455 series

The 455 series (455系, 455-kei) is a Japanese dual-voltage (1,500 V DC and 20 kV AC 50 Hz) electric multiple unit (EMU) train type introduced by Japanese National Railways (JNR) on express services in 1965 and later operated by East Japan Railway Company (JR East), West Japan Railway Company (JR-West), and Kyushu Railway Company (JR Kyushu).[1]

455 series
A JR East 455 series in 2006
In serviceOctober 1965 – March 2015
Constructed1965-1971
Number in service2 vehicles
Number preserved3 vehicles
Operator(s)JNR (1965–1987)
JR East (1987–2008)
JR Kyushu (1987–2010)
JR-West (1987–Present)
Specifications
Car body constructionSteel
Car length20,000 mm (65 ft 7 in)
Width2,950 mm (9 ft 8 in)
Doors2 per side
Maximum speed110 km/h (70 mph)
Traction systemResistor control
Traction motorsMT54 120 kW traction motors
Electric system(s)1,500 V DC, 20 kV AC 50 Hz
Current collection methodOverhead catenary
Multiple working451/453/457/471/473 series
Track gauge1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)

The last sets operated by JR-West were withdrawn in 2015. However, 2 cars remain in service as the driving car of a mixed 413/455 series set.

Design

Intended for use in the Tohoku region, the basic design and appearance was identical to the 475 series dual-voltage (1,500 V DC and 20 kV AC 60 Hz) EMUs introduced around the same time in Kyushu, and similar to the earlier 453 and 473 series EMUs.[2] The first units built were not equipped with air-conditioning, except for the SaRo 455 "Green" (first class) cars.[2]

Variants

  • 455-0 series
  • 455-200 series
  • 455-300 series
  • 455-400 series
  • 455-500 series
  • 455-600 series
  • 455-700 series

455-0 series

These were the 455 series cars built from new between 1965 and 1971.[3][2]

  • KuHa 455-1 – 75, driving trailer cars
  • KuMoHa 455-1 – 51, driving motor cars
  • KuRoHa 455-1, composite driving trailer converted from KuHa 455-44 with three rows of "Green" (first class) seats[1]
  • MoHa 454-1 – 51, intermediate motor cars, with pantograph
  • SaHa 455-1 – 8, intermediate trailer cars (built for use in 457 series sets)[2]
  • SaRo 455-1 – 45, "Green" (first class) trailer cars
  • SaHaShi 455-1 – 26, buffet cars

With the reduction in express services and gradual reassignment of 455 series sets to local services, a number of cab cars were subsequently rebuilt from intermediate cars or other EMU types from 1975 to allow shorter sets to be formed.[2]

455-200 series

  • KuHa 455-201: Rebuilt in 1975 from SaHaShi 455-18 buffet car[3][2]
  • KuHa 455-202 – 203: Rebuilt in 1979 from 451 series EMU driving cars KuHa 451-26 and 27[3][2]

455-300 series

  • KuHa 455-301 – 320: Rebuilt in 1984 from 165 series EMU KuHa 165 driving cars.[1][3]
  • KuHa 455-321 – 324: Rebuilt 1984-1985 from 169 series EMU KuHa 169-900 driving cars.[1][3]

455-400 series

  • KuHa 455-401: Rebuilt in 1984 from 165 series EMU KuMoHa 165 driving car.[1][3]
  • KuHa 455-402 – 405: Rebuilt 1984-1985 from 169 series EMU KuMoHa 169-900 driving cars.[1][3]

455-500 series

  • KuHa 455-501 – 505: Rebuilt in 1983 from 165 series EMU SaHa 165 intermediate trailer cars.[1][3]

455-600 series

  • KuHa 455-601 – 605: Rebuilt in 1984 from 455 series EMU SaRo 455 intermediate "Green" trailer cars.[1][3]
  • KuHa 455-606 – 611: Rebuilt from 165 series EMU SaRo 165 intermediate "Green" trailer cars.[1]

455-700 series

  • KuHa 455-701 – 702: Rebuilt in 1986 and 1987 from 455 series EMU SaHa 455 intermediate trailer cars.[1][3]

Formations

As of 1 October 2019, JR-West operates 2 KuHa 455-700 cars. These cars are included in mixed 413/455 series three-car sets based at Kanazawa Depot and used on the Nanao Line. They are formed as shown below.

Designation McM'Tc'
Numbering KuMoHa 413MoHa 412KuHa 455-700
  • The MoHa 412 car is fitted with one PS21 lozenge-type pantograph.[3]
  • Set B11 includes 413-100 series cars KuMoHa 413-101 and MoHa 412-101.[3]

Past formations

As of October 1 2013, JR-West operated 16 KuHa 455 cars (including two KuHa 455-700 cars), included in mixed 413/455 and 475/455 series three-car sets based at Kanazawa Depot and used on the Hokuriku Main Line. They were formed as shown below.

413 series sets B04 and B11

Designation McM'Tc'
Numbering KuMoHa 413MoHa 412KuHa 455-700
  • In March 2013, these sets were reallocated to the Nanao Line.

475 series sets A05 and A26

Designation McM'Tc'
Numbering KuMoHa 475MoHa 474KuHa 455
  • The MoHa 474 car is fitted with one PS21 lozenge-type pantograph.[3]

A typical formation for a combined Bandai (455 series, cars 1 to 6, Ueno - Kitakata) and Iwate (451/453 series, cars 7 to 13, Ueno - Morioka) service as of March 1972 is shown below.[2]

Car No. 12345678910111213
Numbering KuHa 455MoHa 454KuMoHa 455SaRo 455MoHa 454KuMoHa 455KuHa 451SaHaShi 451MoHa 450KuMoHa 451SaRo 455MoHa 454KuMoHa 455

JR East 3-car sets (S2 to S51) based at Sendai Depot and used in the Tohoku region until their withdrawal in 2008 were formed as shown below.[4]

Designation McM'Tc'
Numbering KuMoHa 455MoHa 454KuHa 455
  • The MoHa 454 car was fitted with one PS16 lozenge-type pantograph.[4]

One JR East 3-car set, S40, based at Sendai Depot, was modified in 1999 with a KuRoHa 455 car at the north end including three rows of "Green" car (first class) accommodation arranged 2+2 abreast.[4]

Designation McM'Tc'
Numbering KuRoHa 455-1MoHa 454-40KuMoHa 455-40
  • The MoHa 454 car was fitted with one PS16 lozenge-type pantograph.[4]

Key

  • KuHa: Standard class driving trailer car
  • KuMoHa: Standard class driving motor car
  • MoHa: Intermediate motor car
  • SaRo: "Green" (first class) trailer car
  • SaHaShi: Buffet car

Interior

Designed for use on express services, passenger accommodation consisted of fixed 4-person seating bays.

Liveries

History

The 455 series trains were first introduced from the start of the 1 October 1965 revised timetable, operating on Iwate and Kitakami express services between Ueno in Tokyo and Morioka in the north-east of Japan, and also on Matsushima services between Ueno and Sendai.[2]

From 1 July 1967, 455 series trains were introduced on new Bandai express services operating on the Banetsu West Line.[2] From 1 October 1968, with the completion of AC electrification of the route between Fukushima and Sendai via the Ou Main Line and Senzan Line, 455 series trains were introduced on Zaō services operating between Ueno and Yamagata.[2]

From the late 1960s, JNR was beginning to install air-conditioning on its trains, and 455 series cars built from June 1968 were designed to allow air-conditioning to be added easily at a later date. Air-conditioning was subsequently retrofitted between 1969 and 1975.[2]

With the opening of the Tohoku Shinkansen, the number of express services in the region were cut back from the start of the 15 November 1982 timetable revision, and discontinued by March 1985. JR East 455 series sets were reassigned to local services, and withdrawn by 2008.[2]

Preserved examples

As of 2012, three 455 series EMU cars are preserved, all at the Railway Museum in Saitama Prefecture.[5]

  • KuMoHa 455-1 (restored in original JNR express livery)
  • KuHa 455-2 (in cream/green livery, used as a rest area)
  • MoHa 454-4 (in cream/green livery, used as a rest area)

References

  1. JR全車輛ハンドブック1995 [JR Rolling Stock Handbook 1995]. Japan: Neko Publishing. 1995. pp. 208–210.
  2. 写真とイラストで見る国鉄急行型電車のすべて [JNR Express EMUs in pictures]. Japan: Neko Publishing Ltd. 29 November 2013. pp. 76–89. ISBN 978-4-7770-1532-0.
  3. JR電車編成表 2014冬 [JR EMU Formations - Winter 2014]. Japan: JRR. 1 December 2013. pp. 253–254. ISBN 978-4-330-42413-2.
  4. JR電車編成表 '05冬号 [JR EMU Formations - Winter 2005]. Japan: JRR. January 2005. pp. 28–29. ISBN 978-4-88283-042-9.
  5. Sasada, Masahiro (September 2012). 国鉄&JR保存車大全 [JNR & JR Preserved Rolling Stock Complete Guide]. Tokyo, Japan: Ikaros Publications Ltd. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-4863206175.
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