# Additively indecomposable ordinal

In set theory, a branch of mathematics, an additively indecomposable ordinal α is any ordinal number that is not 0 such that for any ${\displaystyle \beta ,\gamma <\alpha }$, we have ${\displaystyle \beta +\gamma <\alpha .}$ Additively indecomposable ordinals are also called gamma numbers. The additively indecomposable ordinals are precisely those ordinals of the form ${\displaystyle \omega ^{\beta }}$ for some ordinal ${\displaystyle \beta }$.

From the continuity of addition in its right argument, we get that if ${\displaystyle \beta <\alpha }$ and α is additively indecomposable, then ${\displaystyle \beta +\alpha =\alpha .}$

Obviously 1 is additively indecomposable, since ${\displaystyle 0+0<1.}$ No finite ordinal other than ${\displaystyle 1}$ is additively indecomposable. Also, ${\displaystyle \omega }$ is additively indecomposable, since the sum of two finite ordinals is still finite. More generally, every infinite cardinal is additively indecomposable.

The class of additively indecomposable numbers is closed and unbounded. Its enumerating function is normal, given by ${\displaystyle \omega ^{\alpha }}$.

The derivative of ${\displaystyle \omega ^{\alpha }}$ (which enumerates its fixed points) is written ${\displaystyle \epsilon _{\alpha }.}$ Ordinals of this form (that is, fixed points of ${\displaystyle \omega ^{\alpha }}$) are called epsilon numbers. The number ${\displaystyle \epsilon _{0}=\omega ^{\omega ^{\omega ^{\cdot ^{\cdot ^{\cdot }}}}}}$ is therefore the first fixed point of the sequence ${\displaystyle \omega ,\omega ^{\omega }\!,\omega ^{\omega ^{\omega }}\!\!,\ldots }$

## Multiplicatively indecomposable

A similar notion can be defined for multiplication. If α is greater than the multiplicative identity, 1, and β < α and γ < α imply β·γ < α, then α is multiplicatively indecomposable. 2 is multiplicatively indecomposable since 1·1 = 1 < 2. Besides 2, the multiplicatively indecomposable ordinals (also called delta numbers) are those of the form ${\displaystyle \omega ^{\omega ^{\alpha }}\,}$ for any ordinal α. Every epsilon number is multiplicatively indecomposable; and every multiplicatively indecomposable ordinal (other than 2) is additively indecomposable. The delta numbers (other than 2) are the same as the prime ordinals that are limits.