98th United States Congress

The Ninety-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 1983, to January 3, 1985, during the third and fourth years of Ronald Reagan's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the 1980 U.S. Census. The Republicans controlled the Senate, while the Democrats controlled the House of Representatives.

98th United States Congress
January 3, 1983 – January 3, 1985
Senate PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush (R)
Senate President pro temStrom Thurmond (R)
House SpeakerTip O'Neill (D)
Members100 senators
435 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
House MajorityDemocratic
1st: January 3, 1983 – November 18, 1983
2nd: January 23, 1984 – October 12, 1984

Major events

Major legislation

Party summary


(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
End of previous congress 53 1 46 100 0
Begin 46 0 54 100 0
End 45 55
Final voting share 45.0% 0.0% 55.0%
Beginning of next congress 46 0 53 99 1

House of Representatives

(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
End of previous congress 242 192 434 1
Begin 269 165 434 1
End 267 167
Final voting share 61.5% 38.5%
Beginning of next congress 252 182 434 1



Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

House of Representatives

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership



This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class and Representatives are listed by district.


Senators are elected statewide every two years, with approximately one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress, In this Congress, Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, facing re-election in 1984; Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, facing re-election in 1986; and Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, facing re-election in 1988.

House of Representatives

Changes in membership


Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[lower-alpha 1]
Henry M. "Scoop" Jackson (D) Died September 1, 1983. Evans was then appointed to the seat before winning the special election on November 3, 1983. Daniel J. Evans (R) September 12, 1983
Paul Tsongas (D) Resigned January 2, 1985. Kerry was elected for next term but was installed early to fill vacancy. John Kerry (D) January 2, 1985

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[lower-alpha 1]
New York's 7th Benjamin S. Rosenthal (D) Died January 4, 1983 Gary Ackerman (D) March 1, 1983
Texas's 6th Phil Gramm (D) Resigned January 5, 1983, after being removed from the House Budget Committee for supporting President Ronald Reagan's tax cuts, and then elected to fill his own vacancy Phil Gramm (R) February 12, 1983
Colorado's 6th Vacant. District created in 1983. Republican Jack Swigert was elected in 1982, but died before taking office. Seat filled in special election. Daniel Schaefer (R) March 29, 1983
California's 5th Phillip Burton (D) Died April 10, 1983 Sala Burton (D) June 21, 1983
Illinois's 1st Harold Washington (D) Resigned April 30, 1983, after being installed as Mayor of Chicago Charles Hayes (D) August 23, 1983
Georgia's 7th Larry McDonald (D) Died September 1, 1983 George Darden (D) November 8, 1983
Wisconsin's 4th Clement J. Zablocki (D) Died December 3, 1983 Jerry Kleczka (D) April 3, 1984
New Jersey's 13th Edwin B. Forsythe (R) Died March 29, 1984 Jim Saxton (R) November 6, 1984
Florida's 10th Andy Ireland (D) Changed party affiliation July 5, 1984 Andy Ireland (R) July 5, 1984
Kentucky's 7th Carl D. Perkins (D) Died August 3, 1984 Carl C. Perkins (D) November 6, 1984
Illinois's 14th Tom Corcoran (R) Resigned November 28, 1984 Vacant Not filled this term


Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (1 link), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.


  • Aging (Special) (Chair: H. John Heinz III)
  • Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry (Chair: Jesse Helms)
    • Soil and Water Conservation, Forestry and Environment
    • Agricultural Credit and Rural Electrification
    • Agricultural Production, Marketing and Stabilization of Prices
    • Agricultural Research and General Legislation
    • Rural Development, Oversight and Investigations
    • Foreign Agricultural Policy
    • Nutrition
  • Appropriations (Chair: Mark Hatfield)
  • Armed Services (Chair: John Tower)
    • Military Construction
    • Tactical Warfare
    • Strategic and Theater Nuclear Forces
    • Preparedness
    • Sea Power and Force Projection
    • Manpower and Personnel
  • Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs (Chair: Jake Garn)
    • Housing and Urban Affairs
    • Financial Institutions
    • International Finance and Monetary Policy
    • Securities
    • Economic Policy
    • Consumer Affairs
    • Rural Housing and Development
    • Insurance
    • Federal Credit Programs
  • Budget (Chair: Pete Domenici)
  • Commerce, Science and Transportation (Chair: Bob Packwood)
    • Aviation
    • Business, Trade and Tourism
    • Communications
    • Consumer
    • Merchant Marine
    • Science, Technology and Space
    • Surface Transportation
    • National Ocean Policy Study
  • Energy and Natural Resources (Chair: James A. McClure)
    • Energy Conservation and Supply
    • Energy and Mineral Resources
    • Energy Regulation
    • Energy Research and Development
    • Public Lands and Reserved Water
    • Water and Power
  • Environment and Public Works (Chair: Robert Stafford)
    • Environmental Pollution
    • Nuclear Regulation
    • Water Resources
    • Transportation
    • Toxic Substances and Environmental Oversight
    • Regional and Community Development
  • Ethics (Select) (Chair: Ted Stevens)
  • Finance (Chair: Bob Dole)
    • Taxation and Debt Management
    • International Trade
    • Savings, Pensions and Investment Policy
    • Economic Growth, Employment and Revenue
    • Energy and Agricultural Taxation
    • Health
    • Social Security and Income Maintenance Programs
    • Estate and Gift Taxation
    • Oversight of the Internal Revenue Service
  • Foreign Relations (Chair: Charles H. Percy)
    • International Economic Policy
    • African Affairs
    • East Asian and Pacific Affairs
    • Western Hemisphere Affairs
    • Arms Control, Oceans, International Operations and Environment
    • Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs
    • European Affairs
  • Governmental Affairs (Chair: Bill Roth)
    • Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations
    • Governmental Efficiency and the District of Columbia
    • Energy, Nuclear Proliferation and Federal Services
    • Information Management and Regulatory Affairs
    • Intergovernmental Relations
    • Civil Service, Post Office and General Services
    • Oversight of Government Management
  • Indian Affairs (Select) (Chair: Mark Andrews)
  • Judiciary (Chair: Strom Thurmond)
    • Patents, Copyrights and Trademarks
    • Criminal Law
    • Constitution
    • Courts
    • Immigration and Refugee Policy
    • Separation of Powers
    • Administration Practice and Procedure
    • Security and Terrorism
    • Juvenile Justice
  • Intelligence (Select) (Chair: Barry Goldwater)
  • Labor and Human Resources (Chair: Orrin Hatch)
    • Labor
    • Education, Arts and Humanities
    • Employment and Productivity
    • Handicapped
    • Alcoholism and Drug Abuse
    • Aging
    • Family and Human Services
  • Nutrition and Human Needs (Select)
  • Rules and Administration (Chair: Charles Mathias)
  • Senate Committee System (Special)
  • Small Business (Chair: Lowell P. Weicker Jr.)
    • Capital Formation and Detention
    • Government Regulation and Paperwork
    • Urban and Rural Economic Development
    • Government Procurement
    • Productivity and Competition
    • Innovation and Technology
    • Export Promotion and Market Development
    • Small Business Family Farm
    • Entrepreneurship and Special Problems Facing Small Business
  • Veterans' Affairs (Chair: Alan K. Simpson)
  • Whole

House of Representatives

  • Aging (Select) (Chair: Edward R. Roybal)
  • Agriculture (Chair: Kika de la Garza)
    • Cotton, Rice and Sugar
    • Livestock, Dairy and Poultry
    • Tobacco and Peanuts
    • Wheat, Soybeans and Feed Grains
    • Conservation Credit and Rural Development
    • Department Operations Research and Foreign Agriculture
    • Domestic Marketing, Consumer Relations and Nutrition
    • Forests, Family Farms and Energy
  • Appropriations (Chair: Jamie L. Whitten)
    • Agriculture, Rural Development and Related Agencies
    • Commerce, Justice, State and the Judiciary
    • Defense
    • District of Columbia
    • Energy and Water Development
    • Foreign Operations
    • HUD-Independent Agencies
    • Interior
    • Labor-Health and Human Services
    • Legislative
    • Military Construction
    • Transportation
    • Treasury, Postal Service and General Government
  • Armed Services (Chair: Charles Melvin Price)
    • Research and Development
    • Seapower, Strategic and Critical Materials
    • Procurement and Military Nuclear Systems
    • Investigations
    • Readiness
    • Military Personnel and Compensation
    • Military Installations and Facilities
  • Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs (Chair: Fernand St. Germain)
    • Financial Institutions Supervision, Regulation and Insurance
    • Housing and Community Development
    • General Oversight and Renegotiation
    • Consumer Affairs and Coinage
    • International Development Institutions and Finance
    • Domestic Monetary Policy
    • International Trade, Investment and Monetary Policy
    • Economic Stabilization
  • Budget (Chair: James R. Jones)
    • Capital Resources and Development
    • Energy and Technology
    • Budget Process
    • Education and Employment
    • Federalism/State-Local Relations
    • Economic Policy and Growth
    • Tax Policy
    • Entitlements, Uncontrollables and Indexing
    • International Finance and Trade
  • Children, Youth and Families (Select) (Chair: George Miller)
  • District of Columbia (Chair: Ron Dellums)
    • Fiscal Affairs and Health
    • Government Operations and Metropolitan Affairs
    • Judiciary and Education
  • Education and Labor (Chair: Carl D. Perkins, then Augustus F. Hawkins)
    • Elementary, Secondary and Vocational Education
    • Employment Opportunities
    • Labor-Management Relations
    • Health and Safety
    • Human Resources
    • Postsecondary Education
    • Labor Standards
    • Select Education
  • Energy and Commerce (Chair: John Dingell)
    • Oversight and Investigations
    • Energy Conservation and Power
    • Health and the Environment
    • Telecommunications, Consumer Protection and Finance
    • Fossil and Synthetic Fuels
    • Commerce, Transportation and Tourism
  • Foreign Affairs (Chair: Clement J. Zablocki, then Dante Fascell)
    • International Security and Scientific Affairs
    • International Operations
    • Europe and the Middle East
    • Human Rights and International Organizations
    • Asian and Pacific Affairs
    • International Economic Policy and Trade
    • Western Hemisphere Affairs
    • Africa
  • Government Operations (Chair: Jack Brooks)
    • Legislation and National Security
    • Government Activities and Transportation
    • Government Information and Individual Rights
    • Ingovernmental Relations and Human Resources
    • Environment, Energy and Natural Resources
    • Commerce, Consumer and Monetary Affairs
    • Manpower and Housing
  • House Administration (Chair: Augustus F. Hawkins, then Frank Annunzio)
    • Accounts
    • Contracts and Printing
    • Services
    • Office Systems
    • Personnel and Police
  • Insular Affairs (Chair: Mo Udall)
    • Energy and the Environment
    • Water and Power Resources
    • Public Lands and National Lands
    • Insular Affairs
    • Mining, Forest Management and Bonneville Power Administration
    • Oversight and Investigations
  • Judiciary (Chair: Peter W. Rodino)
    • Immigration
    • Courts
    • Monopolies
    • Administrative Law
    • Civil and Constitutional Rights
    • Crime
    • Criminal Justice
  • Merchant Marine and Fisheries (Chair: Walter B. Jones Sr.)
    • Merchant Marine
    • Fisheries, Wildlife Conservation and the Environment
    • Coast Guard and Navigation
    • Panama Canal and Outer Continental Stuff
    • Oceangraphy
  • Narcotics Abuse and Control (Select)
  • Post Office and Civil Service
    • Investigations
    • Postal Operations and Services
    • Civil Service
    • Census and Population
    • Postal Personnel and Modernization
    • Compensation and Employee Benefits
    • Human Resources
  • Public Works and Transportation (Chair: James J. Howard)
    • Aviation
    • Economic Development
    • Investigations and Oversight
    • Public Buildings and Grounds
    • Surface Transportation
    • Water Resources
  • Rules (Chair: Claude Pepper)
    • The Legislative Process
    • Rules of the House
  • Science and Technology (Chair: Don Fuqua)
    • Energy Development and Applications
    • Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment
    • Energy Research and Production
    • Science, Research and Technology
    • Transportation, Aviation and Materials
    • Investigations and Oversight
    • Space Science and Applications
  • Small Business (Chair: Parren Mitchell)
    • SBA and SBIC Authority, Minority Enterprise and General Small Business Problems
    • General Oversight and the Economy
    • Antitrust and Restraint of Trade Activities affecting Small Business
    • Energy, Environment and Safety Issues affecting Small Business
    • Tax, Access to Equity Capital and Business Opportunities
    • Export Opportunities and Special Small Business Problems
  • Standards of Official Conduct (Chair: Louis Stokes)
  • Veterans' Affairs (Chair: Gillespie V. Montgomery)
    • Oversight and Investigations
    • Medical Facilities and Benefits
    • Education, Training and Employment
    • Compensation, Pension and Insurance
    • Housing and Memorial Affairs
  • Ways and Means (Chair: Dan Rostenkowski)
  • Whole

Joint committees

  • Economic
  • Taxation
  • Library
  • Printing

Employees and legislative agency directors

Legislative branch agency directors


House of Representatives

See also


  1. This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.


    • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
    • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
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