85th United States Congress
The Eighty-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 1957, to January 3, 1959, during the fifth and sixth years of Dwight Eisenhower's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Seventeenth Census of the United States in 1950. Both chambers had a Democratic majority.
|85th United States Congress|
United States Capitol (1956)
|January 3, 1957 – January 3, 1959|
|Senate President||Richard Nixon (R)|
|Senate President pro tem||Carl Hayden (D)|
|House Speaker||Sam Rayburn (D)|
435 members of the House
|1st: January 3, 1957 – August 30, 1957|
2nd: January 7, 1958 – August 24, 1958
- January 5, 1957: President Eisenhower announced the Eisenhower Doctrine in a special message to Congress
- January 20, 1957: Inauguration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower for a second term
- August 21, 1957: President Eisenhower announced a 2-year suspension of nuclear testing
- August 28, 1957: Senator Strom Thurmond set a record for the longest filibuster with his 24-hour, 18-minute speech against the Civil Rights Act of 1957
- September 24, 1957: Little Rock Crisis: President Eisenhower sent federal troops to Arkansas to provide safe passage into Central High School for the Little Rock Nine.
- October 4, 1957: The Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth
- October 21, 1957: The U.S. military sustained its first combat fatality in Vietnam
- November 7, 1957: Gaither Report called for more American missiles and fallout shelters
- November 25, 1957: President Eisenhower had a stroke
- January 31, 1958: U.S. launched its first satellite, Explorer 1
- July 15, 1958: U.S intervenes in the Lebanon Crisis, the first major application of the Eisenhower Doctorine.
- October 1, 1958: NASA started operations
- August 14, 1957: Airways Modernization Act, Pub.L. 85–133, 71 Stat. 349
- September 2, 1957: Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act, Pub.L. 85–256, 71 Stat. 576
- September 9, 1957: Civil Rights Act of 1957, Pub.L. 85–315, 71 Stat. 634
- July 29, 1958: National Aeronautics and Space Act, Pub.L. 85–568, 72 Stat. 426
- 1958: Transportation Act of 1958, Pub.L. 85–625
- August 23, 1958: Federal Aviation Act of 1958, Pub.L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731
- August 28, 1958: EURATOM Cooperation Act of 1958, Pub.L. 85–846, 72 Stat. 1084
- August 28, 1958: Military Construction Appropriation Act (Advanced Research Projects Agency), Pub.L. 85–852, 72 Stat. 1096
- September 2, 1958: National Defense Education Act, Pub.L. 85–864, 72 Stat. 1580
- 1958: Department of Defense Reorganization Act, Pub.L. 85–899
- 1958: Pasatore-Walter Immigration Act
- January 3, 1959: Alaska was admitted as the 49th state.
(shading shows control)
|End of previous congress||47||49||96||0|
|Final voting share||52.6%||47.4%|
|Beginning of next congress||64||34||98||0|
Majority (Democratic) leadership
Minority (Republican) leadership
Majority (Democratic) leadership
Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. Senators in each state are listed by class. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, facing re-election in 1958; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, facing re-election in 1960; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, facing re-election in 1962.
House of Representatives
Changes in membership
|Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
Successor elected in 1956, but took seat late to prevent Governor from appointing a rival to be his successor as N.Y. Attorney General
|Jacob Javits (R)||January 9, 1957|
|Price Daniel (D)||Resigned January 14, 1957, after being elected Governor of Texas.
Successor appointed January 15, 1957.
|William A. Blakley (D)||January 15, 1957|
|William A. Blakley (D)||Interim appointee retired when successor elected.
Successor elected April 28, 1957.
|Ralph Yarborough (D)||April 29, 1957|
|Joseph McCarthy (R)||Died May 2, 1957.
Successor elected August 27, 1957.
|William Proxmire (D)||August 28, 1957|
|Matthew M. Neely (D)||Died January 18, 1958.
Successor appointed January 25, 1958.
|John D. Hoblitzell, Jr. (R)||January 25, 1958|
|W. Kerr Scott (D)||Died April 16, 1958.
Successor appointed April 19, 1958, and then elected November 4, 1958.
|B. Everett Jordan (D)||April 19, 1958|
|John D. Hoblitzell, Jr. (R)||Interim appointee lost special election.
Successor elected November 4, 1958.
|Jennings Randolph (D)||November 4, 1958|
|William F. Knowland (R)||Resigned early January 2, 1959.||Vacant||Not filled this term|
House of Representatives
|District||Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|New Mexico At-large||Vacant||Rep. Antonio M. Fernández died during previous congress||Joseph Montoya (D)||April 9, 1957|
|New Jersey 2nd||Vacant||Rep. T. Millet Hand died during previous congress||Milton W. Glenn (R)||November 5, 1957|
|Illinois 7th||James Bowler (D)||Died July 18, 1957||Roland V. Libonati (D)||December 31, 1957|
|Pennsylvania 13th||Samuel K. McConnell, Jr. (R)||Resigned September 1, 1957, after becoming Executive Director of the United Cerebral Palsy Associations||John A. Lafore, Jr. (R)||November 5, 1957|
|Georgia 7th||Henderson L. Lanham (D)||Died November 10, 1957||Harlan E. Mitchell (D)||January 8, 1958|
|Pennsylvania 21st||Augustine B. Kelley (D)||Died November 20, 1957||John H. Dent (D)||January 21, 1958|
|New York 37th||W. Sterling Cole (R)||Resigned December 1, 1957, after becoming Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency||Howard W. Robison (R)||January 14, 1958|
|Tennessee 8th||Jere Cooper (D)||Died December 18, 1957||Robert "Fats" Everett (D)||February 1, 1958|
|Pennsylvania 4th||Earl Chudoff (D)||Resigned January 5, 1958, after being elected judge of the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas No. 1||Robert N.C. Nix, Sr. (D)||May 20, 1958|
|New Jersey 14th||Vincent J. Dellay (R)||Changed political affiliation some time in 1958||Vincent J. Dellay (D)||????, 1958|
|Illinois 14th||Russell W. Keeney (R)||Died January 11, 1958||Vacant||Not filled this term|
|Minnesota 1st||August H. Andresen (R)||Died January 14, 1958||Al Quie (R)||February 18, 1958|
|Wisconsin 1st||Lawrence H. Smith (R)||Died January 22, 1958||Vacant||Not filled this term|
|New Mexico At-large||John J. Dempsey (D)||Died March 11, 1958|
|Louisiana 8th||George S. Long (D)||Died March 22, 1958|
|Illinois 4th||William E. McVey (R)||Died August 10, 1958|
|Pennsylvania 28th||Herman P. Eberharter (D)||Died September 9, 1958|
|Ohio 17th||J. Harry McGregor (R)||Died October 7, 1958|
|Illinois 20th||Sid Simpson (R)||Died October 26, 1958|
|Massachusetts 13th||Richard B. Wigglesworth (R)||Resigned November 13, 1958|
|New York 4th||Henry J. Latham (R)||Resigned December 31, 1958, after becoming a judge of the New York Supreme Court|
Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (2 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
- Atomic Energy
- Conditions of Indian Tribes (Special)
- Construction of a Building for a Museum of History and Technology for the Smithsonian
- Defense Production
- Disposition of Executive Papers
- Immigration and Nationality Policy
- Legislative Budget
- The Library
- Navajo-Hopi Indian Administration
- Reduction of Nonessential Federal Expenditures
- Washington (DC) Metropolitan Problems
Employees and legislative agency directors
Legislative branch agency directors
House of Representatives
- United States elections, 1956 (elections leading to this Congress)
- United States elections, 1958 (elections during this Congress, leading to the next Congress)
- This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.
- Gould, Lewis L. (2005). The Most Exclusive Club. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books Group. ISBN 0-465-02778-4.
- Remini, Robert V. (2006). The House. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-06-088434-7.
- "Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress". U.S. Congress. 2005. Archived from the original on June 1, 2006. Retrieved June 1, 2006.
- "Congressional History". U.S. House of Representatives. 2006. Archived from the original on June 1, 2006. Retrieved June 1, 2006.
- "Statistics and Lists". U.S. Senate. 2006. Archived from the original on June 1, 2006. Retrieved June 1, 2006.
- House of Representatives Session Calendar for the 85th Congress (PDF).
- Official Congressional Directory for the 85th Congress, 1st Session.
- Official Congressional Directory for the 85th Congress, 2nd Session.
- Pocket Congressional Directory for the 85th Congress.