Administrator of the government
An administrator (administrator of the government, officer administering the government) in the constitutional practice of some countries in the Commonwealth is a person who fulfils a role similar to that of a governor or a governor-general.
Usually the office of administrator is a temporary appointment, for periods during which the governor is incapacitated, outside the territory, or otherwise unable to perform his or her duties. The process for selecting administrators varies from country to country.
In the Commonwealth of Australia, the administrator is usually called the administrator of the Commonwealth. State governors hold a dormant commission and by convention the longest-serving state governor becomes administrator.
In the states of Australia, the administrator is usually the chief justice of the state's supreme court or the next most senior justice. In 2001, the Constitution of Queensland was amended to restore the office of lieutenant-governor in that state.
The administrator is usually the Chief Justice of Canada. In the absence of the chief justice the senior puisne judge of the Supreme Court of Canada is appointed. Administrators can also be appointed to the Canadian provinces to perform the duties of the lieutenant governor, in which case a justice of a provincial superior court is appointed.
In Ceylon, the officer administering the government in the absence of the Governor General of Ceylon was the Chief Justice of Ceylon. In the absence of the chief justice the acting chief justice would serve in this place.
When Hong Kong was a British Crown colony the chief secretary (colonial secretary before 1976) would be the acting governor, followed by the financial secretary and the attorney general. The practice has remained after the transfer of sovereignty to China. Rotation takes place between the chief secretary for administration (formerly chief secretary), the financial secretary and the secretary for justice (formerly attorney general) as the acting chief executive.
Papua New Guinea
As a former External Territory of Australia, the head of the territory's administration was called the Administrator of Papua-New Guinea before independence in 1975. The appointment was by the Governor-General of Australia on the advice of the Australian Minister of External Territories. The minister for external territories consulted with the territory's chief minister as part of the appointment process.
On 11 November 1965, the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia made a unilateral declaration of independence (UDI) although it continued to recognise the British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, as head of state, with oaths of allegiance to "Her Majesty the Queen Elizabeth, Queen of Rhodesia, her heirs and successors". However, the Rhodesian Front government of Ian Smith ceased to recognise the authority of her de jure representative, Governor Sir Humphrey Gibbs.
Instead, on 17 November, it appointed the former deputy prime minister, Clifford Dupont, to the post of "acting officer administering the government". Opponents of UDI who considered it an illegal move, such as the independent member of the legislative assembly, Ahrn Palley, refused to recognise Dupont's office, and walked out of the opening of parliament when Dupont came to deliver the Speech from the Throne.
On 2 December, Smith wrote a personal letter to the queen, asking her to accept Dupont as the new governor-general. In response, he was told that "Her Majesty is not able to entertain purported advice of this kind, and has therefore been pleased to direct that no action shall be taken upon it".
Under the 1965 draft constitution, if the queen did not appoint a governor-general within fourteen days of advice being tendered by the prime minister, a regent was to be appointed. In deference to the Royal Family, however, on 16 December, Smith amended his original plan to appoint a Regent and Dupont was appointed as "officer administering the government".
Consequently, legislation passed after UDI was "enacted by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, as the representative of the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Parliament of Rhodesia". Dupont would continue to use the title until 1970. When Rhodesia adopted a republican constitution that year, he became the first President of Rhodesia.
The country was renamed Zimbabwe Rhodesia in 1979, before it returned to colonial status following the Lancaster House Agreement later that year. In 1980, it achieved internationally recognised independence as Zimbabwe.
The term administrator is also used for a permanent officer representing the head of state where the appointment of a governor would be inappropriate; it is also used for the representative of a governor.
- In the Northern Territory, the office of Administrator is a permanent appointment, and since the territory was granted self-government in 1978, the office of administrator has become a largely ceremonial appointment, like that of the governor in each state. Unlike the governors, who are appointed by the sovereign on advice of the premier, the administrator is appointed by the governor-general on advice of the prime minister after consultation with the chief minister.
- External territories such as Norfolk Island and Christmas Island
- Historically also on Lord Howe Island
In the Union territories of India, which are ruled directly by the Union government, the President of India appoints an administrator. Administrators differ from the governors of the states of India in that they are an agent of the president and not a head of state.
The president may also appoint the governor of a neighbouring state to be the administrator of a union territory. Since 1985 the Governor of Punjab has acted as the Administrator of Chandigarh. In three union territories: Andaman and Nicobar Islands; Delhi; and Puducherry; the administrator uses the title "lieutenant governor".
United Kingdom overseas possessions
- The civil Administrator of the Akrotiri and Dhekelia Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus is traditionally the military commander of British forces in the areas.
- The Administrator of the British Indian Ocean Territory is the junior to a commissioner (Chagos Archipelago, notably Diego Garcia. He mandates the commander of British naval forces on Diego Garcia as his representative and justice of the peace.
- The two dependencies of Saint Helena, both sparsely populated Atlantic islands, are responsible in the first instance to the Governor of St Helena:
In the United States, the rank of administrator denotes a high-level civilian official within the United States federal government. Generally an official of sub-cabinet rank, an administrator is appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate and assigned to run a specific US government agency. Administrators often manage major agencies housed within specific cabinet departments (e.g., Research and Innovative Technology Administration within the United States Department of Transportation) while others are stand-alone agencies (e.g., the United States Environmental Protection Agency).
During mandatory times, the high commissioner was deputized by an administrator in case of high commissarial vacancy, and a deputy to the high commissioner when the high commissioner remained in office but temporarily could not fulfill his duties. Both posts were held ex-offico by the chief secretary. The rules for deputizing the analogous office in modern-day Israel, the president, are similar, with an interim president analogous to the administrator and an acting president analogous to the deputy to the high commissioner. However, these posts are held not by the prime minister, whose office is analogous to that of the chief secretary, but by the Speaker of the Knesset.
Sources and references
- WorldStatesmen the present state
- Role of the Administrator at the Governor-General of Australia site
- "Choice of Next Commissioner Praised." Chuck Tobin, the Whitehorse Star, 1 December 2010. Accessed 1 March 2011.
- International Law Reports, Volume 52, E. Lauterpacht, Cambridge University Press, 1979, page 53
- Ian Smith Strips Gibbs Of All Official Privilege, Associated Press, The Morning Record, November 18, 1965
- East Africa and Rhodesia, Volume 42, Africana, 1965, page 339
- Africa Report, Volumes 11-12, African-American Institute, 1966, page 44
- The New Law Journal, Volume 127, Butterworth, 1978, page 529
- The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Volume 20, page 659, 1971
- The Constitution of Rhodesia, 1965, Government Printer, 1965, page 7
- Rhodesia and the United Nations: UN Imposition of Mandatory Sanctions 1966, Avrahm G. Mezerik, International Review Service, 1966, pages 39-40
- Annual Survey of African Law Cb: Volume Three : 1969, editors E. Cotran, N.N. Rubin, Routledge, 1973, page 171
- Rhodesian Commentary, Volumes 3-5, 1970, page 72
- Union Territories. Know India: National Portal of India Archived 26 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- M Laxmikanth (2004). Indian Polity (3rd ed.).