40 cm/45 Type 94 naval gun
The Japanese 40 cm/45 Type 94 naval gun (四五口径九四式四〇糎砲 Yonjūgo-kōkei kyūyon-shiki yonjussenchi-hō) was the biggest naval gun used by battleships in World War II. They were actually 46 cm (18.1 in) guns, but were designated 40 cm (15.7 in) in an effort to hide their true size.
|46 cm/45 Type 94|
A Type 94 Naval Gun being calibrated on Yamato during construction
|Place of origin||Japan|
|Used by||Imperial Japanese Navy|
|Wars||World War II|
|Manufacturer||Kure Naval Arsenal|
|Barrel length||21.13 m (69 ft 4 in), 46 calibers|
|Diameter||46 cm (18.1 in)|
|Shell||AP Type 91: 1,460 kg (3,218.7 lb)|
HE Type 0: 1,360 kg (2,998.3 lb)
AA Type 0: 1,360 kg (2,998.3 lb)
|Calibre||46 cm (18.1 in)|
|Breech||Welin breech block|
|Recoil||Hydraulic recoil mechanism|
|Elevation||+45/-5 degrees. 10°/s|
|Rate of fire||1.5 - 2 rounds/min|
|Muzzle velocity||780 m/s (2,600 ft/s)|
|Effective firing range||25 km (16 mi)|
|Maximum firing range||42 km (26 mi) at 45° elevation|
The 46 cm (18.1 in) 40 cm/45 Type 94 naval gun was a wire-wound gun. Nine, mounted in three triple turrets, served as the main armament of the Yamato-class battleships that were in service with the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. When the turrets and the guns were mounted, each weighed 2,510 tons, which is about the same tonnage as an average sized destroyer of the era.
The Japanese guns were of a slightly larger bore than the three British 18 inch naval guns built during World War I, although the shells were not as heavy. Britain had later designed the N3-class battleship with 18-inch guns but none were built, leaving no Allied naval guns to compare with the Type 94. Unlike most of the very large guns of other navies, they could fire special anti-aircraft shells (Sanshiki) referred to as "beehive".
Some 27 guns were built for the three ships of the Yamato class. Two thirds of the guns were lost with the sinking of Yamato and Musashi. The complex Type 94 barrels were constructed in three autofrettaged (pressure welded) stages. A half-length tube was fitted over the first tube and shrunk onto it. The assembly was then wire wound and two additional tubes shrunk over the entire length of the gun tubes. A final inner tube was then inserted down the gun and expanded into place. This inner tube was then rifled to finish the gun. As designed, this gun could not cost effectively be relined but instead had to have the entire gun tube replaced due to wear.
Unlike previous designs the turrets were found to have nothing in common with previous British Vickers designs used in other Japanese battleships when examined by a US naval technical team. Each gun was independently sleeved allowing for separate elevation. The shell hoists and powder rams were found to be ingenious though unduly heavy designs that allowed a relatively rapid rate of reload.180 shells (60 rounds per gun) were stored in the turret's rotating structure. The shells were stored vertically and an innovative system of geared mechanical conveyors was employed to move the extremely large and heavy shells from the shell rooms. The mechanical advantage required to move the heavy shells meant these conveyors operated extremely slowly but the 180 shells stored in each turret were considered sufficient for a surface engagement.
Range and flight time
With Type 91 AP shell
|Elevation||Range||Time of flight|
|10°||18,410 yards (16,830 m)||26.05 sec|
|20°||30,530 yards (27,920 m)||49.21 sec|
|30°||39,180 yards (35,830 m)||70.27 sec|
|40°||44,510 yards (40,700 m)||89.42 sec|
|45°||45,960 yards (42,030 m)||98.6 sec|
Impact angle and velocity
With Type 91 AP shell
- Garzke, William; Dulin, Robert (1985). Battleships : axis and neutral battleships in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 90. ISBN 0870211013.
- Campbell, Naval Weapons of WWII, p.180.
- Scottish History - Mons Meg reportedly mounted at sea
- 18.1"/45 caliber, Nihon Kaigun
- Japan 46cm/45 (15.9") Type 94 - Actual Size 46cm (18.1"), Navweaps.com
- PIECES LOURDES : 240 et plus, le.fantasque.free.fr
- Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War Two. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-459-4.