45th Parliament of Australia
The 45th Parliament of Australia was a meeting of the legislative branch of the Australian federal government, composed of the Australian Senate and the Australian House of Representatives. It met in Canberra from 30 August 2016 to 4 April 2019. The 2016 general election held on 2 July gave the Coalition of the Liberal and National Parties control of the House, albeit with a slimmer majority than the 44th Parliament, allowing their leader Malcolm Turnbull to stay in office as the 29th Prime Minister of Australia. During the term of the parliament, the government slipped into minority due to defections and by-elections. The leadership of the government also changed during the parliament, when Scott Morrison replaced Turnbull as Liberal leader and Prime Minister in August 2018. The 45th Parliament was officially dissolved by the Governor-General Sir Peter Cosgrove at 8:29AM on 11 April 2019.
45th Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia
House of Representatives
His Excellency General the Hon. Sir Peter Cosgrove AK, MC
since 28 March 2014
|Seats||226 (150 MPs, 76 Senators)|
House of Representatives political groups
Senate political groups
|Government (31) |
Last general election
|2 July 2016 (double dissolution)|
Canberra, Australian Capital Territory
2016 federal election
House of Representatives
At the 2016 federal election, in the 150-seat House of Representatives, the incumbent Coalition government was reelected with 76 seats, a majority of one seat. The Labor opposition won 69 seats. Five other MPs were elected to the crossbench, with the Greens, the Nick Xenophon Team, Katter's Australian Party, and independents Andrew Wilkie and Cathy McGowan winning a seat each.
In the 76-seat Senate, following the double dissolution election, the Coalition government was returned with 30 seats, and the Labor opposition obtained 26 seats. The crossbench consisted of 20 senators: the Greens winning 9 seats, One Nation winning 4 seats, the Nick Xenophon Team winning 3 seats, and the Liberal Democratic Party, Derryn Hinch's Justice Party, Family First Party and Jacqui Lambie Network each winning one seat.
Membership changes after the election
In the time elapsed between the 2016 election and the following federal election, many parliamentarians resigned from their seats, while some were disqualified by the High Court of Australia. The parliamentary eligibility crisis involving dual citizenship was responsible for a significant portion of these departures, although the cases of Barnaby Joyce and John Alexander only left brief vacancies due to their prompt returns in by-elections. Some individual parliamentarians also made an impact by changing their party membership or independent status.
|Vic (Senate)||Stephen Conroy||Labor||Resignation||30 September 2016||25 October 2016||Kimberley Kitching||Labor|
|SA (Senate)||Bob Day||Family First||Resignation, disqualification||1 November 2016||19 April 2017||Lucy Gichuhi||Family First|
|WA (Senate)||Rod Culleton||One Nation||Departure from party||18 December 2016||Rod Culleton||Independent|
|Independent||Disqualification||11 January 2017||27 March 2017||Peter Georgiou||One Nation|
|SA (Senate)||Cory Bernardi||Liberal||Formation of new party||7 February 2017||Cory Bernardi||Conservatives|
|SA (Senate)||Lucy Gichuhi||Family First||Refusal to join party merger||3 May 2017||Lucy Gichuhi||Independent|
|WA (Senate)||Scott Ludlam||Greens||Resignation, disqualification||14 July 2017||10 November 2017||Jordon Steele-John||Greens|
|Qld (Senate)||Larissa Waters||Greens||18 July 2017||10 November 2017||Andrew Bartlett||Greens|
|WA (Senate)||Chris Back||Liberal||Resignation||31 July 2017||16 August 2017||Slade Brockman||Liberal|
|Qld (Senate)||Malcolm Roberts||One Nation||Disqualification||27 October 2017||10 November 2017||Fraser Anning||One Nation|
|New England||Barnaby Joyce||National||2 December 2017||Barnaby Joyce
|NSW (Senate)||Fiona Nash||National||22 December 2017||Jim Molan||Liberal|
|SA (Senate)||Nick Xenophon||Xenophon Team||Resignation||31 October 2017||14 November 2017||Rex Patrick||Xenophon Team|
|Tas (Senate)||Stephen Parry||Liberal||Resignation, disqualification||2 November 2017||9 February 2018||Richard Colbeck||Liberal|
|Bennelong||John Alexander||Liberal||Resignation||11 November 2017||16 December 2017||John Alexander
|Tas (Senate)||Jacqui Lambie||Lambie Network||Resignation, disqualification||14 November 2017||9 February 2018||Steve Martin||Independent|
|SA (Senate)||Skye Kakoschke-Moore||Xenophon Team||22 November 2017||16 February 2018||Tim Storer||Independent|
|Qld (Senate)||Fraser Anning||One Nation||Departure from party||15 January 2018||Fraser Anning||Independent|
|NSW (Senate)||Sam Dastyari||Labor||Resignation||25 January 2018||14 February 2018||Kristina Keneally||Labor|
|Batman||David Feeney||Labor||Resignation||1 February 2018||17 March 2018||Ged Kearney||Labor|
|SA (Senate)||Lucy Gichuhi||Independent||Party membership||2 February 2018||Lucy Gichuhi||Liberal|
|Qld (Senate)||George Brandis||LNP||Resignation||8 February 2018||21 March 2018||Amanda Stoker||LNP|
|ACT (Senate)||Katy Gallagher||Labor||Disqualification||9 May 2018||23 May 2018||David Smith||Labor|
|Perth||Tim Hammond||Labor||Resignation||10 May 2018||28 July 2018||Patrick Gorman||Labor|
|Braddon||Justine Keay||Labor||Resignation||Justine Keay
|Fremantle||Josh Wilson||Labor||Josh Wilson
|Longman||Susan Lamb||Labor||Susan Lamb
|Mayo||Rebekha Sharkie||Centre Alliance||11 May 2018||Rebekha Sharkie
|Tas (Senate)||Steve Martin||Independent||Party membership||28 May 2018||Steve Martin||National|
|Qld (Senate)||Fraser Anning||Independent||Party membership||4 June 2018||Fraser Anning||Katter's Australian|
|NSW (Senate)||Brian Burston||One Nation||Departure from party||14 June 2018||Brian Burston||Independent|
|Independent||Party membership||18 June 2018||United Australia|
|NSW (Senate)||Lee Rhiannon||Greens||Resignation||15 August 2018||Mehreen Faruqi||Greens|
|Qld (Senate)||Andrew Bartlett||Greens||Resignation||27 August 2018||6 September 2018||Larissa Waters||Greens|
|Wentworth||Malcolm Turnbull||Liberal||Resignation||31 August 2018||20 October 2018||Kerryn Phelps||Independent|
|Qld (Senate)||Fraser Anning||Katter's Australian||Departure from party||25 October 2018||Fraser Anning||Independent|
|Chisholm||Julia Banks||Liberal||Departure from party||27 November 2018||Julia Banks||Independent|
|Tas (Senate)||David Bushby||Liberal||Resignation||21 January 2019||6 March 2019||Wendy Askew||Liberal|
|Vic (Senate)||Jacinta Collins||Labor||Resignation||15 February 2019||Raff Ciccone||Labor|
|NSW (Senate)||David Leyonhjelm||Liberal Democrats||Resignation||1 March 2019||20 March 2019||Duncan Spender||Liberal Democrats|
|Qld (Senate)||Fraser Anning||Independent||Formation of new party||4 April 2019||Fraser Anning||Conservative National Party|
|ACT (Senate)||David Smith||Labor||Resignation||11 April 2019||vacant|
- 1 November 2016: Family First Senator Bob Day resigns after his business collapses.
- 3 February 2017: The High Court finds that independent Senator Rod Culleton (formerly of One Nation) was not eligible to be elected under Section 44(ii) of the Constitution due to a criminal conviction.
- 10 March 2017: One Nation Senator Peter Georgiou declared elected as a Senator for Queensland by the High Court on a countback to replace Culleton.
- 26 March 2017: Georgiou sworn in.
- 5 April 2017: The High Court finds that Bob Day was not eligible to be elected under Section 44(v) of the Constitution due to holding a pecuniary interest in an agreement with the Commonwealth.
- 19 April 2017: Family First Senator Lucy Gichuhi declared elected as a Senator for South Australia by the High Court on a countback to replace Day.
- 9 May 2017: Gichuhi sworn in.
- 14 July 2017: Greens Senator and co-deputy leader Scott Ludlam resigns after discovering that he still held New Zealand citizenship, making him ineligible to sit in parliament due to Section 44(i) of the Constitution.
- 18 July 2017: Greens Senator and co-deputy leader Larissa Waters resigns after discovering that she held Canadian citizenship by birth, making her ineligible to sit in parliament due to Section 44(i) of the Constitution.
- 31 July 2017: Liberal Senator Chris Back of Western Australia resigns.
- 16 August 2017: Liberal Slade Brockman is appointed as a Senator for Western Australia to replace Back, being sworn-in the next day.
- 27 October 2017: The High Court finds that Greens Senator Scott Ludlam of Western Australia, Greens Senator Larissa Waters of Queensland, One Nation Senator Malcolm Roberts of Queensland, Nationals Senator and deputy leader of the National Party Fiona Nash of New South Wales, and Deputy Prime Minister and leader of the National Party Barnaby Joyce (the member for New England) were all ineligible to be elected to and sit in Parliament under Section 44(i) of the Constitution, due to all holding foreign citizenship.
- 31 October 2017: Nick Xenophon Team Senator Nick Xenophon of South Australia resigns.
- 2 November 2017: President of the Senate and Liberal Senator Stephen Parry of Tasmania resigns after discovering he held British citizenship by descent, making him ineligible to sit in parliament due to Section 44(i) of the Constitution.
- 10 November 2017: Greens Senator Jordon Steele-John of Western Australia, Greens Senator Andrew Bartlett of Queensland, and One Nation Senator Fraser Anning of Queensland are declared elected as Senators by the High Court, to replace Ludlam, Waters, and Roberts (respectively).
- 13 November 2017: Liberal MP John Alexander, the member for Bennelong, resigns after discovering he held British citizenship by descent, making him ineligible to sit in parliament due to Section 44(i) of the Constitution.
- 13 November 2017: Greens Senator Jordon Steele-John of Western Australia, Greens Senator Andrew Bartlett of Queensland, and One Nation Senator Fraser Anning of Queensland (who immediately resigned from the party to sit as an independent) are sworn in as senators to replace Ludlam, Waters, and Roberts (respectively).
- 14 November 2017: Jacqui Lambie Network Senator Jacqui Lambie resigns after discovering that she held British citizenship by descent, making her ineligible to sit in parliament due to Section 44(i) of the Constitution.
- 14 November 2017: Rex Patrick of the Nick Xenophon Team is appointed as a Senator for South Australia to replace Nick Xenophon, being sworn-in the next day.
- 22 November 2017: Nick Xenophon Team Senator Skye Kakoschke-Moore resigns after discovering that she held British citizenship by descent, making her ineligible to sit in parliament due to Section 44(i) of the Constitution.
- 2 December 2017: 2017 New England by-election held. Former Deputy Prime Minister and Leader of the Nationals, Barnaby Joyce, was returned to his former seat after renouncing his New Zealand citizenship.
- 16 December 2017: 2017 Bennelong by-election held. Previous Liberal MP for Bennelong John Alexander was returned after renouncing his British citizenship.
- 22 December 2017: The High Court declares Liberal Jim Molan elected as a Senator for New South Wales, taking the seat formerly held by Fiona Nash.
- 25 January 2018: Labor Senator Sam Dastyari of New South Wales resigns due to being the subject of a Chinese-related donations scandal.
- 1 February 2018: Labor MP David Feeney announces his resignation from politics, due to dual citizenship concerns, which takes effect immediately.
- 17 March 2018: 2018 Batman by-election held, where Ged Kearney won, retaining the seat for Labor.
- 9 May 2018: The High Court rules that ACT Labor Senator Katy Gallagher is ineligible to be elected to and sit in Parliament under Section 44(i) of the Constitution, due to not renouncing British citizenship in time. Following the ruling, Labor MPs Josh Wilson, Susan Lamb, Justine Keay, and Nick Xenophon Team MP Rebekha Sharkie resigns.
- 12 October 2016: Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong addressed a joint sitting of Parliament.
- 14 August 2017: Deputy Prime Minister Barnaby Joyce announced that he held dual citizenship with New Zealand, becoming the highest-profile victim of the dual citizenship saga.
- 15 November 2017: The result of a nationwide postal vote on same-sex marriage was announced, with a majority yes response.
- 26 February 2018: Deputy Prime Minister Barnaby Joyce resigns as leader of the National party. Michael McCormack becomes the next National leader and Deputy Prime Minister.
- 24 August 2018: Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull resigns as leader of the Liberal Party after a losing a leadership spill. In the subsequent ballot Scott Morrison defeats Peter Dutton 45 votes to 40. Morrison is sworn in as the 30th Prime Minister of Australia later that evening. Josh Frydenberg is appointed Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party, replacing Julie Bishop.
- 7 December 2017: The Marriage Amendment (Definition and Religious Freedoms) Act 2017 was passed, legalising same-sex marriage in Australia.
- "Proclamation - Prorogue the Parliament and dissolve the House of Reps". Federal Register of Legislation. Australian Government. 11 April 2019.
- Anderson, Stephanie (1 November 2016). "Bob Day tenders resignation as Family First senator". ABC News.
- Re Culleton (No 2)  HCA 4
- "Senator Peter Georgiou". Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
- "One Nation senator Peter Georgiou sworn in". SBS News. 26 March 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
- "Family First ex-senator Bob Day's election ruled invalid by High Court". ABC News. 5 April 2017.
- "Senator Lucy Gichuhi". Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
- "Lucy Gichuhi sworn in as SA senator". SBS News. 9 May 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
- Strutt, J; Kagi, J (14 July 2017). "Greens senator Scott Ludlam resigns over failure to renounce dual citizenship". ABC News. Australia.
- Waters, Larissa. "Statement from Senator Larissa Waters". GreensMPs. Australian Greens. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
- "New Liberal senator for WA sworn-in". Campaspe News. 17 August 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
- Re Canavan  HCA 45 (27 October 2017).
- Doran, Matthew (31 October 2017). "New face, new name: Xenophon readies party for his Canberra departure". ABC News. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
- Remeikis, Amy (1 November 2017). "Liberal Stephen Parry to resign over dual British citizenship". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- "High Court ticks new WA Greens senator". PerthNow. 10 November 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
- Metherell, Lexi (13 November 2017). "Bennelong voters brace for pre-Christmas poll". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "Senate confusion after new trio sworn-in". SBS. 13 November 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "Jacqui Lambie bids tearful farewell to Senate after shock British citizenship finding forces her out". ABC News. 14 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
- "New SA Senator for Nick Xenophon Team outlines history, priorities". ABC News. 14 November 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
- Holderhead, Sheradyn (16 November 2017). "Role reversal as Nick Xenophon takes job as an adviser to former staffer Senator Rex Patrick". The Advertiser. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
- Massola, James (22 November 2017). "Senator Skye Kakoschke-Moore quits over British citizenship". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
- "Jim Molan to replace Fiona Nash in Senate, High Court rules". ABC News. 22 December 2017.
- "Labor senator Sam Dastyari formally quits Parliament". The Sydney Morning Herald. 25 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
- Yaxley, Louise (1 February 2018). "David Feeney resigns from Parliament over dual citizenship, prompting Batman by-election". ABC News (Australia). Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- Carey, Adam; Towell, Noel (17 March 2018). "Batman votes: Labor holds seat in crucial byelection". The Age.
- Yaxley, Louise (9 May 2018). "Citizenship drama flares again, with four MPs and one senator on the way out after High Court ruling". ABC News (Australia). Retrieved 9 May 2018.