. "No. 26885". The London Gazette. 24 August 1897. p. 4726.
  69. "No. 27029". The London Gazette. 2 December 1898. p. 7818.
  70. "No. 27043". The London Gazette. 17 January 1899. p. 298.
  71. "No. 27483". The London Gazette. 17 October 1902. p. 6569.
  72. "No. 27593". The London Gazette. 1 September 1903. p. 5476.
  73. "No. 27692". The London Gazette. 5 July 1904. p. 4259.
  74. "No. 27766". The London Gazette. 21 February 1905. p. 1279.
  75. "No. 27861". The London Gazette. 8 December 1905. p. 8812.
  76. "No. 28001". The London Gazette. 5 March 1907. p. 1574.
  77. Heathcote, p. 192
  78. "No. 28201". The London Gazette. 1 December 1908. p. 9182.
  79. Heathcote, p. 113
  80. "No. 28362". The London Gazette. 3 May 1910. p. 3063.
  81. Heathcote, p. 98
  82. "No. 28703". The London Gazette. 21 March 1913. p. 2159.
  83. "No. 29094". The London Gazette. 9 March 1915. p. 2365.
  84. "No. 30008". The London Gazette. 3 April 1917. p. 3206.
  85. "No. 31327". The London Gazette. 6 May 1919. p. 5653.
  86. "No. 31327". The London Gazette. 6 May 1919. p. 5653.
  87. "No. 31489". The London Gazette. 5 August 1919. p. 9961.
  88. "No. 31715". The London Gazette (Supplement). 2 January 1920. p. 57.
  89. "No. 32150". The London Gazette (Supplement). 3 December 1920. p. 11942.
  90. "No. 32394". The London Gazette. 19 July 1921. p. 5733.
  91. Order in Council of 19 August 1921; ADM 196/38
  92. "No. 32962". The London Gazette. 5 August 1924. p. 5889.
  93. "No. 33049". The London Gazette. 22 May 1925. p. 3445.
  94. "No. 33110". The London Gazette. 1 December 1925. p. 7950.
  95. "No. 33354". The London Gazette. 7 February 1928. p. 856.
  96. "No. 33523". The London Gazette. 6 August 1929. p. 5145.
  97. "No. 33604". The London Gazette. 9 May 1930. p. 2867.
  98. "No. 33905". The London Gazette. 24 January 1933. p. 524.
  99. "No. 34076". The London Gazette. 7 August 1934. p. 5054.
  100. "No. 34159". The London Gazette. 10 May 1935. p. 3048.
  101. Heathcote, p. 69
  102. "No. 34308". The London Gazette (Supplement). 24 July 1936. p. 4742.
  103. Heathcote, p. 99
  104. "No. 34476". The London Gazette. 25 January 1938. p. 512.
  105. Heathcote, p. 21
  106. "No. 34651". The London Gazette. 4 August 1939. p. 5393.
  107. "No. 34849". The London Gazette. 14 May 1940. p. 2892.
  108. Heathcote, p. 60
  109. "No. 36255". The London Gazette. 19 November 1943. p. 5088.
  110. Heathcote, p. 233
  111. "No. 38210". The London Gazette. 17 February 1948. p. 1128.
  112. Heathcote, p. 90
  113. "No. 38595". The London Gazette. 26 April 1949. p. 2052.
  114. "No. 39571". The London Gazette. 13 June 1952. p. 3238.
  115. "No. 39606". The London Gazette. 25 July 1952. p. 3999.
  116. Heathcote, p. 210
  117. Heathcote, p. 162
  118. "No. 40487". The London Gazette. 24 May 1955. p. 3011.
  119. "No. 40927". The London Gazette. 16 November 1956. p. 6492.
  120. "No. 42058". The London Gazette (Supplement). 7 June 1960. p. 4037.
  121. "No. 42704". The London Gazette. 15 June 1962. p. 4777.
  122. Heathcote, p. 29
  123. "No. 45138". The London Gazette (Supplement). 26 June 1970. p. 7183.
  124. "No. 45331". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 March 1971. p. 2937.
  125. "No. 46225". The London Gazette (Supplement). 4 March 1974. p. 2887.
  126. "No. 47160". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 March 1977. p. 2825.
  127. "No. 47904". The London Gazette (Supplement). 16 July 1979. p. 8998.
  128. "No. 49174". The London Gazette (Supplement). 22 November 1982. p. 15293.
  129. Heathcote, p.78
  130. "No. 51297". The London Gazette (3rd supplement). 12 April 1988. p. 4327.
  131. Heathcote, p. 235
  132. Heathcote, p. 204
  133. Heathcote, p. 23
  134. "No. 60350". The London Gazette. 7 December 2012. p. 23557.
  135. "2014 Birthday Honours for service personnel and defence civilians". Ministry of Defence. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014.

Sources

  • Heathcote, Tony (2002). The British Admirals of the Fleet 1734–1995. Pen & Sword Ltd. ISBN 0-85052-835-6.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.