A Bug's Life

A Bug's Life is a 1998 American computer-animated comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures. It was the second feature film overall produced by Pixar. The film was directed by John Lasseter with co-direction by Andrew Stanton. The film involves a misfit ant, Flik, who is looking for "tough warriors" to save his colony from greedy grasshoppers, only to recruit a group of bugs that turn out to be an inept circus troupe. The film stars the voices of Dave Foley, Kevin Spacey and Julia Louis-Dreyfus.

A Bug's Life
Theatrical release poster
Directed byJohn Lasseter
Produced by
Screenplay by
Story by
Music byRandy Newman
CinematographySharon Calahan
Edited byLee Unkrich
Distributed byBuena Vista Pictures
Release date
  • November 25, 1998 (1998-11-25)
Running time
95 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
Budget$120 million[2]
Box office$363.3 million[2]

The film is inspired by Aesop's fable The Ant and the Grasshopper.[3][4] Production began shortly after the release of Toy Story in 1995. The screenplay was penned by Stanton and comedy writers Donald McEnery and Bob Shaw from a story by Lasseter, Stanton, and Joe Ranft, the latter who voiced Hemlich in the film. The ants in the film were redesigned to be more appealing, and Pixar's animation unit employed technical innovations in computer animation. Randy Newman composed the music for the film. During production, Pixar’s Steve Jobs and Lasseter embroiled in a controversial public feud with DreamWorks cofounder Jeffrey Katzenberg due to the parallel productions of theirs and his similar film Antz, which was released the same year.

The film was released on November 25, 1998, and grossed $363 million in receipts. It received positive reviews from film critics, who commended the storyline, witty dialogue and voice-acting, and the animation, although some compared it unfavorably to Antz. It was the first film to be digitally transferred frame-by-frame and released to DVD, and has been released multiple times on home video.


Ant Island is a colony of ants led by the Queen and her daughter, Princess Atta. Every season, they are forced to give food to a gang of marauding grasshoppers led by Hopper. One day, when Flik, an individualist and would-be inventor, inadvertently knocks the offering into a stream with his latest invention, a grain harvesting device, Hopper demands twice as much food as compensation. When Flik suggests in earnest that they seek help from other stronger bugs, the other ants see it as an opportunity to remove him and send him off.

At the "bug city", which is a heap of trash under a trailer, Flik mistakes a troupe of Circus Bugs for the warrior bugs he seeks. The bugs, in turn, mistake Flik for a talent agent, and accept his offer to travel with him back to Ant Island. During a welcome ceremony upon their arrival, the Circus Bugs and Flik both discover their mutual misunderstandings. The Circus Bugs attempt to leave, but are attacked by a bird; while fleeing, they save Dot, Atta's younger sister, gaining the ants' respect in the process. At Flik's request, they continue the ruse of being "warriors", so the troupe can continue to enjoy the hospitality of the ants. Hearing that Hopper fears birds inspires Flik to create a false bird to scare away the grasshoppers. Meanwhile, Hopper tells his gang how greatly the ants outnumber them and worries that they will eventually rebel against them.

The ants finish constructing the fake bird, but during a celebration, the troupe's greedy ringmaster, P.T. Flea, arrives, searching for his troupe, and inadvertently reveals their secret. Outraged by Flik's deception, the ants exile him, and desperately attempt to gather food for a new offering to the grasshoppers. However, when Hopper returns to discover the mediocre offering, he takes over the island, and demands the ants' winter food supply, planning to assassinate the Queen afterwards. Overhearing the plan, Dot goes after Flik and the Circus Bugs to inform them, convincing them to return to Ant Island.

After the Circus Bugs distract the grasshoppers long enough to rescue the Queen, Flik deploys the bird; it initially fools the grasshoppers, but P.T. Flea, who also mistakes it for a real bird, burns it, exposing it as a decoy. Hopper beats Flik in retaliation, saying that the ants are humble and lowly life forms who live to serve the grasshoppers. However, Flik responds that Hopper actually fears the colony, because he has always known what they are capable of, inspiring the ants and the Circus Bugs to fight back against the grasshoppers, who flee in terror except for Hopper whom the ants attempt to force out of Ant Island by using P.T. Flea's circus cannon, but it suddenly begins to rain. In the ensuing chaos, Hopper frees himself from the cannon, and abducts Flik. After the Circus Bugs fail to catch them, Atta rescues Flik. As Hopper pursues them, Flik lures him to the nest of the bird he, Dot, and the Circus Bugs encountered earlier. Thinking that the bird is another decoy, Hopper taunts it before discovering in panic that it is real, and is captured and fed alive to its chicks.

With the grasshoppers gone for good, Flik has improved his inventions along with the quality of life for Ant Island, he and Atta become a couple, and they give Hopper's younger brother Molt, and a few ants to P.T. Flea as new members of his troupe. Atta and Dot respectively become the new queen and princess. The ants congratulate Flik as a hero, and bid a fond farewell to the circus troupe.




During the summer of 1994, Pixar's story department began turning their thoughts to their next film.[6] The storyline for A Bug's Life originated from a lunchtime conversation between John Lasseter, Andrew Stanton, Pete Docter, and Joe Ranft, the studio's head story team; other films such as Toy Story 2, Monsters, Inc. and Finding Nemo were also conceived at this lunch.[7] Lasseter and his story team had already been drawn to the idea of insects serving as characters. Like toys, insects were within the reach of computer animation back then, due to their relatively simple surfaces. Stanton and Ranft wondered whether they could find a starting point in Aesop's fable The Ant and the Grasshopper.[7] Walt Disney had produced his own version with a cheerier ending decades earlier in the 1934 short film The Grasshopper and the Ants. In addition, Walt Disney Feature Animation had considered producing a film in the late-1980s entitled Army Ants, that centered around a pacifist ant living in a militaristic colony, but this never fully materialized.[8]

As Stanton and Ranft discussed the adaptation, they rattled off scenarios and storylines springing from their premise.[7] Lasseter liked the idea and offered some suggestions. The concept simmered until early 1995, when the story team began work on the second film in earnest.[7] During an early test screening for Toy Story in San Rafael in June 1995, they pitched the film to Disney CEO Michael Eisner. Eisner thought the idea was fine and they submitted a treatment to Disney in early-July under the title Bugs.[7] Disney approved the treatment and gave notice on July 7 that it was exercising the option of a second film under the original 1991 agreement between Disney and Pixar.[9] Lasseter assigned the co-director job to Stanton; both worked well together and had similar sensibilities. Lasseter had realized that working on a computer-animated feature as a sole director was dangerous while the production of Toy Story was in process.[9] In addition, Lasseter believed that it would relieve stress and that the role would groom Stanton for having his own position as a lead director.[10]


In The Ant and the Grasshopper, a grasshopper squanders the spring and summer months on singing while the ants put food away for the winter; when winter comes, the hungry grasshopper begs the ants for food, but the ants turn him away.[7] Andrew Stanton and Joe Ranft hit on the notion that the grasshopper could just take the food.[7][11] After Stanton had completed a draft of the script, he came to doubt one of the story's main pillars – that the Circus Bugs that had come to the colony to cheat the ants would instead stay and fight.[10] He thought the Circus Bugs were unlikable characters as liars and that it was unrealistic for them to undergo a complete personality change. Also, no particularly good reason existed for Circus Bugs to stay with the ant colony during the second act.[12] Although the film was already far along, Stanton concluded that the story needed a different approach.[10]

Stanton took one of the early circus bug characters, Red the red ant, and changed him into the character Flik.[12] The Circus Bugs, no longer out to cheat the colony, would be embroiled in a comic misunderstanding as to why Flik was recruiting them. Lasseter agreed with this new approach, and comedy writers Donald McEnery and Bob Shaw spent a few months working on further polishing with Stanton.[13] The characters "Tuck and Roll" were inspired by a drawing that Stanton did of two bugs fighting when he was in the second grade.[11] Lasseter had come to envision the film as an epic in the tradition of David Lean's 1962 film Lawrence of Arabia.[12][14]


The voice cast was heavy with television sitcom stars of the time: Flik was voiced by Dave Foley (from NewsRadio), Princess Atta was voiced by Julia Louis-Dreyfus (from Seinfeld), Molt was voiced by Richard Kind (from Spin City), Slim was voiced by David Hyde Pierce (from Frasier) and Dim was voiced by Brad Garrett (from Everybody Loves Raymond). Joe Ranft, member of Pixar's story team, played Heimlich the caterpillar at the suggestion of Lasseter's wife, Nancy, who had heard him playing the character on a scratch vocal track.[15]

The casting of Hopper, the film's villain, proved problematic. Lasseter's top choice was Robert De Niro, who repeatedly turned the part down, as did a succession of other actors.[15] Kevin Spacey met John Lasseter at the 1995 Academy Awards and Lasseter asked Spacey if he would be interested in doing the voice of Hopper. Spacey was delighted and signed on immediately.[12]

A Bug's Life was the final film appearance of actor Roddy McDowall, who played Mr. Soil, before dying shortly before the film's theatrical release.[16]

Art design and animation

It was more difficult for animators during the production of A Bug's Life than that of Toy Story, as computers ran sluggishly due to the complexity of the character models. Lasseter and Stanton had two supervising animators to assist with directing and reviewing the animation: Rich Quade and Glenn McQueen. The first sequence to be animated and rendered was the circus sequence that culminated with P.T. Flea's "Flaming Wall of Death". Lasseter placed this scene first in the pipeline because he believed it was "less likely to change".[17] Lasseter thought it would be useful to look at a view of the world from an insect's perspective. Two technicians obliged by creating a miniature video camera on Lego wheels, which they dubbed as the "Bugcam".[10][18] Fastened to the end of a stick, the Bugcam could roll through grass and other terrain and send back an insect's-eye outlook. Lasseter was intrigued by the way grass, leaves, and flower petals formed a translucent canopy, as if the insects were living under a stained-glass ceiling. The team also later sought inspiration from Microcosmos (1996), a French documentary on love and violence in the insect world.[10]

The transition from treatment to storyboards took on an extra layer of complexity due to the profusion of storylines. Where Toy Story focused heavily on Woody and Buzz, with the other toys serving mostly as sidekicks, A Bug's Life required in-depth storytelling for several major groups of characters.[13] Character design also presented a new challenge, in that the designers had to make ants appear likable. Although the animators and the art department studied insects more closely, natural realism would give way to the film's larger needs.[14] The team took out mandibles and designed the ants to stand upright, replacing their normal six legs with two arms and two legs. The grasshoppers, in contrast, received a pair of extra appendages to appear less attractive.[14] The story's scale also required software engineers to accommodate new demands. Among these was the need to handle shots with crowds of ants.[14] The film would include more than 400 such shots in the ant colony, some with as many as 800. It was impractical for animators to control them individually, but neither could the ants remain static for even a moment without appearing lifeless, or move identically. Bill Reeves, one of the film's two supervising technical directors, dealt with the quandary by leading the development of software for autonomous ants.[14] The animators would only animate four or five groups of about eight individual "universal ants". Each one of these "universal ants" would later be randomly distributed throughout the digital set. The program also allowed each ant to be automatically modified in subtle ways (e.g. different color of eye or skin, different heights, different weights, etc.). This ensured that no two ants were the same.[18] It was partly based on Reeves's invention of particle systems a decade and a half earlier, which had let animators use masses of self-guided particles to create effects like swirling dust and snow.[15]

The animators also employed subsurface scattering—developed by Pixar co-founder Edwin Catmull during his graduate student days at the University of Utah in the 1970s—to render surfaces in a more lifelike way. This would be the first time that subsurface scattering would be used in a Pixar film, and a small team at Pixar worked out the practical problems that kept it from working in animation. Catmull asked for a short film to test and showcase subsurface scattering and the result, Geri's Game (1997), was attached alongside A Bug's Life in its theatrical release.[19]


During the production of A Bug's Life, a public feud erupted between DreamWorks' Jeffrey Katzenberg, and Pixar's Steve Jobs and John Lasseter. Katzenberg, former chairman of Disney's film division, had left the company in a bitter feud with CEO Michael Eisner. In response, he formed DreamWorks SKG with Steven Spielberg and David Geffen and planned to rival Disney in animation.[20] After DreamWorks' acquisition of Pacific Data Images (PDI)—long Pixar's contemporary in computer animation—Lasseter and others at Pixar were dismayed to learn from the trade papers that PDI's first project at DreamWorks would be another ant film, to be called Antz.[21] By this time, Pixar's project was well known within the animation community.[22] Both Antz and A Bug's Life center on a young male, a drone with oddball tendencies that struggles to win a princess's hand by saving their society. Whereas A Bug's Life relied chiefly on visual gags, Antz was more verbal and revolved more around satire. The script of Antz was also heavy with adult references, whereas Pixar's film was more accessible to children.[23]

It was clear that Lasseter and Jobs believed that the idea was stolen by Katzenberg.[8][20] Katzenberg had stayed in touch with Lasseter after the acrimonious Disney split, often calling to check up. In October 1995, when Lasseter was overseeing postproduction work on Toy Story at the Universal lot's Technicolor facility in Universal City, where DreamWorks was also located, he called Katzenberg and dropped by with Stanton.[20][24] When Katzenberg asked what they were doing next, Lasseter described what would become A Bug's Life in detail. Lasseter respected Katzenberg's judgment and felt comfortable using him as a sounding board for creative ideas.[24] Lasseter had high hopes for Toy Story, and he was telling friends throughout the tight-knit computer-animation business to get cracking on their own films. "If this hits, it's going to be like space movies after Star Wars" for computer animation companies, he told various friends.[8] "I should have been wary," Lasseter later recalled. "Jeffrey kept asking questions about when it would be released."[20]

When the trades indicated production on Antz, Lasseter, feeling betrayed, called Katzenberg and asked him bluntly if it were true, who in turn asked him where he had heard the rumor. Lasseter asked again, and Katzenberg admitted it was true. Lasseter raised his voice and would not believe Katzenberg's story that a development director had pitched him the idea long ago. Katzenberg claimed Antz came from a 1991 story pitch by Tim Johnson that was related to Katzenberg in October 1994.[8] Another source gives Nina Jacobson, one of Katzenberg's executives, as the person responsible for the Antz pitch.[22] Lasseter, who normally did not use profane language, cursed at Katzenberg and hung up the phone.[25] Lasseter recalled that Katzenberg began explaining that Disney was "out to get him" and that he realized that he was just cannon fodder in Katzenberg's fight with Disney.[8][22] In truth, Katzenberg was the victim of a conspiracy: Eisner had decided not to pay him his contract-required bonus, convincing Disney's board not to give him anything.[22] Katzenberg was further angered by the fact that Eisner scheduled Bugs to open the same week as The Prince of Egypt, which was then intended to be DreamWorks' first animated release.[22][25] Lasseter grimly relayed the news to Pixar employees but kept morale high. Privately, Lasseter told other Pixar executives that he and Stanton felt terribly let down by Katzenberg.[22]

Katzenberg moved the opening of Antz from spring 1999 to October 1998 to compete with Pixar's release.[22][26] David Price writes in his 2008 book The Pixar Touch that a rumor, "never confirmed", was that Katzenberg had given PDI "rich financial incentives to induce them to whatever it would take to have Antz ready first, despite Pixar's head start".[22][25] Jobs was furious and called Katzenberg and began yelling. Katzenberg made an offer: He would delay production of Antz if Jobs and Disney would move A Bug's Life so that it did not compete with The Prince of Egypt. Jobs believed it "a blatant extortion attempt" and would not go for it, explaining that there was nothing he could do to convince Disney to change the date.[8][25] Katzenberg casually responded that Jobs himself had taught him how to conduct similar business long ago, explaining that Jobs had come to Pixar's rescue by making the deal for Toy Story, as Pixar was near bankruptcy at that time.[15] "I was the one guy there for you back then, and now you're allowing them to use you to screw me," Katzenberg said.[25] He suggested that if Jobs wanted to, he could simply slow down production on A Bug's Life without telling Disney. If he did, Katzenberg said, he would put Antz on hold.[8] Lasseter also claimed Katzenberg had phoned him with the proposition, but Katzenberg denied these charges later.[17]

As the release dates for both films approached, Disney executives concluded that Pixar should keep silent on the DreamWorks battle. Regardless, Lasseter publicly dismissed Antz as a "schlock version" of A Bug's Life.[19] Lasseter, who claimed to have never seen Antz, told others that if DreamWorks and PDI had made the film about anything other than insects, he would have closed Pixar for the day so the entire company could go see it.[8][23] Jobs and Katzenberg would not back down and the rivaling ant films provoked a press frenzy. "The bad guys rarely win," Jobs told the Los Angeles Times. In response, DreamWorks' head of marketing Terry Press suggested, "Steve Jobs should take a pill."[25] Despite the successful box office performance of both Antz and A Bug's Life, tensions would remain high between Jobs and Katzenberg for many years. According to Jobs, Katzenberg came to Jobs after the success of Shrek (2001) and insisted he had never heard the pitch for A Bug's Life, reasoning that his settlement with Disney would have given him a share of the profits if that were so.[27] Although the contention left all parties estranged, Pixar and PDI employees kept up the old friendships that had arisen from spending a long time together in computer animation.[17]


A Bug's Life: An Original Walt Disney Records Soundtrack
Soundtrack album by
ReleasedOctober 27, 1998
LabelWalt Disney
Randy Newman chronology
A Bug's Life: An Original Walt Disney Records Soundtrack
Pixar soundtrack chronology
Toy Story
A Bug's Life
Toy Story 2

The film's score was composed and conducted by Randy Newman. The soundtrack album was produced and released on October 27, 1998, by Walt Disney Records. The album's first track is a song called "The Time of Your Life" written and performed by Newman, while all the other 19 tracks are orchestral cues. Although the album was out of print physically in the United States during the 2000s, in June 2018 Universal Music Japan announced that a re-mastered edition would be released on October 3, 2018, along with other soundtrack albums from the Walt Disney Records pre-2018 catalogue. The album is also available for purchase on iTunes. The time duration is 47 minutes and 32 seconds.[28] Out of five stars, Allmusic,[29] Empire Online,[30] and Film Tracks rated the album three stars.[31] Movie Wave rated it four and a half.[32] The score won the Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Composition.[28]


Critical reception

On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a rating of 92% based on 87 reviews and an average rating of 7.9/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "A Bug's Life is a rousing adventure that blends animated thrills with witty dialogue and memorable characters – and another smashing early success for Pixar."[33] Another review aggregator, Metacritic, gave the film a score of 77 out of 100 based on 23 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[34]

Todd McCarthy of Variety wrote, "Lasseter and Pixar broke new technical and aesthetic ground in the animation field with Toy Story, and here they surpass it in both scope and complexity of movement while telling a story that overlaps Antz in numerous ways."[35] James Berardinelli of ReelViews gave the film three and a half stars out of four, saying "A Bug's Life, like Toy Story, develops protagonists we can root for, and places them in the midst of a fast-moving, energetic adventure."[36] Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film three and a half stars out of four, saying "Will A Bug's Life suffer by coming out so soon after Antz? Not any more than one thriller hurts the chances for the next one. Antz may even help business for A Bug's Life by demonstrating how many dramatic and comedic possibilities can be found in an anthill."[37] Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times gave the film four out of five stars, saying "What A Bug's Life demonstrates is that when it comes to bugs, the most fun ones to hang out with hang exclusively with the gang at Pixar."[38] Peter Stack of the San Francisco Chronicle gave the film four out of four stars, saying "A Bug's Life is one of the great movies – a triumph of storytelling and character development, and a whole new ballgame for computer animation. Pixar Animation Studios has raised the genre to an astonishing new level".[39]

Richard Corliss of Time wrote, "The plot matures handsomely; the characters neatly converge and combust; the gags pay off with emotional resonance."[40] Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly gave the film a B, saying "A Bug's Life may be the single most amazing film I've ever seen that I couldn't fall in love with."[41] Paul Clinton of CNN wrote, "A Bug's Life is a perfect movie for the holidays. It contains a great upbeat message ... it's wonderful to look at ... it's wildly inventive ... and it's entertaining for both adults and kids."[42] Michael Wilmington of the Chicago Tribune gave the film three and a half stars out of four, and compared the movie to "Akira Kurosawa's Seven Samurai (with a little of another art-film legend, Federico Fellini, tossed in)." where "As in Samurai, the colony here is plagued every year by the arrival of bandits."[43] On the contrary, Stephen Hunter of The Washington Post wrote, "Clever as it is, the film lacks charm. One problem: too many bugs. Second, bigger world for two purposes: to feed birds and to irk humans."[44]

Box office

A Bug's Life grossed approximately $33,258,052 on its opening weekend, ranking number 1 for that weekend.[45] It managed to retain its number 1 spot for two weeks.[46][47] The film grossed $162.8 million in its United States theatrical run, covering its estimated production costs of $120 million. The film made $200,460,294 in foreign countries, pushing its worldwide gross to $363.3 million, surpassing the competition from DreamWorks Animation's Antz.[2]

Awards and honors

A Bug's Life won a number of awards and numerous nominations. The film won the Broadcast Film Critics Association Awards for Best Animated Film (tied with The Prince of Egypt) and Best Family Film, the Satellite Award for Best Animated Film and the Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Composition by Randy Newman. It was also nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Musical or Comedy Score, the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score and the BAFTA Award for Best Achievement in Special Visual Effects.[48] In 2008, the American Film Institute nominated this film for its Top 10 Animation Films list.[49]

Home media

A Bug's Life was the first home video release to be entirely created using a digital transfer. Every frame of animation was readded from the film's computer data, as opposed to the standard analog film-to-videotape transfer process. This allowed for the film's DVD release to retain its original 2.35:1 widescreen format.[50] The DVD was released on April 20, 1999, alongside a VHS release which was presented in a standard 1.33:1 "fullscreen" format. The film's fullscreen transfer was performed by entirely "reframing" the film shot by shot; more than half of the film's footage was modified by Pixar animators to fit within the film's aspect ratio. Several characters and objects were moved closer together to avoid being cut out of frame.[50] The film's VHS release was the best-selling VHS in the United Kingdom, with 1.76 million units sold by the end of the year.[51] On August 1, 2000, these editions were rereleased on VHS and DVD under the Walt Disney Gold Classic Collection banner.[52]

On November 23, 1999, a 2-disc Collector's Edition DVD was released. This DVD was fully remastered in anamorphic widescreen and has substantial bonus features.[53] This edition was re-released on May 27, 2003, adding a set-top game and a Finding Nemo featurette.[54][55]

On May 19, 2009, the film was released on Blu-ray.[56]

Media and merchandise

Attached short film

The film's theatrical and video releases include Geri's Game, an Academy Award winning Pixar short made in 1997, a year before this film was released.[57]

Video game

A game, based on the film, was developed by Traveller's Tales and Tiertex Design Studios and released by Sony Computer Entertainment, Disney Interactive, THQ and Activision for various systems. The game's storyline was similar to the film's, with a few changes. However, unlike the film, the game received mixed to negative reviews.[58] Aggregating review website GameRankings gave the Nintendo 64 version 54.40%,[59] the PlayStation version 51.90%[60] and the Game Boy Color version 36.63%.[61] GameSpot gave the PlayStation version a 2.7/10, concluding that it was "obvious that Disney was more interested in producing a $40 advertisement for its movie than in developing a playable game."[62] IGN gave the Nintendo 64 version a 6.8/10, praising the presentation and sound by stating "It was upbeat, cheery look and feel very much like the movie of the same name with cheery, happy tunes and strong sound effects but again criticised the gameplay by saying the controls were sluggish with stuttering framerate and tired gameplay mechanics".[63] while they gave the PlayStation version a 4/10, criticizing the gameplay as slow and awkward but praising the presentation as cinematic.[64]

Theme park attractions

Disney's Animal Kingdom includes the 3D show It's Tough to Be a Bug!, which also existed at Disney California Adventure from 2001 to 2018. The Disney California Adventure nighttime show World of Color features a segment that includes Heimlich, the caterpillar from the film.[65]

Former theme park attractions

From 2002 to 2018, A Bug's Land was a section of Disney California Adventure that was inspired by the film.

See also


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  2. "A Bug's Life (1998)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
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  4. "A Bug's Life – The Tale". pixar.com. Pixar. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
  5. Sterngold, James (December 4, 1998). "At the Movies; Bug's Word: Yaddanyafoo". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 29, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2017. Tuck is older by a few milliseconds,...
  6. Price, p. 157
  7. Price, p. 158
  8. Burrows, Peter (November 23, 1998). "Antz vs. Bugs". Business Week. Archived from the original on November 28, 1999. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  9. Price, p. 159
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  11. Pixar Animation Studios, official website, feature films, A Bugs Life, The inspiration
  12. A Bugs Life, DVD Commentary
  13. Price, p. 161
  14. Price, p. 162
  15. Price, p. 163
  16. Wilmington, Michael (November 25, 1998). "'A Bug's Life". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 7, 2018. The players—whose colorful members include Madeline Kahn as Gypsy the moth, Michael McShane as the Hungarian pill bug brothers Tuck & Roll and, in his farewell appearance, Roddy McDowall as the grandfatherly Mr. Soil—all help make "Bug's Life" special.
  17. Price, p. 172
  18. A Bugs Life, DVD Behind the Scenes
  19. Price, p. 173
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  25. Isaacson, Walter (2011). Steve Jobs. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 308. ISBN 1-4516-4853-7.
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  27. Isaacson, Walter (2011). Steve Jobs. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 309. ISBN 1-4516-4853-7.
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  39. Peter Stack (November 25, 1998). ""Bug's" Has Legs / Cute insect adventure a visual delight". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  40. Corliss, Richard (November 30, 1998). "Cinema: Bugs Funny". Time. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  41. Owen Gleiberman (November 20, 1998). "A Bug's Life Review | Movie Reviews and News". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  42. "Review: 'A Bug's Life' hits a bulls-eye – November 20, 1998". CNN. November 20, 1998. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  43. Wilmington, Michael (November 25, 1998). "Movie Review: 'A Bug's Life Disney's Venture Into The Insect World Squashes 'Antz' – November 25, 1998". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 2, 2013.
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