3D Life

3D Life is a cellular automaton. It is a three-dimensional extension of Game of Life, investigated by Carter Bays. A number of different semitotalistic rules for the 3D rectangular Moore neighborhood were investigated.

It was popularized by Alexander Keewatin Dewdney in his "Computer Recreations" column in Scientific American magazine.


  • Bays, Carter (1987), "Candidates for the Game of Life in Three Dimensions", Complex Systems, 3 (1): 373–400.
  • Bays, Carter (2006), "A Note About the Discovery of Many New Rules for the Game of Three-Dimensional Life", Complex Systems, 16 (4): 381–386.
  • Dewdney, A. K. (February 1987), "The game of life acquires some successors in three dimensions", Scientific American: 8–13.
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